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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Retailing Management, 7/e Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Customer Buying Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Retailing Management, 7/e Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Customer Buying Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Retailing Management, 7/e Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Customer Buying Behavior

2 4-2 The World of Retailing Introduction to Retailing Types of Retailers Multi-Channel Retailing Customer Buying Behavior

3 4-3 Questions How do customers decide which retailer to go to and what merchandise to buy? What social and personal factors affect customer purchase decisions? How can retailers get customers to visit their stores more frequently, and buy more merchandise during each visit? Why and how do retailers group customers into market segments?

4 4-4 Eva Carlyn, a student at the University of Washing, is beginning to interview for jobs. For the first interviews on campus, Eva planned to wear the blue suit her parents bought her three years ago. But after looking at her suit, she realizes that its not stylish, and it shows signs of wear. She wants to make a strong first impression during her interviews, so she decides to buy a new suit. Illustration of Buying Process © Digital Vision

5 4-5 Illustration (Continued) Eva surfs the Internet for tips on dressing for interviews ( and and looks through catalogs to see which styles are offered. However, she decides to go to retail store to try things on, and to have the suit in time for her first interview next week. She usually shops at Abercrombie & Fitch and American Eagle Outfitter, but neither sells business suits. Before going to the mall, she goes to, a site that enables her to examine and compare the suits currently available at the mall. Armed with a list of possibilities, she goes directly to the stores that she reviewed on

6 4-6 Illustration (Continued) She likes to shop with Britt, but Britt is in Paris for the semester. Since she values Britts opinion, Eva shares her shopping list with Britt on © Ingram Publishing/AGE Fotostock

7 4-7 Illustration (Continued) Evan wanders into Macys, as a salesperson approaches her in the career womens department. After asking her what type of suit she wants and her size, the salesperson shows her three suits. Eva photographs them with her cell phone, and text messages them to Britt in Paris. Britt likes all three, so Eva tries them on again. However, after messaging Britt more photos, all three individuals decide the 2nd suit is the most appropriate for the interview. © Bananastock/Punchstock

8 4-8 Illustration (Continued) Eva is happy with the aesthetics of the suit: its color, fit, fabric, and length. Although, she is about the costs of dry cleaning, and she realizes shes spending more money than she had planned. Then Eva decides to buy it after another customer in the store tells her she appears very professional in the suit. As the salesperson walks with Eva to the cash register, they pass a display of scarves. The salesperson stops, picks up a scarf, and demonstrates to her how well the scarf complements the suit. As a result, Eva also decides to buy the scarf.

9 4-9 Stages in the Buying Process

10 4-10 Types of Needs Utilitarian Needs –satisfied when purchases accomplish a specific task. Shopping needs to be easy, and effortless like Sams or a grocery store. Hedonic needs – satisfied when purchases accomplish a need for entertainment, emotional, and recreational experience as in department stores or specialty stores.

11 4-11 Hedonic Needs that Retailers can Satisfy Stimulation Ex: Background music, visual displays, scents Social experience Ex: Mixed-use developments, lifestyle centers Learn new trends and fashions Ex: The Body Shop – learn how can live an environmentally friendly lifestyle Satisfy need for power and status Ex: Canyon Ranch – upscale health resorts Self-rewards Ex: personalized makeovers Adventure Treasure hunting for bargains

12 4-12 Conflicting Needs Ex: Evas hedonic needs (wearing a DKNY suit to enhance self-image) conflict with her budget, and her utilitarian need to get a job. Customers make trade-offs between their conflicting needs Cross shopping

13 4-13 Stimulating Need Recognition Suggestions by Sales Associates Advertising and Direct Mail Visual Merchandise in store Special Events in the Store Signage Displays Free food sample Stockbyte/Punchstock Images

14 4-14 Information Search Amount of Information Search Depends on the value from searching versus the cost of searching Factors Affecting Amount of Information Search Product Characteristics Complexity Cost Customer Characteristics Past experience Perceived risk Time pressure Market Characteristics Number of alternative brands

