2Fighting for the Four Freedoms World War IIWhat to expect during this unitTo learn about the events leading up to World War IITo learn about World War IITo learn about the results of the warDBQ PracticePlenty of group workMaybe a surprise quiz or twoUnit Test
3My Idiosyncrasies and Teaching Method You will see the following a lot -- TTYN: Talk To Your Neighbor or in other words, an opportunity to incorporate cooperative learningDo Now’s: Every class period begins with some type of “Do Now” If I have given homework (usually reading), I will assess what was learned. If the class period revolves around an activity, the Do Now will set up what we are about to learn.Love Video’s!!! But, I generally will not show more than a few minutes at a clip. Too much to cover and learn!!! I try to hit the Big Stuff and the Cool Stuff!!!!Common Core: I believe all of lessons and activities align with the Common Core.Quizzes and Tests: You are on your own. I generally structure my exams after NYS Regents. In other words, a little bit of everything, which includes a major writing element. Unit exams generally take two days. The second day will feature the writing element. Quizzes – Always involves some type of literacy activity such as mini DBQ’s, short-answer response, thesis statements, etc….
4K-W-L World War II - TTYN What I Know about WWIIWhat I Want to Learn about WWIIWhat I Learned about WWII
5Warning The Road to War World War II 1930’s, U.S. preoccupied with the economic crisisFDR departs from traditional American foreign policy.1933, hoping to stimulate American trade, FDR exchanges ambassadors with the Soviet UnionThe Good Neighbor Policy, which repudiated the right to intervene militarily in the internal affairs of Latin America. i.e. repeal of the Platt AmendmentJapan becomes a Super Power. Japan is a Super Power!1931, Japan invades ManchuriaPan-Asianism1937, Japan moves further into China, which included Nanjing – resulting in the massacre of 300K Chinese (The Nanjing Massacre or the Rape of Nanjing)Warning
6The Road to War TTYN World War II After consolidating his rule in Germany, Adolf Hitler embarks on a campaign to dominate the entire continent.1936, In violation of the Versailles Treaty, Hitler rearms GermanySends troops into the Rhineland (area between Germany and France)France, Great Britain, and the United States do nothingTTYNIf you are Adolf Hitler and you managed to rearm your nation and send troops into the Rhineland what might you be thinking?Italian leader, Mussolini invades and conquers EthiopiaSpain leader, Francisco Franco proves victorious during the Spanish Civil War and establishes another Fascist governmentHitler annexes Austria and the Sudetenland and parts of Czechoslovakia – later Hitler takes the entire country.FDR’s Quarantine SpeechThe Policy of Appeasement
8Small Group Activity: DBQ World War IIThe Road to WarSmall Group Activity: DBQEach Group shall interpret and summarize each of the following two documents.Document 1“The High Contracting Parties solemnly declare in the names of their respective peoples that they condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another.”- The Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)Treaty between the United States and other Powers providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy. Signed at Paris, August 27, 1928; ratification advised by the Senate, January 16, 1929; ratified by the President, January 17, 1929; instruments of ratification deposited at Washington by the United States of America, Australia, Dominion of Canada, Czechoslovkia, Germany, Great Britain, India, Irish Free State, Italy, New Zealand, and Union of South Africa, March 2, 1929: By Poland, March 26, 1929; by Belgium, March ; by France, April 22, 1929; by Japan, July 24, 1929; proclaimed, July 24, 1929.The Kellogg-Briand Pact was an agreement to outlaw war signed on August 27, Sometimes called the Pact of Paris for the city in which it was signed, the pact was one of many international efforts to prevent another World War, but it had little effect in stopping the rising militarism of the 1930s or preventing World War II.
