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“Houston: We Are Go For Exploration!”

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1 “Houston: We Are Go For Exploration!”
The notes in this presentation have been compiled as an overview for all speakers. All speakers must review these speaker notes prior to delivery of presentation. Audio and video capabilities at the event venue will be required for full functionality of this presentation. This presentation is designed to be ~45 minutes in length to allow for 15 minutes at the conclusion of the lecture for student question/answer and/or hardware interaction as time permits. Recommended times for each slide are provided in the speaker notes. TEACHING MOMENT(S): Teaching moments are provided as opportunities to interact with the audience. These teaching moments are optional and at the discretion of the presenter. Video recording by audience is not allowed Addition of slides/information/ pictures/video to this presentation will require additional time for export control review and approval. If this is desired, please coordinate with the EVA Systems EPO Lead. As this presentation has been approved by export control, deletion of slides is allowed. Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #1: 1 minute Recommended Grade Level for Slide #1: All grades Slide #1: Speaker Introduction Your Name What you do Where you went to school What you majored in Why you decided to work for NASA “Today I am going to give you an overview of the history of the space suit and insight to our preparation for future exploration.” NASA Johnson Space Center

2 Why do we need a space suit?
micrometeoroid and orbital debris protection Temperature extremes Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #2: 3 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #2: All grades Teaching Moment: Why do we need a space suit? (Presenter should ask students to answer this question prior to clicking through bullets.) Temperature extremes Space suit material temperatures range between +/-250 deg F (-157 deg C to 121 deg C) in Low Earth Orbit. The space suit materials protect from these extreme temperatures. Oxygen Oxygen is necessary so that the crewmember can breathe! It is also necessary for suit pressurization… Pressure Our bodies are designed to operate in the pressurized environment of Earth’s atmosphere. Space (Low Earth Orbit) is a vacuum with no atmosphere and no pressure. The Moon is the same…places like Mars have an atmosphere, but it is not the same as Earth’s pressure/atmosphere, so we still need to provide a pressurized environment to protect the astronaut. We need a space suit to survive in this extreme environment. Micrometeoroid/Dust Protection The space suit also provides micrometeoroid and orbital debris protection in Low Earth Orbit (when you are outside the shuttle or ISS) The space suit provides protection from dust and rocks (when you are on a lunar or planetary surface) Oxygen Pressure protection from dust and rocks

3 Scientific Method THINK!! Try Again!
Analyze and Conclude Hypothesis is TRUE Report Results Hypothesis is FALSE Identify Issue Perform Research Construct Hypothesis Perform Test THINK!! Try Again! Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #3: 3 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #3: 4th grade and up (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Teaching Moment: How do engineers, scientists and technicians at NASA use the scientific method? We use the scientific method every day at NASA, especially when developing hardware for spacewalks! “Let’s quickly review the steps of the scientific method and see how they apply to space suit design.” Scientific Method Overview: 1) Identify Issue:  Ask a question about something you observe to identify an issue (Ask questions like: How?, What?, When?, Who?, Which?, Why?, or Where?) For example: How can we keep an astronaut cool while working in the space suit? 2) Perform Research:  Research the issue to find out more information.  For example: Learn more about the temperatures encountered during EVA, research how hot/cold the astronauts get while working in the space suit, research possible solutions to cool the astronaut in the space suit... (Presenter may provide more examples.) 3) Construct Hypothesis:  A hypothesis is an educated guess. “If ____(I do this)____, then ___(this)___ will happen”. For example: If the space suit blows cold oxygen over the astronaut’s face, then the astronaut will stay cool while working in the space suit. 4) Perform Test: Test your hypothesis by performing an experiment.  Make sure you repeat your experiment several times to ensure your results are correct. For example: Testing the hypothesis can be done by running mathematical/computational analyses, or doing testing with a person in a space suit.  Several tests will allow you to figure out if using cold oxygen is enough cooling to keep the astronaut at a comfortable temperature. 5) Analyze and Conclude:  Analyze your data and come up with a conclusion to your question.  Is your hypothesis true or false?  If your hypothesis is FALSE, try again with a new hypothesis and repeat the scientific method If your hypothesis is TRUE, tell the world about your results! J For example: Look at the results from your analysis/testing…Was this enough cooling? If so, your hypothesis is TRUE!  If not, your hypothesis is FALSE and you will need to try again.  This is a real-life example…early space suits provided cooling to the astronaut by flowing oxygen into the space suit and across the astronaut’s face.  However, when NASA prepared for lunar spacewalks, it was determined that gas cooling was not enough, and we created the liquid cooling garment!

