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A DVANCED S IMULATION T ECHNIQUES FOR IC E NGINES 1

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A PPLICATION 2

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION 3

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 Weibe combustion model 4

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 Fit Weibe function to experimental or CFD heat release Start of combustion Crank angle at 1% burned Crank angle at 1% burned Combustion Duration & Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method Calculated by non-linear least square method Combustion Duration & Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method Calculated by non-linear least square method Start of combustion Crank angle at 0.5% burned Crank angle at 0.5% burned Premixed fraction, Premixed combustion duration, premixed Weibe exponent, mixing controlled combustion duration and mixing controlled Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method Calculated by non-linear least square method Premixed fraction, Premixed combustion duration, premixed Weibe exponent, mixing controlled combustion duration and mixing controlled Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method Calculated by non-linear least square method Weibe combustion model 5

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 6 Single Weibe Model SOC = -5.3 Θ d = 63.5 M = 0.96 Multiple Weibe Model SOC = -4.1 P f = 0.1 Θ d_p = 12 M p = 0.5 Θ d_p = 60 M p = 1.15 Weibe combustion modelFit Weibe function

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 7 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 Outputs In-Cylinder Pressure & temperature IMEP, ISFC, indicated efficiencyNOx generation Heat transfer Data Single Cylinder Model Inputs Valves Effective Area Weibe Function & Fuel Combustion properties Ignition delay Calculation Steady State Wall Temperatures Heat Transfer Model In-Cylinder Geometry Emission Model (NOx only) 8 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 9 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 10 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model Zoom Single Cylinder results

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 11 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model Single Cylinder results Scavenging

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 12 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model Single Cylinder results Indicated Power 99.6 kW IMEP=25 bar I ndicated Efficiency= 50.6% Heat transfer to walls 19.6 kW 6.7 kW from Gas to Liner 6.4 kW from Gas to Head 6.5 kW from Gas to Piston Exhaust Energy 77.6 kW A fraction is recovered through turbocharger in multi cylinder engine Fuel Energy kW

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 13 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Complete Engine Cycle Single Cylinder Model Firing Order/ No. Cylinders TC and IC model Filling & Emptying Model Friction Model

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 14 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Complete Engine Cycle Filling & Emptying Model

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 15 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Complete Engine Cycle Filling & Emptying Results Gas Exchange Diagram

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 16 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Complete Engine Cycle Filling & Emptying Model Results Ambient Temp (°C)25 I/C Water Temp (°C)33 Power (kWb)500 Speed (r/min)1500 BMEP (bar)21 BSFC (g/kWh)199 BSAC (kg/kWh)6.56 Firing Pressure (bar)170 Boost Pressure Ratio3.05 Compressor Exit Temp (°C)171 Air Manifold Temp (°C)48 Compressor Eff. (%)76 Turbocharger Eff. (%)58.5 Surge Margin (%)26 Exh Mfold Temp Energy Mean (%)516 Turbine Inlet Temp (Estimated) (°C)575 Trapped A/F Ratio25.5:1 Compressor Raw Map Turbine Raw Map

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion 17 More info: SAE paper No

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 18 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 19 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Start of Combustion Premixed combustion Temperature Distribution in Spray Zones

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 20 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Peak heat release rate Temperature Distribution in Spray Zones Combustion tale

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 21 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Fuel evaporation & Burn NOx & SOOT

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 22 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Pressure & Temperature Normalized Fuel Injection, Evaporation, Burn and Heat release rate

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 3 Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine 23 The pilot fuel (DF)/Spark (SI) is considered as ignition initiator The heat released via diesel fuel is entered to model as Weibe function in DF engines The ignition delay is calculated from Arrhenius formula The air and natural gas mixture will be divided into two zones as soon as combustion starts The burned zone consists of reacting species and combustion products. It is assumed that all of species are in thermodynamic equilibrium

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 3 Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine 24 O O2O2 N2N2 OH H2OH2O H CO CO 2 H2H2 Thermodynamic Equilibrium Heat Release The Burned Zone O2O2 OH H2OH2O H CO Chemical Kinetics Auto-ignition Knock The Unburned Zone CH 4 HO 2 CH 3 H2O2H2O2 CH 2 O CHO N2N2