9Small Group Activity: DBQ World War IIThe Road to WarSmall Group Activity: DBQEach Group shall interpret and summarize each of the following two documents.Document 2“It is my determination to pursue a policy of peace. It is my determination to adopt every practicable measure to avoid involvement in war. It ought to be inconceivable that in this modern era, and in the face of experience, any nation could be so foolish and ruthless as to run the risk of plunging the whole world into war by invading and violating in contravention of solemn treaties, the territory of other nations that have done them no real harm and which are too weak to protect themselves adequately. Yet the peace of the world and the welfare and security of every nation, including our own, is today being threatened by that very thing.” FDR (Oct 5, 1937)
10The Road to War 1935 marked the beginning of the “Era of Neutrality” World War IIThe Road to War1935 marked the beginning of the “Era of Neutrality”Series of Neutrality Acts that banned travel on belligerents ships and the sale of arms to countries at warDespite the fact that the Spanish Civil War pitted a democratic government against an aspiring fascist dictator, Western democracies, including the U.S., imposed an arms embargo to both sides.War in EuropeDesperate to avoid war, and anxious to avoid an alliance with Stalin and the Soviet Union, Neville Chamberlain (GB) and Daladier (France) agreed that Germany could have the Sudetenland. In return, Hitler promised not to make any further territorial demands in Europe – The Appeasement Policy.
11Small Group Activity: Understanding FDR World War IIThe Road to WarNonaggression Pact signed between Stalin and HitlerSept. 1, 1939, Hitler immediately invades Poland…then Scandinavia, Belgium, and the Netherlands.By June, 1940, Germany occupies ParisSept., 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan create a military alliance known as the AxisSmall Group Activity: Understanding FDRWorking in small groups, each group will summarize FDR’s impression of the Munich Agreement and the Policy of AppeasementAmericans did not want to become involved in another world war. And they called on President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and their representatives in Congress to remain neutral in world affairs.
12World War IIThe Road to WarGrowing tensions in Europe and Asia created a serious conflict for Americans during the 1930s. Most Americans opposed the Fascist or military leaders gaining control in Germany, Italy, Japan, and other countries. But they were not willing to take any firm action to stop this growing movement.In 1937, Roosevelt made an important speech calling for the world's neutral nations to protect themselves from lawless Fascist nations. But many Americans feared that Roosevelt was trying to create a new alliance. And they opposed his efforts. A public opinion survey at the time showed that less than one in three Americans was willing to change the nation's strong neutrality laws to give Roosevelt more freedom of action.
13Small Group Activity: Understanding FDR World War IIThe Road to War“There can be no peace if national policy adopts as a deliberate instrument the threat of war. There can be no peace if national policy adopts as a deliberate instrument the dispersion all over the world of millions of helpless and persecuted wanderers with no place to lay their heads. There can be no peace if humble men and women are not free to think their own thoughts, to express their own feelings, and to worship God. There can be no peace if economic resources that ought to be devoted to social and economic reconstruction are to be diverted to an intensified competition in armaments.“ –FDR (Oct. 26, 1938)Small Group Activity: Understanding FDRWorking in small groups, each group will summarize FDR’s impression of the Munich Agreement and the Policy of Appeasement
14The Road to War Great Britain stands Alone World War IIThe Road to WarGreat Britain stands Alone, The Battle of BritainChurchill calls for the “new world, with all its power and might” to step forward to rescue the old.Americans remained desperate to remain out of the conflict1940, Congress authorizes the sale of arms to Great Britain on a “cash and carry” basis.
15The Road to War TTYN TTYN World War IIThe Road to WarTTYNYour neighbor’s house is on fire. The nearest fire station is twenty miles away and you own the only hose on the street. Do you loan your neighbor your hose (and yes, you like your neighbor)?TTYNEurope just called. Allegedly there is lunatic with a “Charlie Chapin” mustache running wild throughout Europe and they need your help if they are to survive. What should the United States do?Great Britain is nearly bankrupt, it could no longer pay for suppliesAt Roosevelt’s urging, Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act.U.S. sends arms to G.B., China, and the Soviet UnionFDR froze Japanese assets in the U.S., including the sale of oil to Japan
16“A Date That Will Live In Infamy” C.S.I.“A Date That Will Live In Infamy”***Primary Resources located at end of presentation
17“A Date That Will Live in Infamy” CASE FILEDecember 7, 1941, the Japanese shocked the world by bombing the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and launched the United States into WWII“A Date That Will Live in Infamy”CLASSIFIED
18Activity Directions Work Cooperatively Read each document thoroughly Use your Think MarksComplete handout - “Detective Log”Complete handout - “Questions to Consider”Individually, complete a one-page summaryHave Fun!!!
