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**Advanced Simulation Techniques for IC Engines**

ASTICE Advanced Simulation Techniques for IC Engines

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**Application CFD- 3D general flow analysis**

CFD- 3D Compressible flow analysis Hydraulic System simulation Control System Analysis Map Based simulation 1D general Flow Analysis- utility design CFD- 3D Combustion and Emission analysis Engine Cycle Simulation Cooling circuit simulation Fuel Injection System Analysis Driveline Simulation CFD- 3D general flow analysis

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**Engine Cycle Simulation**

Combustion Model Weibe function Model Multi-zone spray Model Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine Gas exchange Model 1D gas dynamic model Turbocharger Matching Optimization Model RSM model with DOE Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Fit Weibe function Generate Model Single Cylinder Complete Engine Cycle Run the model Weibe combustion model

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Single DI Weibe Start of combustion Crank angle at 1% burned Combustion Duration & Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method Weibe combustion model Fit Weibe function to experimental or CFD heat release Start of combustion Crank angle at 0.5% burned Multiple DI Weibe Premixed fraction, Premixed combustion duration , premixed Weibe exponent, mixing controlled combustion duration and mixing controlled Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Fit Weibe function Single Weibe Model SOC = -5.3 Θd = 63.5 M = 0.96 Multiple Weibe Model SOC = -4.1 Pf = 0.1 Θd_p = 12 Mp = 0.5 Θd_p = 60 Mp = 1.15

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Model Generation Single Cylinder Model Complete Engine Cycle

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Single cylinder Model Inputs Valves Effective Area Weibe Function & Fuel Combustion properties Ignition delay Calculation Steady State Wall Temperatures Heat Transfer Model In-Cylinder Geometry Emission Model (NOx only) Single Cylinder Model Outputs In-Cylinder Pressure & temperature IMEP, ISFC, indicated efficiency NOx generation Heat transfer Data

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Single cylinder Model

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Single cylinder Model Single Cylinder results Zoom

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Single cylinder Model Single Cylinder results Scavenging

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Single cylinder Model Single Cylinder results Fuel Energy 196.8 kW Indicated Power 99.6 kW IMEP=25 bar Indicated Efficiency= 50.6% Heat transfer to walls 19.6 kW 6.7 kW from Gas to Liner 6.4 kW from Gas to Head 6.5 kW from Gas to Piston Exhaust Energy 77.6 kW A fraction is recovered through turbocharger in multi cylinder engine

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Complete Engine Cycle Single Cylinder Model Firing Order/ No. Cylinders TC and IC model Filling & Emptying Model Friction Model

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Complete Engine Cycle Filling & Emptying Model

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Complete Engine Cycle Gas Exchange Diagram Filling & Emptying Results

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 1**

Weibe combustion model Model Generation Complete Engine Cycle Filling & Emptying Model Results Ambient Temp (°C) 25 I/C Water Temp (°C) 33 Power (kWb) 500 Speed (r/min) 1500 BMEP (bar) 21 BSFC (g/kWh) 199 BSAC (kg/kWh) 6.56 Firing Pressure (bar) 170 Boost Pressure Ratio 3.05 Compressor Exit Temp (°C) 171 Air Manifold Temp (°C) 48 Compressor Eff. (%) 76 Turbocharger Eff. (%) 58.5 Surge Margin (%) 26 Exh M’fold Temp Energy Mean (%) 516 Turbine Inlet Temp (Estimated) (°C) 575 Trapped A/F Ratio 25.5:1 Compressor Raw Map Turbine Raw Map

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 2**

Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion More info: SAE paper No

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 2**

Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Main code Discharge Coefficient Routine Spray Penetration Routine Droplet Evaporation Routine Sauter Mean Diameter Routine Air Entrainment Routine Heat transfer Routine

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 2**

Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Start of Combustion Premixed combustion Temperature Distribution in Spray Zones

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 2**

Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Peak heat release rate Combustion tale Temperature Distribution in Spray Zones

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 2**

Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion NOx & SOOT Fuel evaporation & Burn

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 2**

Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Pressure & Temperature Normalized Fuel Injection, Evaporation, Burn and Heat release rate

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 3**

Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine The pilot fuel (DF)/Spark (SI) is considered as ignition initiator The heat released via diesel fuel is entered to model as Weibe function in DF engines The ignition delay is calculated from Arrhenius formula The air and natural gas mixture will be divided into two zones as soon as combustion starts The burned zone consists of reacting species and combustion products. It is assumed that all of species are in thermodynamic equilibrium

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 3**

Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine The Burned Zone The Unburned Zone CO CO H2O H2O CHO O CH4 O2 HO2 CO2 O2 N2 OH H2O2 CH3 OH N2 H H2 H CH2O Thermodynamic Equilibrium Chemical Kinetics Heat Release Auto-ignition Knock

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 3**

Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine

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**Engine Cycle Simulation-Case 3**

Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine Model Validation Continuous lines : Two-Zone model results Points : CAT Engine simulation results (SAE paper)

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 4**

1D gas dynamic model Significant error at high speeds Instability at low speeds and load Gas Dynamic modeling 1D CFD Complex program Better Results Filling & Emptying Modeling

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 4**

1D gas dynamic model Two-Step lax-Wendroff method Flow Limit Function

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 4**

1D gas dynamic model

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 5**

Turbocharger Matching Criteria for turbo matching Application Requirement Marine Maneuvering Rail Traction Load acceptance Transient operation Turbo lag Compressor Surge Steady State Condition High efficiency Stable Conditions

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 5**

Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation Load Increase Process

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 5**

Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 150 Sec Ramp of Throttle from Transient Response

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 5**

Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 150 Sec Ramp of Throttle from Transient Response

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 5**

Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 40 Sec Ramp of Throttle from Transient Response

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 5**

Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 40 Sec Ramp of Throttle from Transient Response

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 5**

Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 12 Sec Ramp of Throttle from Transient Response

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**Engine Cycle Simulation- Case 5**

Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 12 Sec Ramp of Throttle from Transient Response

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**Optimization Process RSM Methodology Design of Experiments**

Running the Simulation Results Processed at Polynomial Surfaces Optimization via Genetic Algorithm RSM Methodology

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**Optimization Model- RSM**

Mathematical and statistical technique for empirical model building The objective is to optimize a response changes in the input variables identifies the changes in the output response The RSM is used to design optimization is reducing the cost of expensive methods The Approximation model function is generally polynomial

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**Optimization Model- DOE**

An experiment is a series of tests or simulations, called runs The objective of DOE is the selection of the points where the response should be evaluated Optimal design of experiments are associated with the mathematical model of the process The choice of the design of experiments have an influence on the accuracy of the approximation

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**Optimization Model- DOE Methods**

Box and Dropper Latin Hypercube D-Optimum Full Factorial Increase in Level of Accuracy Increase in Run time

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**Optimization Example 1 Injection timing VS Speed & fuel amount**

Response Surfaces

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**Optimization Example 1 Injection timing VS Speed & fuel amount**

Optimized Map

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**Cooling circuit simulation**

1D CFD analysis of Flow Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation Transient Simulation Extended Model of Water pump

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 1**

Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger Simple Model Inside HX Volume of Fluid Pressure drop across HX Effectiveness of HX Outside flow rate Outside temperatre

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 1**

Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger Extended Model Inside Flow Volume of Fluid Pressure drop across HX Flow rate Nu correlation Outside Flow Effectiveness type Wall Absorb Wall material spec Wall volume

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 1**

Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger Simple Model Acceptable results for cross flow HXs Reliable for air cooled radiators and condenser Extended Model More accurate model Rely on experimental data

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Engine Model Cooling Circuit Model Heat transfer BCs Heat Rejection

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Transient Operation of the engine

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Transient Operation of the engine

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Transient Thermal Results- Coolant inside head drillings

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Transient Thermal Results- Coolant inside Cylinder jackets

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Transient Thermal Results- HTC Coolant to liner

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Transient Thermal Results- average Liner wall temperature Coolant Side

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Transient Thermal Results- HTC Coolant to head

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model To head To Liner- Top To Liner- Bottom Transient Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder Gas temperature

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model To Liner- Top To head To Liner- Bottom Transient Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Correlated Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Correlated Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC

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**Cooling circuit simulation-Case 2**

Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model Correlated Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC

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**1D general Flow Analysis- utility design**

Combined Heat & Power Generation

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**Control System Analysis-Case 1**

Waste-gate Control

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**Control System Analysis-Case 2**

Throttle Control

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**Driveline (Map Based) simulation**

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**Driveline (Map Based) simulation**

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**Driveline (Map Based) simulation-Example**

UIC Performance test simulation

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**CFD- 3D general flow analysis**

3D Flow Through oil jet

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**CFD- 3D general flow analysis**

2D flow through gas throttle Valve

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**CFD- 3D general flow analysis**

2D flow through gas throttle Valve

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**CFD- 3D general flow analysis**

2D flow through gas throttle Valve

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**CFD- 3D general flow analysis**

2D flow through gas throttle Valve

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**CFD- 3D Compressible flow analysis**

Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust

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**CFD- 3D Compressible flow analysis**

Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust

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**CFD- 3D Compressible flow analysis**

Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust

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**CFD- 3D Compressible flow analysis**

Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust

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**CFD- 3D Compressible flow analysis**

Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust

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**CFD- 3D Compressible flow analysis**

Simulation of paddle wheel test

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**CFD- 3D Compressible flow analysis**

Simulation of paddle wheel test

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**CFD- 3D Compressible flow analysis**

Simulation of paddle wheel test

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**CFD- 3D Combustion and Emission analysis**

DI Diesel combustion Analysis-Temperature distribution K 350° CA 374° CA 364° CA

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