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 3 Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine 25

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 3 Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine 26 Model Validation Continuous lines : Two-Zone model results Points : CAT Engine simulation results (SAE paper)

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 4 1D gas dynamic model 27 Significant error at high speeds Instability at low speeds and load Gas Dynamic modeling Filling & Emptying Modeling 1D CFD Complex program Better Results

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 4 1D gas dynamic model 28 Two-Step lax-Wendroff method Flow Limit Function

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 4 1D gas dynamic model 29

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 Turbocharger Matching 30

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 31

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 32

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 33

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 34 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 35 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 36 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation

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E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 37 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation

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O PTIMIZATION P ROCESS Design of ExperimentsRunning the Simulation Results Processed at Polynomial Surfaces Optimization via Genetic Algorithm 38 RSM Methodology

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O PTIMIZATION M ODEL - RSM Mathematical and statistical technique for empirical model building The objective is to optimize a response changes in the input variables identifies the changes in the output response The RSM is used to design optimization is reducing the cost of expensive methods The Approximation model function is generally polynomial 39

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O PTIMIZATION M ODEL - DOE An experiment is a series of tests or simulations, called runs The objective of DOE is the selection of the points where the response should be evaluated Optimal design of experiments are associated with the mathematical model of the process The choice of the design of experiments have an influence on the accuracy of the approximation 40

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O PTIMIZATION M ODEL - DOE M ETHODS Box and DropperLatin HypercubeD-OptimumFull Factorial 41 Increase in Level of Accuracy Increase in Run time

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O PTIMIZATION E XAMPLE 1 Injection timing VS Speed & fuel amount 42 Response Surfaces

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O PTIMIZATION E XAMPLE 1 Injection timing VS Speed & fuel amount 43 Optimized Map

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION 44

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 1 Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger 45 Simple Model Inside HX Volume of Fluid Pressure drop across HX Effectiveness of HX Outside flow rate Outside temperatre

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 1 Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger 46 Extended Model Inside Flow Volume of Fluid Pressure drop across HX Flow rate Nu correlation Outside Flow Volume of Fluid Pressure drop across HX Flow rate Nu correlation Effectiveness type Wall Absorb Wall material spec Wall volume

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 1 Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger 47

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 48 Engine Model Cooling Circuit Model Heat Rejection Heat transfer BCs

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 49 Transient Operation of the engine

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 50 Transient Operation of the engine

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 51 Transient Thermal Results- Coolant inside head drillings

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 52 Transient Thermal Results- Coolant inside Cylinder jackets

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 53 Transient Thermal Results- HTC Coolant to liner

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 54 Transient Thermal Results- average Liner wall temperature Coolant Side

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 55 Transient Thermal Results- HTC Coolant to head

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 56 Transient Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder Gas temperature Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model To head To Liner- Top To Liner- Bottom

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 57 Transient Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model To head To Liner- Top To Liner- Bottom

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 58 Correlated Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 59 Correlated Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model

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C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 60 Correlated Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model

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1D GENERAL F LOW A NALYSIS - UTILITY DESIGN Combined Heat & Power Generation 61

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C ONTROL S YSTEM A NALYSIS -C ASE 1 Waste-gate Control 62

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C ONTROL S YSTEM A NALYSIS -C ASE 2 Throttle Control 63

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D RIVELINE (M AP B ASED ) SIMULATION 64

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D RIVELINE (M AP B ASED ) SIMULATION 65

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D RIVELINE (M AP B ASED ) SIMULATION - E XAMPLE UIC Performance test simulation 66

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CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 3D Flow Through oil jet 67

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CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 2D flow through gas throttle Valve 68

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CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 2D flow through gas throttle Valve 69

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CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 2D flow through gas throttle Valve 70

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CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 2D flow through gas throttle Valve 71

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CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 72

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CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 73

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CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 74

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CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 75

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CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 76

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CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Simulation of paddle wheel test 77

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CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Simulation of paddle wheel test 78

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CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Simulation of paddle wheel test 79

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CFD- 3D C OMBUSTION AND E MISSION ANALYSIS DI Diesel combustion Analysis-Temperature distribution K ° CA 364° CA 374° CA

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