19Detective Log See Handout Document A Document B Who authored the document?When was the document authored?What type of document?Who was the audience for the document? Why was it created?Who was the aggressor in the incident according to the document?Document ADocument BSee Handout
23Document D September 6th, 1941 6th Imperial Conference of Empire of JapanTopic: Imperial Policy Execution Outline
24Verbal Directive of the Chief of the Naval General Staff Document EVerbal Directive of the Chief of the Naval General Staff2 December 1941 Verbal Directive to: Yamamoto, Commander-in-Chief, Combined Fleet (in Tokyo at the time)
25Document FDecember 6, 1941From: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United StateTo: Emperor Hirohito of Japan
26Questions to ConsiderWhat questions did you ask while evaluating these sources?On what points do the accounts agree?On what points do the accounts differ?Which of these sources aligns most closely with what you already knew about the attack on Pearl Harbor? Please explain?Which of these sources is most reliable in determining what actions of the United States and Japan? Why do you think so?Describe the difficulties in developing an accurate account of historical events such as the attack on Pearl Harbor?If you were asked to write your own historical account of the events during the events leading up the attack of Pearl Harbor, how would you go about doing so?
27Cracking the CaseBased on your analysis of the documents and citing evidence to support your answer, please write a one-page summary, which answers the following questions: Was every step taken by both the United States and Japan to avoid war? Were Japan’s justified? Did the United States back Japan into a corner?
28World War IIThe War“Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan”-FDR
29World War IIThe WarUntil November 1941, attention focused on Europe, but near the end of the month, intercepted Japanese messages revealed that an assault in the Pacific was imminent. No one, however, knew when or where.A Complete and Devastating Surprise!On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes, launched off aircraft carriers, bombed the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.Over 2,000 Dead18 naval vessels and 187 aircraft either destroyed or damagedNo aircraft carriers docked at the time – this would prove to be a decisive factor throughout the war in the PacificIn response, the United States declared war on Japan. Following Germany's declaration of war on the United States, the United States also declared war on Germany.
32World War IIThe War“A Date Which Will Live in Infamy”
33World War IIThe War“A date which will live in infamy”
34World War IIThe WarEconomic Warfare: How the United States Economic Policy Led to WarSept. 1941, after Japan’s invasion of French Indochina, the U.S. placed an embargo on Japan by prohibiting exports of steel, iron, and aviation fuelApril 1941, Japan signs a neutrality treaty with the Soviet Union.April 1941, two days after the treaty, U.S., G.B., and the Netherlerlands freeze Japans assets, which would limit Japan’s ability to purchase oil.
35World War IIThe WarEconomic Warfare: How the United States Economic Policy Led to War In October 1931, the Japanese military was asked to devise a war plan. They proposed to sweep into Burma, Malaya, the East Indies, and the Philippines, in addition to establishing a defensive perimeter in the central and southwest Pacific.Japan expected the U.S. to declare war but not to be willing to fight long or hard enough to win.Japan’s greatest concern was that the U.S. Pacific Fleet, based in Pearl Harbor could foil their plans.December 7, 1941 as insurance, the Japanese navy undertook to cripple the Pacific Fleet by a surprise air attack.
36A Date That Will Live In Infamy World War IIThe WarA Date That Will Live In Infamy“Yesterday, December 7, a date which will live in infamy -- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.The United States was at peace with that Nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its Government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American Island of Oahu, the Japanese Ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. And while this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or of armed attack.It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese Government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace…...” ”...I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.”
37The War TTYN World War II During this exercise you assume the role as a member of CongressBackground…For a long time, both the Senate and the House of Representatives were divided over the war issue. There was much resistance to involvement in Europe, because the destruction of World War I still lingered in your minds. Until now, the United States had only been helping Great Britain and France indirectly. After learning of the attack on Pearl Harbor, you are sitting in a special joint session of Congress listening to President Roosevelt. Later in the day, you will vote on a Declaration of War with Japan. Until now, you were against any involvement in war. You know that because of the Axis alliance, declaring war on Japan means war with Germany and Italy.Working with your neighbor, answer the following questions -1. Does President Roosevelt's speech change your mind about involvement in the war?2. What is your primary concern at this point?3. You voted against the Japanese economic embargoes in the 1930s. Has your opinion of Japan changed?4. As an isolationist before December 7, how has this event changed your world outlook?5. How will your home district be affected by a declaration of war?6. Will you take any measures to protect your constituents from discrimination? (Remember this is )
41The War “Battle of Midway” World War II After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan achieved a long series of military successes in the Pacific.Guam and Wake Island fell to the Japanese, as did the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore, and Burma.The turning point in the Pacific War came with the American naval victory in the Battle of Midway in June 1942.“Battle of Midway”The four day battle in the Pacific (June 4-7, 1942), known as the Battle of Midway, changed the course of the war in the Pacific. The Japanese lost the four large carriers that had attacked Pearl Harbor, while the Americans only lost one carrier. More importantly, the Japanese lost over one hundred trained pilots, who could not be replaced. The balance of sea power in the Pacific shifted from the Japan to an equity between America and Japan. Soon after the Battle of Midway the U.S. and their allies would take the offensive in the Pacific.