4 “Now we are going to look at NASA’s past suits…”
Past Space Suits Mercury Program Gemini Program Apollo Program Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #4: 30 seconds Recommended Grade Level for Slide #4: All grades TRANSITION SLIDE “Now we are going to look at NASA’s past suits…”

5 Operating Pressure: 3.7 psi (25.5 kPa)
Mercury Space Suits Purpose: Protect astronaut from space vacuum Derived from Navy Mark- IV high altitude aircraft pressure suit Designed for unpressurized comfort Vehicle provided life support via umbilical Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #5: 3 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #5: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Teaching Moment: What is significant about the Mercury Program? 1st American manned spacecraft. John Glenn was the first American to orbit the Earth on February 20, The names of all the capsules ended with the number 7—the “7” was intended to suggest the teamwork of the astronaut group. Does anyone know who Alan Shepard is and what he is known for? First American in space. Background: Mission Duration(s): Ranged from 15 minutes to 34 hours Time Frame: Number of Missions: 3 unpiloted missions and 6 piloted missions (9 total) 3 Major Objectives: Orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth - Could a spacecraft be designed to launch into space and orbit earth? Learn about man’s ability to function in space - Could man survive in space? Safely recover the man and spacecraft - Could they return safely to earth? Suit Details: Purpose: This suit was specifically designed to protect the astronaut from space vacuum. The Mercury suit was designed from the US Navy Mark-IV high-altitude aircraft pressure suit. The suit was designed to make sure that the astronaut was comfortable when the suit was not pressurized, because the astronaut had to wear the suit during the entire mission. The space suit provided oxygen for breathing and suit pressurization, in case of emergency in the capsule. Interesting Facts: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) Helmet: The helmet allowed the astronaut to move his head up and down and side-to-side when the suit was unpressurized. Once pressurized, the astronaut could not move his helmet side-to-side. Gloves: Lights on the fingertips of the gloves were added so that the astronaut could see the capsule controls. Pressure Garment: The Mercury space suit was pressurized to 3.7 psi (25.5 kPa) and weighed approximately 22 lb (10 kg) on Earth. These suits were tight-fitting, and custom-made for each astronaut. To cool down, the astronaut used a fan. Life Support: support was provided from the capsule to the Mercury suit through an umbilical that attached to the front of the suit. Communication and medical information was transmitted through the data port on the thigh. Reference: US Space Suits Operating Pressure: 3.7 psi (25.5 kPa) Mercury Crew Capsule

6 Operating Pressure: 3.7 psia (25.5 kPa)
Gemini Space Suit Purpose: First US space suit used both inside and outside the vehicle Derived from USAF AP/22 high altitude aircraft pressure suit Designed for unpressurized comfort Incorporated cooling system Vehicle provided life support via umbilical Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #6: 3 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #6: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Teaching Moment: What is significant about the Gemini Program? 1st US space suit designed for use inside and outside of the capsule. The first US spacewalk was conducted on June 3, 1965 by astronaut Ed White. Background: Mission Duration(s): Ranged from 10 hours to 14 days Time Frame: Number of Missions: 2 unpiloted missions and 10 piloted missions (12 total) 3 Major Objectives: Spacewalk in free space Use spacewalking to increase the use of the Gemini spacecraft Determine how spacewalks are done and evaluate the equipment necessary to do spacewalks in future missions Suit Details: Purpose: This was the first space suit used both inside and outside of the vehicle. The Gemini suit was designed from the USAF AP/22 high altitude aircraft pressure suit. The Gemini suit was designed to make sure that the astronaut was comfortable when the suit was not pressurized, because the astronaut had to wear the suit during the entire mission. Interesting Facts: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) The suit design was changed as NASA learned more about how to do spacewalks, showing the scientific method at work. The Gemini space suit had six designs: the G1C, G2C, G3C, G4C, 2nd generation G4C, and G5C. The G4C suit was used in the first US spacewalk. The G4C was worn during launch, while spacewalking, and during re-entry. The suit had a parachute and float equipment, and micrometeoroid protection and insulation to protect the astronaut from space temperatures. Helmet: The Gemini helmet had two layers, or “lenses.” The inner lens protected the astronaut from space temperatures and micrometeoroids. The outer lens was coated with gold to protect the astronaut from infrared energy. Gloves: The early Gemini gloves used a lace-up restraint on the back of the hand to keep the shape similar to the shape of the human hand. The designs were changed throughout the Gemini program to make them more comfortable when pressurized, including adding adjustable straps and an adjustable palm restraint bar. Pressure Garment: The Gemini space suit was pressurized to 3.7 psi (25.5 KPA) and weighed approximately 34 lb (15.4 kg) on Earth. Life Support: Oxygen was provided from the capsule to the Gemini suit through an umbilical that attached to the front of the suit. Reference: US Space Suits Operating Pressure: 3.7 psia (25.5 kPa) Gemini Crew Capsule

