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A DVANCED S IMULATION T ECHNIQUES FOR IC E NGINES 1.

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Presentation on theme: "A DVANCED S IMULATION T ECHNIQUES FOR IC E NGINES 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 A DVANCED S IMULATION T ECHNIQUES FOR IC E NGINES 1

2 A PPLICATION 2

3 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION 3

4 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 Weibe combustion model 4

5 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 Fit Weibe function to experimental or CFD heat release Start of combustion Crank angle at 1% burned Crank angle at 1% burned Combustion Duration & Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method Calculated by non-linear least square method Combustion Duration & Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method Calculated by non-linear least square method Start of combustion Crank angle at 0.5% burned Crank angle at 0.5% burned Premixed fraction, Premixed combustion duration, premixed Weibe exponent, mixing controlled combustion duration and mixing controlled Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method Calculated by non-linear least square method Premixed fraction, Premixed combustion duration, premixed Weibe exponent, mixing controlled combustion duration and mixing controlled Weibe exponent Calculated by non-linear least square method Calculated by non-linear least square method Weibe combustion model 5

6 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 6 Single Weibe Model SOC = -5.3 Θ d = 63.5 M = 0.96 Multiple Weibe Model SOC = -4.1 P f = 0.1 Θ d_p = 12 M p = 0.5 Θ d_p = 60 M p = 1.15 Weibe combustion modelFit Weibe function

7 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 7 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation

8 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 Outputs In-Cylinder Pressure & temperature IMEP, ISFC, indicated efficiencyNOx generation Heat transfer Data Single Cylinder Model Inputs Valves Effective Area Weibe Function & Fuel Combustion properties Ignition delay Calculation Steady State Wall Temperatures Heat Transfer Model In-Cylinder Geometry Emission Model (NOx only) 8 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model

9 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 9 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model

10 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 10 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model Zoom Single Cylinder results

11 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 11 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model Single Cylinder results Scavenging

12 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 12 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Single cylinder Model Single Cylinder results Indicated Power 99.6 kW IMEP=25 bar I ndicated Efficiency= 50.6% Heat transfer to walls 19.6 kW 6.7 kW from Gas to Liner 6.4 kW from Gas to Head 6.5 kW from Gas to Piston Exhaust Energy 77.6 kW A fraction is recovered through turbocharger in multi cylinder engine Fuel Energy kW

13 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 13 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Complete Engine Cycle Single Cylinder Model Firing Order/ No. Cylinders TC and IC model Filling & Emptying Model Friction Model

14 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 14 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Complete Engine Cycle Filling & Emptying Model

15 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 15 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Complete Engine Cycle Filling & Emptying Results Gas Exchange Diagram

16 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 1 16 Weibe combustion modelModel Generation Complete Engine Cycle Filling & Emptying Model Results Ambient Temp (°C)25 I/C Water Temp (°C)33 Power (kWb)500 Speed (r/min)1500 BMEP (bar)21 BSFC (g/kWh)199 BSAC (kg/kWh)6.56 Firing Pressure (bar)170 Boost Pressure Ratio3.05 Compressor Exit Temp (°C)171 Air Manifold Temp (°C)48 Compressor Eff. (%)76 Turbocharger Eff. (%)58.5 Surge Margin (%)26 Exh Mfold Temp Energy Mean (%)516 Turbine Inlet Temp (Estimated) (°C)575 Trapped A/F Ratio25.5:1 Compressor Raw Map Turbine Raw Map

17 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion 17 More info: SAE paper No

18 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 18 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion

19 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 19 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Start of Combustion Premixed combustion Temperature Distribution in Spray Zones

20 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 20 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Peak heat release rate Temperature Distribution in Spray Zones Combustion tale

21 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 21 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Fuel evaporation & Burn NOx & SOOT

22 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 2 22 Multi-zone spray Model for Diesel combustion Pressure & Temperature Normalized Fuel Injection, Evaporation, Burn and Heat release rate

23 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 3 Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine 23 The pilot fuel (DF)/Spark (SI) is considered as ignition initiator The heat released via diesel fuel is entered to model as Weibe function in DF engines The ignition delay is calculated from Arrhenius formula The air and natural gas mixture will be divided into two zones as soon as combustion starts The burned zone consists of reacting species and combustion products. It is assumed that all of species are in thermodynamic equilibrium

24 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 3 Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine 24 O O2O2 N2N2 OH H2OH2O H CO CO 2 H2H2 Thermodynamic Equilibrium Heat Release The Burned Zone O2O2 OH H2OH2O H CO Chemical Kinetics Auto-ignition Knock The Unburned Zone CH 4 HO 2 CH 3 H2O2H2O2 CH 2 O CHO N2N2

25 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 3 Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine 25