42FDR’s State of the Union Speech, Jan., 1941 Do Now: TTYNWhat steps led to American intervention in WWII?World War II“In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms.The first is freedom of speech and expression— everywhere in the world.The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—everywhere in the world.The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world.The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor— anywhere in the world.”FDR’s State of the Union Speech, Jan., 1941
43The War TTYN World War II Describe how previous conflicts such as the Mexican War and WWI had divided American societyIn contrast, WWII came to be remembered as the Good War, a time of national unity in pursuit of indisputably noble goals. In time of war, mobilization of patriotic opinion is critical. The motto or catchphrase that the American society was sold freedom.For FDR, the four freedoms expressed deeply help American values.Freedom from fear meant not only a longing for peace but a more general desire fore security.Freedom of speech and worship moved the First Amendment to the center of American’ definition of libertyFor many, freedom of want was associated with an economic goal, which protected the futture by guaranteeing the Depression would not resume after the war.
44The WarWorld War IISmall Group Activity“Operation Overlord”
47The War The War In Europe “Operation Overlord” World War IIThe WarThe War In EuropeThe major involvement of American troops in Europe did not commence until June 6, Prior to that, American troops more American troops were deployed in the Pacific.After gaining the upper hand in Africa and the Atlantic, American troops shifted their attention towards the conflict in Europe, and they did it in a big way!“Operation Overlord”D-Day - June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 62-mile stretch of heavily- fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing less than full victory.”More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day’s end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.The D-Day cost was high -more than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded -- but more than 100,000 Soldiers began the march across Europe to Berlin.More than a million troops followed them ashore over the next few weeks.
51U. S. Military Cemetery at Omaha Beach World War IIThe WarU. S. Military Cemetery at Omaha Beach
52World War IIThe WarThe Home FrontWWII transformed the role of the national government. FDR created several federal agencies designed to aid the war effort.The number of federal workers rose from 1M to 4M.Unemployment dropped from 14% in 1940 to 2% in 1943The government built housing for war workers and forced civilian industries to retool for war production, For example, auto factories were now in the business of producing trucks, tanks, and jeeps for the army
53World War IIThe WarThe Home FrontBy 1944, American factories produced a ship every day and a plane every five minutesThe GNP rose from 91B to 214BGovernment now withheld income taxes directly from paychecks.Prior to the war, only the 4M wealthiest Americans paid income taxes; by 1945, over 40M paid taxes. In other words, America went from “class taxation” to “mass taxation.”
54The War The Home Front Small Group Activity World War IIThe WarThe Home FrontSmall Group ActivityWorking cooperatively, examine the following images and answer the following questions in summary format and provide evidence (reference images):How did daily life in America change? And why?How did the role of women change?What can be assumed was the general attitude regarding the war? How was different from prior to the start of the war? Why do you think it changed?
67The War TTYN The Home Front World War II During the war the nation engaged in an unprecedented mobilization of “womanpower” to fill industrial jobs vacated by men.In a radical change from previous years, women were encouraged to go to work; to become independent women.With 15M men in the armed forces, women in 1944 made up over one-third of the civilian labor force, and 35K served in auxiliary military units.Women forced unions like the UAW to confront issues like equal pay for equal work.Although many women saw the war as re-birth of women’s rights, many employers and unions viewed the women’s role as a temporary necessity, not an expansion of women’s freedom.One union even declare, “There should be a law requiring the women who have taken over men’s job to be laid off after the war. In fact, after the war, many women, especially those in better paying jobs, did lose their jobs.TTYNDescribe your impression of the “American way of life”
69The Color of War World War II The war had a far more ambiguous meaning for non-white groups than for whites. Racial barriers remained deeply entrenched in American life.Southern blacks were still a product of a rigid system of segregationAsians could not emigrate to the U.S. or become naturalized citizens.Mexicans had been voluntarily repatriated within the Southwest during the depressionNative Americans still lived in poverty and on reservations.The war set in motion changes that would reverberate in the postwar years.How things changed….The Bracero program was an agreement between the U.S. and Mexican governments that permitted Mexican citizens to take temporary agricultural work in the United States.Under the agreement, Mexicans (Braceros) were suppose to receive:Receive decent housing and wagesHowever, because Braceros could not become citizens and could be deported at any time, they found it impossible to form unions or secure better working conditions.