7 Apollo Space Suits Purpose: Keep astronaut alive during Earth and lunar launch/re-entry, microgravity EVA, and lunar EVA Improved mobility features at shoulder, waist, knees, lower arms, and wrists First space suit with a portable life support system (PLSS) Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #7: 3 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #7: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Teaching Moment: What is significant about the Apollo Program? The first and only US space suit design for use on the Lunar surface. The first Lunar spacewalk was conducted by astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on July 20, 1969. Background: Mission Duration(s): Apollo EVAs ranged from 46 minutes to 7 hours and 37 minutes Time Frame: Number of Missions: 3 unmanned missions, 5 manned missions and 6 missions which landed on the surface of the moon (Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17) Major Mission Objectives: The Apollo mission objectives changed throughout the ten years of the program. As in the scientific method, there were several hypotheses to answer for different aspects of the missions. Apollo 7-10: Prove that both the umbilical and the Portable Life Support System worked Apollo 11-14: Land crew on the Moon and return them safely to Earth Apollo 15-17: Use the Lunar Rover for increased Lunar surface exploration Apollo Program Goals: Develop technology to meet other national interests in space Be the world leader for space exploration Explore and do science research on the Moon Develop man’s ability to work on the Moon Suit Details: Purpose: This suit was designed for all phases of flight: launch/re-entry from Earth and the Moon, microgravity, and lunar surface/gravity. Interesting Facts: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) The A7L was the original Apollo space suit, and the design changed to meet the mission objectives. This initial suit was used both inside the Command Module and during spacewalks on the Lunar Surface. This was the first US space suit that was not completely customized for each crew member. The suit had additional pieces when used for spacewalking on the Moon, including Lunar boots, a life support backpack, gloves with extra thermal protection, helmet visors for reflection and light control, and a liquid cooling garment. With all of these extra pieces, the Apollo suit weighed up to 212 lb (96.2 kg) on Earth. Helmet: The Apollo helmet included an additional outer shell and thermal outer cover to prevent condensation and increase light reflection control. Also, an external center sunshade was added to block the sunlight from the astronaut’s eyes. Pressure Garment: The Apollo space suit was pressurized to 3.7 psia (25.5 kPa).The pressure garment weighed approximately 62 lb (28 kg) on Earth. Life Support: The Apollo suit was the first US space suit system to have a separate life support system from the vehicle, so that astronauts could explore the Lunar surface without an umbilical. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) was a removable backpack that attached to the suit with umbilicals. The PLSS included an Oxygen Purge System (OPS) for emergencies. The OPS could work for up to 30 minutes, but was never used during the Apollo Program. Reference: US Space Suits Apollo Command Module with Lunar Lander Operating Pressure: 3.7 psia (25.5 kPa)

8 Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU)
Present Space Suits Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #8: 30 seconds Recommended Grade Level for Slide #8: All grades TRANSITION SLIDE “Now let’s talk about NASA’s present suits…”

