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Teaching Grammar Teaching the Language System How to Teach Grammar A presentation by Merle Oesterschulze & Ann-Kristin Tibo This presentation is (mainly)

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Grammar Teaching the Language System How to Teach Grammar A presentation by Merle Oesterschulze & Ann-Kristin Tibo This presentation is (mainly)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Grammar Teaching the Language System How to Teach Grammar A presentation by Merle Oesterschulze & Ann-Kristin Tibo This presentation is (mainly) based on Tricia Hedges Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom, (2000) Chapter 5 pp Further material was taken out of Scott Thornburys How Teach Grammar, (1999) Rosie Tanners and Cathrine Greens Tasks for Teacher Education. A Reflective Approach, (1998) (Chap.3)

2 Teaching Grammar Overview Content of our Presentation 1.Introduction 1.1 Why teach grammar? 1.2 Grammar acquisition – a short revision 1.3 Basic principles for grammar teaching 2. Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar 2.1 Presenting grammar 2.2 Practising grammar 3. How can we suit approach to learner needs? 4. Bibliography Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs?

3 Teaching Grammar Introduction - Why teach grammar? - Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? To what extent do you agree or disagree with these statements? taken from Tasks for Teacher Education p. 13

4 Teaching Grammar Introduction - Why teach grammar? - Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Presentation of grammar can facilitate learning in a number of ways: + it can provide input for noticing language forms t can help to see the difference between the learners output and accurate forms of English + Without some focus on form, learners run the risk of fossilising + it can give information on the stylistic variation of language form Me Tarzan, you Jane - kind of language fails to deliver intelligibility BUT this does not mean that grammar should be the goal of teaching, nor that a focus on form alone is sufficient. A language is acquired through practice [communication]; it is merely perfected through grammar (Leibniz) On balance, there is a convincing case for grammar teaching (taken out of How Teach Grammar pp.15-17; 23-25)

5 Teaching Grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Introduction - Grammar acquisition - We have to be aware of the... … developmental sequences or natural order hypothesis = readiness to learn order in which certain features of language are acquired … variation of the time needed to learn a new structure among Ls implication: to recycle structures … fact that the process is not a lockstep one e.g. go went *goed … inductive learning - use of acquired knowledge and knowledge of L1 to discover the language Consequences for the role of grammar instruction

6 Teaching Grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Introduction - Basic principles - Grammar presentation and practice activities should be evaluated according to: 1. How efficient they are 1.1 How time-efficient is it? (its economy) presenting grammar: the shorter the better 1.2 How easy is it set up? (its ease) the easier an activity is to set up, the better it is 1.3 Is it consistent with good learning principles? (its efficacy) try to exclude any distracting or irrelevant details understandable and easy to remember 2. How appropriate they are 2.1 learners needs and interests 2.2 learners attitudes and expectations factors: age; level; group size; constitution of the group … (taken out of How Teach Grammar pp.25-28)

7 Teaching Grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding principles - Presenting grammar - Presenting Grammar contextualization order of presentation use of terminology degree of explicitness linking grammar and vocabulary

8 Teaching Grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding principles - Presenting grammar - Language is context- sensitive (Thornbury; p.90) Context can be created through: visuals; miming/ demonstrating; dialogues; texts; songs; videos; situations …songs The context should be useful and appropriate to the learners needs Which forms and in what order? Experiment

9 Teaching Grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding principles - Presenting grammar - Experiment Consider the set of forms for the present continuous tense to express current actions:

10 Teaching Grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding Principles - Presenting Grammar - - metalanguage may be useful for advanced learners and analytical learners - Sometimes, it is most effective to guide students into seeing the patterns (above all for beginners) Explicit = deductive approach grammatical explanation and application activity Implicit = inductive approach discovery learning e.g. consciousness-raising tasks Compare Material 5A and 5BMaterial 5A and 5B Pattern: it + linking verb + adjective + infinitive with to e.g.: Its difficult to make up your mind. Its easy to say that. Lexical phrases used by native speakers

11 Teaching grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding Principles in the Teaching of Grammar Presenting Grammar Practising Grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding Principles - Practising Grammar - The PPP model PRESENTATION PRACTICE PRODUCTION aim: to achieve accuracy aim: to achieve fluency See table 5.1; p. 166

12 Teaching Grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding Principles - Practising Grammar - The PPP model ProsCons has a logic appeal both to teachers and students and reflects the way other skills are learned, e.g. football Learners will perform the activity with the new learned structure correctly in that lesson, but will then cease to use it, or produce it inaccurately (see also: Ellis; p.166) allows the teacher to control the content and pace of the lesson and provides a convenient template Language is learned in bits and steps BUT: Language acquisition is more complex and less linear than the PPP model assumes Controlled practice stage provides conscious focus on form assumes that accuracy precedes fluency BUT: learners might be able to speak fluently while still making mistakes

13 Teaching Grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding Principles in the Teaching of Grammar Presenting Grammar Practising Grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding Principles - Practising Grammar - Alternative Models: 1)Dictogloss Technique Form of dictation, BUT: students need to hear and reconstruct the whole text Focus is on language form which is contextually embedded in a situation Learners are encouraged to reflect on grammar Students need to work collaboratively on reflecting the text which necessitates decision-making negotiation of form (Swain) Sample Lesson

14 aim: Learn would in its past habitual sense example: When we lived in Canada we would often go kayaking. Instructions 1.Listen and as soon as I have finished write down what you remember of the text. 2.Join up in pairs and compare what you have noted down. 3.Try to reconstruct the text. 4.Compare your version with the original. Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding Principles in the Teaching of Grammar Presenting Grammar Practising Grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding Principles - Practising Grammar - Teaching Grammar

15 When I was a child we used to go camping every summer. Wed choose a different place each year, and wed drive around until we found a beach we liked. Then wed pitch our tent, as near as possible to the beach. Wed usually spend most of the time on the beach or exploring the country round about. We never went to the same beach twice. Taken out of How Teach Grammar p.83 Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding Principles in the Teaching of Grammar Presenting Grammar Practising Grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Teaching Grammar Guiding Principles - Practising Grammar -

16 To sum it up… Order of the dictogloss activities 1.warm-up to the topic and preparation of relevant vocabulary 2.text is read twice, on the second reading students note down the words they catch 3.students try to reconstruct the text in groups they use the grammar they know and consider the possible alternatives 4.when comparing their version of the text with the original, students see the difference Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding Principles in the Teaching of Grammar Presenting Grammar Practising Grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding Principles - Practising Grammar - Teaching Grammar

17 Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? Guiding Principles - Practising Grammar - Alternative Models: 2) Task-Based Model focus on: fluency-to-accuracy sequence 1.Learners perform a communicative task 2.Teacher uses this to identify language features learners could have used to communicate more effectively 3.These features are taught and practised 4.Students re-perform the original (or a similar) task TASKTEACHTASK

18 Teaching Grammar Overview Introduction Why teach grammar? Grammar acquisition Basic principles Guiding principles in the teaching of grammar Presenting grammar Practising grammar How can we suit approach to learner needs? How can we suit approach to learner needs? Celce-Murcia: the more factors the teacher identifies on the left side of the grid, the less important it is to focus on form; the more factors the teacher identifies on the right, the more important the grammatical focus (Celce-Murcia 1993: 294)

19 Teaching Grammar Bibliography Green, Catherine & Tanner, Rosie (1998). Tasks for Teacher Education. A Reflective Approach. Longman Hedge, Tricia (2000). Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford University Press Thornbury, Scott (1999). How Teach Grammar. Longman


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