70The Color of War World War II Essential Question: The war resulted in a need of additional labor. In complete sentences, please describe why a nation still suffering the effects of an economic crisis now has a need for additional labor.Asian-Americans’ war experience was paradoxical.More than 50K children of immigrants from China, Korea, and the Philippines fought in the war.The Japanese-American experience was much differentEssential Question:Please explain why many Americans viewed the war against Germany differently than they viewed the war against Japan.For many Americans, the war against Germany was an ideological struggle; however, both sides (Japan and the U.S.) viewed the Pacific war as a race war. Further, Japanese propaganda depicted Americans as self-indulgent people contaminated by ethnic and racial diversity opposed to the “pure” Japanese. In the U.S., long-standing prejudices and the shock of Pearl Harbor produced unprecedented hatred of Japan.
71The Color of War DBQ Time World War II In complete sentence, please describe the following primary source…
72The Color of War World War II The military persuaded FDR to issue Executive Order which ordered the expulsion of all persons of Japanese descent from the West Coast. Consequently, over 110K men, women, and children were moved to internment camps.Essential Question:Describe what internments camps reveal about basic freedomsInternment camps reveal how easily war could undermine basic freedoms. There were no court hearings, no due process, and no writs of habeas corpus. Further, even the courts refused to intervene. In 1944, in Korematsu v. United States, the Supreme Court denied appeal of Fred Korematsu.The court ruled that applying an order to persons of Japanese descent was not based on race. The court has never ruled against Korematsu.After a long campaign for acknowledgment of the injustice done to Japanese-Americans, in 1988, Congress apologized and provided $20K to each surviving victim.Fred Korematsu and President ClintonMedal of Freedom Ceremony
74The Color of War World War II “There never has been, there isn’t now, and there will never be, any race of people on the earth fit to serve as masers over their fellow men”-FDRThe war and subsequent need for workers in the industrial heartland led to an exodus of African-Americans from the rural South. Unfortunately, the arrival of African-Americans in cities like Detroit was not always welcomed with open arms, rather, hostility grew and so did resulting riots.When the war began, the air force and marines had no African-Americans.Restricted the number of enlistees.Navy only accepted African-Americans as waiters and cooks.Served in segregated units.The end result - the war years witnessed the birth of the modern civil rights movement. Further, FDR issued Executive Order 8802, which banned discrimination in defense jobs and established a Fair Employment Practices commission to monitor compliance. For many African-Americans, the move was hailed as a new Emancipation Proclamation.
75The Color of War Paved the Way: “American Heroes” Tuskegee Airmen World War IIPaved the Way: “American Heroes”Tuskegee AirmenDoris “Dorie” Miller
76DBQ Time Activity: Homefront DBQ World War II Task: Using the provided primary source documents, students will individually construct a well-organized thesis statement.Complete a well-organized outline for the body of the essayHighlighting at least four documents that would be featured in an essayHistorical Context: American life changed significantly from the end of the Great Depression to the beginning of the Cold War. The experiences of Americans, including social, economic, and political changes were a result of American involvement in World War II. Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of United States history, write a well-organized thesis statement in which you indentify and discuss one social, one economic, and one political change in American society that occurred as a result of World War II. Include whether the changes were positive or negative.