9 Advanced Crew Escape Suit
Purpose: Keep astronaut alive in event of an emergency during launch and re-entry Derived from USAF pressure suits Protects from loss of cabin pressure Integrated life preserver and raft, parachute and harness, emergency oxygen, and survival gear Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #9: 2 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #9: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Teaching Moment: What is significant about the color of the ACES? The pressure garment of the ACES is bright orange. This color is called “international orange” which is known around the world as a color for emergency rescue. Background: Mission Duration(s): Launch, reentry and abort operations Time Frame: Present Suit Details: Purpose: The primary purpose of the ACES is to keep the astronaut alive in event of an emergency during launch and re-entry. Interesting Facts: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) It is called an “escape suit” because if an emergency happens during launch or re-entry, this suit has a personal parachute system and several automatic safety features and survival items, including an automatic flotation device and life raft, so that the astronaut can escape safely from the Shuttle. The external materials of the suit are flame resistant and also provide abrasion protection. Helmet: The ACES helmet is designed for protection and use during the high vibration and G-loads that the astronauts experience during launch and re-entry. The pressure visor is large enough so that the astronaut can see in front and to the side. There is a full sunshade that can be pulled down to cover the pressure visor. The helmet is marked with a high-visibility tape so that it is easy to see the astronaut during search and rescue. Gloves: The ACES gloves have grip material on the palms to allow the astronaut to operate switches, buttons and knobs in the Shuttle. Pressure Garment: The ACES is pressurized to 3.5 psia (24.1 kPa). The pressure garment weighs approximately 28 lb (12.7 kg) on Earth. With the parachute and survival systems, the system weighs approximately 100 lb (45.4 kg). Life Support: The primary life support is provided from the Shuttle to the ACES through an umbilical. In emergencies, the astronaut can turn on the Emergency Oxygen System, two pressurized cylinders that contain approximately 10 minutes of oxygen. Survival Gear: Survival gear can include a radio, strobe light, chemical lights, signal mirror, flare and motion sickness pills. Reference: US Space Suits Operating Pressure: psi (23.9 kPa) Space Shuttle

10 Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU)
Purpose: Low Earth Orbit spacewalks Designed for movement in microgravity Modular design to fit various sizes of astronauts Protects from micrometeoroids Portable life support system Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #10: 2 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #10: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Teaching Moment: What is significant about the EMU? 1st US space suit designed and used specifically for Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), i.e. spacewalks outside of the vehicle Background: Mission Duration(s): Designed to work for 25 spacewalks or 15 years Time Frame: Present Suit Details: Purpose: The EMU is designed for use outside of the vehicle, during spacewalks. Interesting Facts: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) The original EMU was used from 1979 to The EMU design was upgraded, new design has been in use since 2002. The EMU was designed using lessons learned (i.e. the scientific method) from the Apollo space suit development. It is a “modular” design, meaning that it has separate pieces that can be put together to fit the astronaut. The current suit design is capable of fitting the 5th percentile female (5’ tall, 110 lbs) up to a 95th percentile male (6’2” tall, 223 lbs). The Shuttle EMU with the life support backpack and SAFER weighs approximately 275 lb (124.7 kg) on Earth and it is pressurized to 4.3 psia (29.6 kPa). The ISS EMU with the life support backpack and SAFER weighs approximately 319 lb (145 kg) on Earth and it is pressurized to 4.3 psia (29.6 kPa). Reference: US Space Suits Operating Pressure: 4.3 psi (29.6 kPa) International Space Station

11 Internal Components of the EMU
It’s like your air conditioner, but uses water instead! Communications Carrier Assembly (CCA) Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #11: 3 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #11: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Teaching Moments: On a hot summer day, do you cool down faster by standing in front of a fan or jumping into a pool of water? Pool of water! (Presenter can explain that water’s heat transfer properties work more efficiently than gas/ventilation cooling, and that’s one of the reasons why we have liquid cooling in the space suit rather than ventilation cooling.) What similarities do you see with the picture of the Suited Engineer and Neil Armstrong? They are wearing the same piece of hardware…the CCA! It’s been around for over 40 years because the technology is robust and reliable…keep that in mind as we talk through the new suit developments… Interesting Facts: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) LCVG Two material layers: Inner layer – Chiffon: Won’t cause discomfort against the skin; Used in a lot of dresses and ladies’ formal wear Outer layer – Spandex blend: Stretchy and flexible so that we can weave tubing through it Approximately 300 feet of tubing with water running through to regulate body temperature Fits tight to the body so that the garment makes contact with the skin It cools the astronaut using water rather than air. Water cools “quicker” than air due to its heat transfer properties. CCA Fits tight to the head so that it won’t move around Two independent earphones – allows you to hear the communication from crewmembers, mission control, and hear caution and warning tones Two independent microphones Also known as the “Snoopy Cap” since it looks like the cap that Snoopy wears when he fights the Red Baron in the “Peanuts” comic strip This configuration dates back to the early days of suited operations (note the Neil Armstrong picture) Neil Armstrong (1969) Suit Engineer (2006) Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) Independent microphones and earphones