15 4-15 Sources of Information External Consumer reports Advertising Word of mouth Internal Past experiences Memory Digital Vision / Getty Images © Dynamic Graphics/Picture Quest

16 4-16 How Can Retailers Limit the Information Search? Information from sales associates Provide an assortment of services Provide good assortments Everyday low pricing Credit Royalty-Free/CORBIS

17 4-17 Retailers encourage customers to spend time The more time customers spend shopping, the more they will buy. Customers who spend 40 mins in a store are more than twice as likely to buy than someone who spends 10 mins. Also, they typically buy 2x as many items. Stores use food and personal service Talbots: attention of a sales associate, light snack City Furniture: Chocolate cookies Gymboree: television playing kids videos Websites provide enjoyable experiences with technologies

18 4-18 Evaluation of Alternatives Multiattribute attitude model: Customers see a retailer, product, or service as a collection of attributes or characteristics Predict a customers evaluation of a retailer, product, or service based on Its performance on relevant attributes the importance of those attributes to the customer

19 4-19 Information about Retailers Selling Groceries

20 4-20 Information Used in Evaluating Retailers

21 4-21 Information Needed to Use Multi-Attribute Model Alternative Consumer Considering Characteristic/Benefits Sought in Making Store and Merchandise Choices Ratings of Alternative Performance on Criteria Importance of Criteria to Consumer

22 4-22 Information Eva Used in Buying Suit

23 4-23 Information Needed to Use Multi-Attribute Model Alternative retailers consumers can consider Characteristic/Benefits Sought in Making Store and Merchandise Choices Ratings of Alternative Performance on Criteria Importance weights that consumers attach to the merchandise

24 4-24 Getting into the Consideration Set Consideration set: the set of alternatives the customer evaluates when making a selection Retailers develop programs influencing top-of-mind awareness Get exposure on search engines like Google Try to be the top of the page More stores in the same area (e.g., Starbucks)

25 4-25 Methods for increasing the chance of store visit after getting into the consideration set Increase Performance Beliefs of Your Store Decrease Performance Beliefs About Competitor Increase Importance Weight of Attributes on which You Have an Advantage Add a New Benefit on which You Excel

26 4-26 Purchasing Merchandise or Services The high-rated item may not be available in the store. How can a retailer increase the chances that customers will convert their merchandise evaluations into purchases? Customers do not always purchase a brand with the highest overall evaluation. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Jill Braaten, photographer

27 4-27 Converting Merchandise or Services Evaluations into Purchases Measure: the number of abandoning carts in stores and at websites Methods to reduce it: Dont stock out of popular merchandise Reduce waiting times at checkout Digital displays offering entertainment (Disney) Apple stores – cell check-out Easy navigation and check-out at websites ( Offer liberal return policies, money back guarantees, and refunds if same merchandise is available at lower prices from another retailer The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Andrew Resek, photographer

28 4-28 Postpurchase Evaluation Satisfaction A post-consumption evaluation of how well a store or product meets or exceeds customer expectations Becomes part of the customers internal information that affects future store and product decisions Builds store and brand loyalty

29 4-29 Types of Purchase Decisions Extended Problem Solving -High financial or Social Risk Limited Problem Solving -Some Prior Buying Experience Habitual Decision Making -Store Brand, Loyalty

30 4-30 Extended Problem Solving Financial risks – purchasing expensive products or services Physical risks – purchases that will affect consumers health and safety Social risks – consumers will believe product will affect how others view them Consumers devote time and effort analyzing alternatives

31 4-31 What Retailers Need to do for Customers Engaged in Extended Problem Solving Provide a Lot of Information -Use Salespeople rather than advertising to communicate with customers Reduce the Risks -Offer Guarantees -Return Privileges © Royalty-Free/CORBIS

32 4-32 Limited Problem Solving Customers engage in this when they have had prior experience with products or services Customers rely more upon personal knowledge Majority of customer decisions involve limited problem solving (c) Brand X Pictures/PunchStock Purchase decisions process involving moderate amount of effort and time

33 4-33 It depends… If the Customer Is Coming to You, Provide a Positive Experience and Create Loyalty Make Sure Customer is Satisfied Provide Good Service, Assortments, value Offer Rewards to Convert to Loyal Customer If the Customer Goes to Your Competitors Store, Change Behavior Offer More Convenient Locations, Better Service and Assortments What do Retailers Need to do for Customers Engaged in Limited Problem Solving?