26 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION -C ASE 3 Two-Zone knock model for SI and DF engine 26 Model Validation Continuous lines : Two-Zone model results Points : CAT Engine simulation results (SAE paper)

27 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 4 1D gas dynamic model 27 Significant error at high speeds Instability at low speeds and load Gas Dynamic modeling Filling & Emptying Modeling 1D CFD Complex program Better Results

28 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 4 1D gas dynamic model 28 Two-Step lax-Wendroff method Flow Limit Function

29 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 4 1D gas dynamic model 29

30 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 Turbocharger Matching 30

31 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 31

32 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 32

33 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation 33

34 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 34 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation

35 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 35 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation

36 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 36 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation

37 E NGINE C YCLE S IMULATION - C ASE 5 37 Turbocharger Matching/ Transient operation

38 O PTIMIZATION P ROCESS Design of ExperimentsRunning the Simulation Results Processed at Polynomial Surfaces Optimization via Genetic Algorithm 38 RSM Methodology

39 O PTIMIZATION M ODEL - RSM Mathematical and statistical technique for empirical model building The objective is to optimize a response changes in the input variables identifies the changes in the output response The RSM is used to design optimization is reducing the cost of expensive methods The Approximation model function is generally polynomial 39

40 O PTIMIZATION M ODEL - DOE An experiment is a series of tests or simulations, called runs The objective of DOE is the selection of the points where the response should be evaluated Optimal design of experiments are associated with the mathematical model of the process The choice of the design of experiments have an influence on the accuracy of the approximation 40

41 O PTIMIZATION M ODEL - DOE M ETHODS Box and DropperLatin HypercubeD-OptimumFull Factorial 41 Increase in Level of Accuracy Increase in Run time

42 O PTIMIZATION E XAMPLE 1 Injection timing VS Speed & fuel amount 42 Response Surfaces

43 O PTIMIZATION E XAMPLE 1 Injection timing VS Speed & fuel amount 43 Optimized Map

44 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION 44

45 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 1 Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger 45 Simple Model Inside HX Volume of Fluid Pressure drop across HX Effectiveness of HX Outside flow rate Outside temperatre

46 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 1 Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger 46 Extended Model Inside Flow Volume of Fluid Pressure drop across HX Flow rate Nu correlation Outside Flow Volume of Fluid Pressure drop across HX Flow rate Nu correlation Effectiveness type Wall Absorb Wall material spec Wall volume

47 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 1 Simple and Extended model of Heat exchanger 47

48 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 48 Engine Model Cooling Circuit Model Heat Rejection Heat transfer BCs

49 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 49 Transient Operation of the engine

50 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 50 Transient Operation of the engine

51 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 51 Transient Thermal Results- Coolant inside head drillings

52 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 52 Transient Thermal Results- Coolant inside Cylinder jackets

53 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 53 Transient Thermal Results- HTC Coolant to liner

54 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 54 Transient Thermal Results- average Liner wall temperature Coolant Side

55 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model 55 Transient Thermal Results- HTC Coolant to head

56 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 56 Transient Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder Gas temperature Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model To head To Liner- Top To Liner- Bottom

57 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 57 Transient Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model To head To Liner- Top To Liner- Bottom

58 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 58 Correlated Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model

59 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 59 Correlated Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model

60 C OOLING CIRCUIT SIMULATION -C ASE 2 60 Correlated Thermal Results- average In-Cylinder HTC Coupled Solution with Engine Cycle Simulation/ Transient/ Extended pump model

61 1D GENERAL F LOW A NALYSIS - UTILITY DESIGN Combined Heat & Power Generation 61

62 C ONTROL S YSTEM A NALYSIS -C ASE 1 Waste-gate Control 62

63 C ONTROL S YSTEM A NALYSIS -C ASE 2 Throttle Control 63

64 D RIVELINE (M AP B ASED ) SIMULATION 64

65 D RIVELINE (M AP B ASED ) SIMULATION 65

66 D RIVELINE (M AP B ASED ) SIMULATION - E XAMPLE UIC Performance test simulation 66

67 CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 3D Flow Through oil jet 67

68 CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 2D flow through gas throttle Valve 68

69 CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 2D flow through gas throttle Valve 69

70 CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 2D flow through gas throttle Valve 70

71 CFD- 3D GENERAL FLOW ANALYSIS 2D flow through gas throttle Valve 71

72 CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 72

73 CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 73

74 CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 74

75 CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 75

76 CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Flow through Modular Pulse Convertor Exhaust 76

77 CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Simulation of paddle wheel test 77

78 CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Simulation of paddle wheel test 78

79 CFD- 3D C OMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS Simulation of paddle wheel test 79

80 CFD- 3D C OMBUSTION AND E MISSION ANALYSIS DI Diesel combustion Analysis-Temperature distribution K ° CA 364° CA 374° CA


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