81DBQ Time Doc. 5 World War II Document 5: Excerpt from Adam Jevec, "Semper Fidelis, Code Talkers," Prologue (Winter 2001) 33:4:It is estimated that between 375 and 420 Navajos served as code talkers. The program was highly classified throughout the war and remained so until Though they returned home on buses without parades or fanfare and were sworn to secrecy about the existence of the code, the Navajo code talkers are now making their way into popular culture and mainstream American history. The "Honoring the Code Talkers Act," introduced by Senator Jeff Bingaman from New Mexico in April 2000 and signed into law December 21, 2000, called for recognition of the Navajo code talkers. The act authorized the President of the United States to award a gold medal, on behalf of the Congress, to each of the original twenty-nine Navajo code talkers as well as a silver medal to each man who later qualified as a code talker.
82Bouril Auto girl mechanics, Manitowoc County Wisconsin DBQ TimeWorld War IIDoc. 6Bouril Auto girl mechanics, Manitowoc County Wisconsin
83DBQ Time Doc. 7 World War II Document 7: Excerpt from “Tending the Homefront: The Many Roles of Bay Area Women During World War IIMothers and children were frequently used as symbols of what the war was being fought to protect, yet they bore the brunt of social upheaval on the home front. Bay Area schoolchildren were enthusiastically enlisted into wartime activities, such as collecting scrap and buying Victory Stamps, but they were also identified as particularly vulnerable victims of wartime social changes. Outcry over "eight-hour orphans" accompanied the remarkable development of Federal-local partnerships to provide daycare for the first time to large numbers of working women. Communities and businesses, like Richmond's Kaiser Shipyards, took advantage of Federal Lanham Act funding to develop groundbreaking childcare programs.
84Duration: 1.5 Class Periods Small Group ActivityTopic: The Atomic BombDuration: 1.5 Class Periods
85The Atomic Bomb“Mr. President, within four months we shall in all probability have completed the most terrible weapon ever known in human history.“Henry L. Stimson, wartime Secretary of WarApril, 1945
86Today’s Agenda To Learn About the Historical Impact of the Atomic Bomb Complete a “Do Now”Examine Several Primary SourcesComplete a “Cause and Effect” OrganizerA little Group WorkExit Pass
87Do Now:~ Please describe at least one negative aspect or consequence of war
92Why did the U.S. use the Atomic Bomb? TTYN(Talk to your Neighbor)Causes:Why did the U.S. use the Atomic Bomb?Refer to your “Cause and Effect” handout“A day that will live in infamy”Over 400,000 American GI’s Dead
97Big-Group DiscussionThe Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Dropping the BombRefer to your handout“I saw the atom bomb. I was four then. I remember the cicadas chirping. The atom bomb was the last thing that happened in the war and no more bad things have happened since then, but I don't have my Mummy any more. So even if it isn't bad any more, I'm not happy.” Kayano Nagai, survivor
98Cause and Effect of Dropping the Bomb Short-Term Effects
99Cause and Effect of Dropping the Bomb Long-Term Effects
100ClosureExit Pass:~ Considering the short-term and long-term impact of the Bomb, did dropping the Bomb make the idea of global war unthinkable? Please explain.
104Leaflets Dropped on Japan ATTENTION JAPANESE PEOPLE. EVACUATE YOUR CITIES.Because your military leaders have rejected the thirteen part surrender declaration, two momentous events have occurred in the last few days.The Soviet Union, because of this rejection on the part of the military has notified your Ambassador Sato that it has declared war on your nation. Thus, all powerful countries of the world are now at war with you.Also, because of your leaders' refusal to accept the surrender declaration that would enable Japan to honorably end this useless war, we have employed our atomic bomb.A single one of our newly developed atomic bombs is actually the equivalent in explosive power to what 2000 of our giant B-29s could have carried on a single mission. Radio Tokyo has told you that with the first use of this weapon of total destruction, Hiroshima was virtually destroyed.Before we use this bomb again and again to destroy every resource of the military by which they are prolonging this useless war, petition the emperor now to end the war. Our president has outlined for you the thirteen consequences of an honorable surrender. We urge that you accept these consequences and begin the work of building a new, better, and peace-loving Japan.Act at once or we shall resolutely employ this bomb and all our other superior weapons to promptly and forcefully end the war.EVACUATE YOUR CITIES.Leaflets Dropped on Japan