34 4-34 Encouraging Impulse Buying Impulse buying: one common type of limited problem solving Influence by using prominent point-of- purchase (POP) or point-of-sale (POS) Have Salespeople Suggest Add-ons Have Complementary Merchandise Displayed Near Product of Interest Use Signage in Aisle or Special Displays Put Merchandise Where Customers Are Waiting PhotoLink/Getty Images

35 4-35 Habitual Problem Solving For purchases that arent important to the consumer For merchandise consumers have purchased in the past For consumers loyal to brands or a store Purchase decision process involving little or no conscious effort

36 4-36 Customer Loyalty Brand Loyalty Committed to a Specific Brand Reluctant to Switch to a Different Brand May Switch Retailers to Buy Brand Store Loyalty Committed to a Specific Retailer Reluctant to Switch Retailers

37 4-37 What Retailers Need to do for Customers to Engage in Habitual Decision Making IT DEPENDS If the customer habitually comes to you, reinforce behavior Make sure merchandise in stock Provide good service Offer rewards to loyal customer If the customer goes to your competitors store, break the habit Offer special promotions

38 4-38 Social Factors Influencing the Buying Decision Process

39 4-39 Family Influences Buying Decisions Purchases are for entire family to use Whole family participates in decision making process Retailers work to satisfy needs of all family members Kids in the U.S. spend over $200 billion on personal items. They directly influence the purchase of another $300 billion worth of items such as food and clothing.

40 4-40 Reference Groups A reference group is one or more people whom a person uses as a basis of comparison for beliefs, feelings and behaviors. Reference groups affect buying decisions by: Offering information Providing rewards for specific purchasing behaviors Enhancing a consumers self-image (c) image100/PunchStock

41 4-41 Reference Groups Eva…. looks to Soccer player Mia Hamm and tennis player Maria Sharapova for the selection of athletic wear Jessica Simpson for casual fashion advice Store advocates: Customers that like a store so much that they actively share their positive experiences with friends and family Victoria Secret Alpha Moms

42 4-42 Culture Culture is the meaning, beliefs, morals and values shared by most members of a society Western culture: individualism Eastern culture: collectivism Subcultures are distinctive groups of people within a culture

43 4-43 Criteria for Evaluating Market Segments Actionable Identifiable Substantial Reachable

44 4-44 Methods for Segmenting Retail Markets Geographic Demographic Buying situations Lifestyle Segmenting Markets Geo-demographic Benefits

45 4-45 Geo-demographic Segmentation Birds of a feather Flock Together Latino America Hispanic Middle Class Boxing (+) Dance Music (+) Barbequing (-) Avocados (+) Cosmopolitan (+) Touched By an Angel (+) Latino America Hispanic Middle Class Boxing (+) Dance Music (+) Barbequing (-) Avocados (+) Cosmopolitan (+) Touched By an Angel (+) Town and Gown College Town Singles Foreign Films (+) Dogs (-) Sewing (-) Coca Cola (+) Fast Food (+) Friends (+) Sports Illustrated (+) Town and Gown College Town Singles Foreign Films (+) Dogs (-) Sewing (-) Coca Cola (+) Fast Food (+) Friends (+) Sports Illustrated (+) PRIZM (Potential Rating Index by Zip Market PRIZM (Potential Rating Index by Zip Market – Claritas (www. ESRI Tapestry

46 4-46 Distribution of Gray Collar Aging Couples Near Suburbs

47 4-47 VALS2 American Lifestyle Segments

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