12 Modular Components of the EMU
Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assembly (EVVA) Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #12: 4 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #12: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Interesting Facts: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) Helmet: The EMU helmet has a plastic pressure layer with a clear thermal visor that protects the pressure layer from impacts. The oxygen from the life support system comes into the suit through the back of the helmet and flows over the astronaut’s face for cooling and to push the humidity and carbon dioxide exhaled by the astronaut away from the face and into the body of the suit. The helmet has additional visors that can be pulled down for further protection. A gold-covered visor can be pulled down to work like a pair of sunglasses. There are also separate visors on the right, left, and top that can be partially pulled down to block out the sun. Four small lights are sometimes attached to the top of the helmet for lighting when on the dark side of the earth. Gloves: The EMU gloves include fingertip heaters on the inside of the glove to keep the fingers warm during spacewalks. On the outside of the gloves, the fingertips are coated with rubber so that the astronaut has a better grip while spacewalking and using tools. The EMU gloves are not designed for each astronaut, but there are over 40 sizes available, and the gloves can be adjusted to get the best fit possible. (Presenter can emphasize the importance of the gloves during microgravity EVAs (i.e. all translations are done via hands, no “walking” in space). ) Hard Upper Torso: The HUT is a fiberglass piece that is the main connection piece for the rest of the space suit pieces (helmet, arms, legs, DCM, PLSS) Boots: The EMU boots are designed to maintain the pressure within the suit—these boots aren’t “made for walking”. There are slippers available for the crew in the event that their boots are too big and don’t fit comfortably. Also, the heel of the boot incorporates a clip similar to one you would see on “snow ski/board boots”. This clip allows the crew to position themselves into a foot restraint in order to work freely with both hands. (A picture of the EMU attached to the foot restraint is on slide 10 for reference.) Lower Torso Assembly: This assembly includes the pants and boots. The colored band on the legs indicates which astronaut is inside! (Colored stripes are also on the PLSS.) Pressure Garment Materials: The Shuttle EMU has up to 14 layers of material protection. These layers consist of Nylon, Dacron, Neoprene, Mylar, Gortex, Kevlar and Nomex. Modular Design: The pressure garment is “modular,” meaning that there are several sizes of some of the pieces, so that the suit can be put together to fit the astronaut. There is only 1 helmet size, but there are 5 sizes of the fiberglass shell that fits over the astronaut’s upper body, 2 sizes of boots, 6 sizes for the upper arm, 9 sizes for the lower arm, 5 sizes for the pants, and over 40 sizes of gloves. Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assembly Gloves Boot and Foot Restraint Lower Torso Assembly (LTA)

13 EMU Controls and Life Support
Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #13: 2 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #13: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Teaching Moment: Why are the words on the front of the DCM backwards? Because you can’t see the front of the DCM when you look down and/or bend forward in the space suit, we use a wrist mirror. The writing is backwards so that when you look at the reflection, it reads left to right. (Presenter can demonstrate this concept by holding a piece of paper or a book with writing a few inches in front of a student’s upper torso…when they bend forward, can they see the writing? No! We need a mirror!  ) Interesting Facts: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) DCM Mounts to the front of the HUT Allows the astronaut to monitor the life support systems (oxygen, power, pressure, etc.) Astronaut controls the temperature of water flowing through the LCG by turning the valve on the right Controls volume of the CCA and suit pressure PLSS Oxygen: primary and emergency for breathing and suit pressurization Carbon Dioxide removal Cooling Water and sublimator Power (battery) Communications systems Display and Controls Module: temperature, pressure, ventilation and communication controls Portable Life Support System

14 Apollo 16: Charles Moss Duke, Jr. (Duke)
Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #14: 5 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #14: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Note: Video capability is necessary for this slide. Audio is desired but not necessary. Teaching Moment: The intent of this slide is to view a video from Apollo and discuss the suit with the students. Intro to Video: This video shows Charles Moss Duke, Jr. (Duke) during an Apollo 16 lunar surface EVA. Click movie to start! Ask for student observations! Discuss the students’ observations…How could we improve the suit design for future exploration? Some things to note: How dirty the suit is, the challenges with mobility/range of motion/center of gravity, etc. Reference: Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/alsj/frame.html) “Duke hammers a core tube into the ground until it meets a rock and won't go any further. Then the hammer flies from his hand and he makes four attempts to pick it up by bending down and leaning to reach for it. He gives up and returns to the rover to get the tongs to pick up the hammer.”