105LESSON TITLE: The Atomic Bomb STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:Students will be able to Describe the reasons why did the United States used the Atomic Bomb during WW IIStudents will be able to Articulate the short and long term impacts of the decision to use the Atomic BombStudents will be able to Describe how technology changed warfare and precipitated the end of WW IIMATERIALS:Do-now question, Cause and Effect Worksheet, PowerPoint, exit slipWARM-UP:Do Now:Describe at least one negative aspect or consequence of warLESSON/ACTIVITYSmall Group ActivityWorking in pairs, have students complete the “cause” section of the “Cause and Effect” worksheet.Student Question: Why did the United States drop the atomic bomb on Japan?Review answers as a classBig-Group DiscussionStudents will work cooperatively in order to identify the short- term and long-term effects of dropping the Atomic BombAssessment – Exit slip
106BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LESSON/ACTIVITY: Begin class with an anticipatory set to encourage students to call upon their prior knowledge regarding the consequences of war. Following the anticipatory set, engage the students with a PowerPoint presentation designed to compliment the lesson. Following pre-arranged ques. imbedded within the presentation, students will first work in pairs answering the question “Why did the U.S. drop the Atomic Bomb?” Next, students and teacher will discuss their answers in a whole-group setting. Again, utilizing the PowerPoint as a learning tool and working in a whole-group setting, the students and students will work cooperatively to answer the following questions: “What are the short-term and long-term effects of the United States deploying the Atomic Bomb. Finally, in an effort to measure student assessment and to encourage critical thinking, the students will complete an Exit Slip. Students will be asked to answer the following question: “Considering the short-term and long-term impact of the Bomb, did dropping the Bomb make the idea of global war unthinkable?” If time permits, the PowerPoint presentation includes several Political Cartoons from Dr. Seuss that address the feelings of animosity that the United States had for Germany and Japan.
107The War The Manhattan Project: The Most Terrible Weapon World War IIThe WarThe Manhattan Project: The Most Terrible WeaponHaving fled to the United States from Hitler’s Germany, Albert Einstein in 1939 warned FDR that Nazi scientists were attempting to develp an atomic weapon and urged the president to do likewise. In 1940, FDR authorized what came to be known as the Manhattan Project, a top-secret program, in which an atomic bomb would be developed during WWII.Unfortunately, after winning his fourth term in 1944, FDR succumbed to a stroke and the most important decision of the war fell on Harry S Truman.
108The War Timeline: The Manhattan Project: The Most Terrible Weapon World War IIThe WarThe Manhattan Project: The Most Terrible WeaponContinued…..As Secretary of War Stimson pointed out to Truman, who had no knowledge that the weapon existed, we have “the most terrible weapon ever known in human history.”Timeline:August 6, 1945 – The United States dropped an atomic bomb over Hiroshima, JapanAugust 9, 1945 – The United States detonated a second bomb over Nagasaki, JapanAugust 9, 1945 – The Soviet Union declares war on Japan, invades Manchuria; within a week, Japan surrendered.
114World War IIThe WarJust the FactsThe crucial fighting in Europe took place on the eastern frontOver 3 million German soldiers took part in the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941The Battle of Stalingrad proved to be a catastrophic mistake by the Germans – bolstered by an influx of military supplies from the U.S., the Russians surrounded the German troops and forced them to surrender. During this battle, some 800K Germans and 1.2M Russians died.The battle marked the turning point of the war in Europe.Of the 13.6M German casualties in WWII, 10M came on the Russian front.20M Russians perishedBy 1945, 6M Jews dies in Nazi death camps50-60M perished during the war400,000 US Soldiers perished during the war
115Memorable Events From The War World War II“The Bataan Death March”On April 9, 1942, American and Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula on West Luzon Island in the Philippines decided that they would not survive much longer in their fight against the Japanese. They were low on food, ammunition, and morale, and men were dying from lack of nourishment more than enemy fire. In the afternoon of the 9th, they turned themselves over to the Japanese by raising white flags, T-shirts, and whatever other white articles they had to let them know they were finished with fightingFor six days and sixty miles, 78,000 prisoners (12,000 U.S. and 66,000 Filipino) began marching up the east coast of Bataan as POW’sThe men, already desperately weakened by hunger and disease, suffered unspeakably during the March. Regardless of their condition, POWs who could not continue or keep up with the pace were summarily executed. Even stopping to relieve oneself could bring death, so many chose to continue walking while relieving themselves.
116What the Allies found in the 3rd Reich Memorable Events From The WarWorld War IIWhat the Allies found in the 3rd Reich
117Memorable Events From The War World War II“V-E Day”May 8, 1945
118Memorable Events From The War World War II“V-J Day”Aug. 15, 1945
119Memorable Events From The War World War II“Yalta Conference”
120Memorable Events From The War World War II“Yalta Conference”Feb. 1945TTYN – Describe in complete sentences the essence of the conference“The Premier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States of America have consulted with each other in the common interests of the people of their countries and those of liberated Europe. They jointly declare their mutual agreement to concert during the temporary period of instability in liberated Europe the policies of their three Governments in assisting the peoples liberated from the domination of Nazi Germany and the peoples of the former Axis satellite states of Europe to solve by democratic means their pressing political and economic problems.”Confident the war was nearing a victorious conclusion, the “Big Three” agreed to meet in Yalta and map-out Europe’s future.Neither Britain nor the U.S. trusted StalinSoviets angered over the delay in the Allied invasion of France until 1944 thus leaving the Soviets to do the bulk of the fighting.Difficult to resist Stalin’s ideas of reshaping parts of Europe since they won the war on the eastern frontStalin reneges on a promise of “open and free” elections in PolandStalin believed that “whoever occupies a territory also imposes his own social system.”The creation of the United NationsSoviets agree to declare war on Japan before the end of the year
121Memorable Events From The War World War II“Battle of the Bulge”
122Memorable Events From The War World War II“Battle of the Bulge”“For every foot we lose a man”-FDRIn late 1944, in the wake of the allied forces' successful D-Day invasion of Normandy, it seemed as if the war was all but over. But on December 16, Hitler ordered a counteroffensive that was intended to cut through the Allied forces in a manner that would turn the tide of the war.Never again would Hitler be able to launch an offensive in the West on such a scale. Churchill is quotes as saying, "This is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever-famous American victory." Indeed, in terms of participation and losses, the battle of the Bulge is arguably the greatest battle in American military history.American: 500,000 to 840,000 infantry; 1,300 tanks and tank destroyers, 394 artillery guns German: 300,000 to 500,000 infantry; 1,800 tanks; 1,900 artillery gunsAmerican: 89,500 (19,000 killed, 47,500 wounded, 23,000 captured POWs or missing) German: 67,200 to 100,000 killed, wounded and prisoners of war/missing British: 1,400 (200 killed, 1,200 wounded or POWs/missing)
123Memorable Events From The War World War II“Battle of the Bulge”
124The firebombing of Japan and Germany Memorable Events From The WarWorld War IIThe firebombing of Japan and Germany
125The Firebombing of Dresden World War IIThe Firebombing of Dresden
126The firebombing of Japan and Germany Memorable Events From The WarWorld War IIThe firebombing of Japan and GermanyThe United States employed the use of incendiary warfare in WWII Hamburg in 1943 and followed by Dresden and Tokyo in 1945. The idea of “area bombing,” or “city killing,” was a new concept to warfare, with the aim of destroying large areas, indiscriminate of population/industry/etc. At least nominally, the cities were selected for their strategic attributes; revisionist theory has provided modern historians with myriad motivations and justifications. The fact remains, however, that these three cities were demolished during the War and their populations decimated, irrespective of alleged strategic importance.Some historians suggest that the U.S. use of “firebombing” was as tactic designed to show the Russians what they were capable of and more importantly, that the United States was not opposed to employing weapons of mass destruction.In the end, “firebombing” resulted in more loss of life than that of the two Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Moreover, General LeMay, who ordered the firebombing of Tokyo was quoted as saying “It is a good thing we won the war or I would have been tried as a war criminal for the bombing I ordered on Tokyo.”
127Memorable Events From The War World War II“Kamikaze”
128Memorable Events From The War World War II“Kamikaze”“Divine Wind”Kamikaze, was Japan's last attempt to balance the ever increasing technological and material advantage of the American forces advancing to Japan. The Kamikaze attack tactic was suggested on October 19, 1944, by vice-Admiral Onishi of the Japanese Navy, when he was assigned to command the air attacks against the huge American invasion fleet off the Philippines, and then realized that he had less than 100 operational aircraft for this task. There was no way to sink or even severely damage the American fleet in any conventional tactic, so the Admiral needed a force multiplier, a way to get a significantly greater striking power from a given force.