15 What about a suit for future exploration?
Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #15: 30 seconds Recommended Grade Level for Slide #15: All grades TRANSITION SLIDE “Let’s take a look at what NASA is doing for future exploration...”

16 Mark III Suit Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #16: 3 minutes
Recommended Grade Level for Slide #16: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Suit Details: Hybrid design with soft/hard pieces Single-axis fabric elbows, knees, and ankle joints Rolling convolute waist -for waist flexion/extension 3-bearing hip joint to facilitate walking, kneeling, and fall recovery Rear-entry Waist belt weight relief system and shoulder straps Rough terrain boots (military flight-style boot lower and sole incorporated with a single axis flex/extension joint and ankle bearing) Interesting Facts: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) Pressure Garment : The Mark III has hard and soft structural components, and is a modular system with an upper torso, lower torso, upper and lower arm pieces, gloves and boots. By combining soft suit joints, hard joints and bearings, the expected surface tasks can be performed without wearing out the astronauts as easily as during the Apollo lunar missions. The Mark III is designed to operate at up to 8.3 psi (57kPa) and weighs approximately 210 lb (95.3 kg) on Earth while wearing the life support backpack.  Helmet : The Mark III helmet is a 13” hemispherical dome that connects to the hard upper torso with an Ortman wire connection.  Life Support : The Liquid Air Backpack (LAB) stores approximately twelve pounds of liquid air in an on-back/backpack-mounted Dewar. The LAB provides the following functions: breathing air to the suited subject, suit pressurization, carbon dioxide removal from the ventilation loop, and heat exchange for the liquid cooling garment. It is attached to the rear of the upper torso of the space suit and weights 84 lb (38.1 kg) when fully charged with consumables.  Gloves: The Mark III can use any glove configuration that uses the standard Apollo/Shuttle EMU wrist disconnect. The most current glove design is the Phase VI glove. The glove incorporates a patterned convolute wrist to provide mobility for wrist flexion/extension and adduction/abduction. The palm is patterned, has a molded palm plate, and a palm bar to contour to the glove palm to the hand. The Phase VI glove fingers have pleated joints and include a finger length sizing feature. The thumb incorporates a gored cone to facilitate proximal metacarpal motion. Since the Mark III suit was originally designed for 8.3psig pressurized operation, special advanced development glove assemblies were fabricated to allow for and enable low-force hand operations with good, finger, thumb and wrist mobility range at this higher pressure. Reference: US Space Suits

17 Rear Entry I-Suit (REI-Suit)
Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #17: 3 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #17: All grades (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Suit Details: (the presenter may share more details verbally as he/she wishes and has knowledge on the subject) Soft structure with hard goods incorporated for the hatch and bearings Bearings Shoulder, upper arm, upper hip, upper leg Rear-entry Off-the-shelf work boot w/convolute ankle joint Incorporates straps at the instep that can be adjusted to anchor the feet with the boot REI-Suit features similar to previous I-Suit with the exception of rear entry feature Reference: US Space Suits

18 Suit Development Using the Scientific Method
Concept Development System Testing Integrated Testing Component Testing Recommended Time Allotted for Slide #18: 3 minutes Recommended Grade Level for Slide #18: 4th grade + (presenter should vary the level of the technical content to the grade level of the audience) Teaching Moment: Reiterate the use of the scientific method in development of hardware for future exploration. NASA is studying lessons learned from past and current space suits to develop the next generation hardware for planetary exploration. Improving mobility Decreasing mass Increasing autonomy Minimizing costs while increasing benefits Developing improved materials and technologies Concept Development: Starting with each individual piece, designs are in work to make components better. (Presenter can provide examples of hardware that he/she works on at the component level.) Component Testing: Demonstrates that each individual piece works to its requirements and specifications. (Presenter can provide examples of component testing that he/she supports.) System Testing: Important to test how the components work together as a system. (Presenter can provide examples of system testing that he/she supports.) Integrated Testing: Important to test how various systems work in situations similar to what we think we will experience when we go back to the Moon, to Mars, or to other exploration destinations. (Presenter can provide examples of integrated and/or field testing that he/she supports.) Develop innovative concepts to meet challenging requirements Test parts and refine designs per test results Cool POGO Movie Test system and refine per test results Integrate hardware to test how it works together

19 Connect with us on facebook! NASA Crew and Thermal Systems Division

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