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Hi again, Today we have English Phonetics & Phonology, I hope it gets your pleasure….. yours, Abdou.

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Presentation on theme: "Hi again, Today we have English Phonetics & Phonology, I hope it gets your pleasure….. yours, Abdou."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Hi again, Today we have English Phonetics & Phonology, I hope it gets your pleasure….. yours, Abdou

3 HOW TO PRONOUNCE: the air flows out from the lungs through the vocal track and vibrates the vocal cords. Phonetics :is the general study of the characteristic of human speech sounds. Phonology : studies the characteristic of human speech sounds of one particular language.

4 The differences between vowels & consonant:- Vowels: sounds produced with the obstruction of the air in the vocal track. Consonants: : sounds produced without the obstruction of the air in the vocal track VOWELS & COSONANTS: English has 44 sounds. Divided into two types : a. Consonant sounds: voiced & voiceless. b. Vowel sounds : pure vowels & diphthongs. The differences between voiced & voiceless consonants:- *Voiced consonants produced with the vibration of the vocal cords. * Voiceless consonants produced without the vibration of the vocal cords, but the breath flows out from the mouth.

5 Sounds(44) Consonants (24) Voiced(15) /b/ /d/ /g/ / ð/ /v/ /z/ /d /3/ /r/ /j/ /w/ /ŋ/ /n/ /m/ /l/ Voiceless(9) 3/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /Ө/ /f/ /s/ /t/ // /h/ Vowels (20) Pure vowels(12) Short(7) /i/ /D/ /u/ /æ/ /ə/ / Λ/ /e/ Long(5) /i:/ / / /u:/ /a:/ /3:/ Diphthongs(8) Centerin {ends with /ə/} /iə/ /eə/ /uə/ Closing {ends with /u/, /i/} /ei/ / i/ /ai/ /əi/ /au/ c :c

6 HOW TO DESCRIBE THE CONSONANTS SOUNDS:- Consonants can be described according to : 1. VOICING :-whether voiced or voiceless. 2. THE MANNAR OF ARTICULATION :- a. Plosive : p, b, t, d, g. b. Fricative : f, v, Ө, ð, s, z,, З, h. c. Affricative: t, d З. d. Lateral: l. e. Nasal: m, n,. ŋ f. Approximant: w, r, j. 2. THE MANNAR OF ARTICULATION :- a. Plosive : p, b, t, d, g. b. Fricative : f, v, Ө, ð, s, z,, З, h. c. Affricative: t, d З. d. Lateral: l. e. Nasal: m, n,. ŋ f. Approximant: w, r, j.

7 3. THE PLACE OF ARTICULATION:- - Bilabial: p, b, w,m. - Labio-dental: f, v. - Dental: Ө, ð. - Alveolar: t, d, s, z, n, l. - Palato- alveolar:, З, t, dЗ, r. - Palatal: j. - Velar: k, g, ŋ. - Glottal: h. 3. THE PLACE OF ARTICULATION:- - Bilabial: p, b, w,m. - Labio-dental: f, v. - Dental: Ө, ð. - Alveolar: t, d, s, z, n, l. - Palato- alveolar:, З, t, dЗ, r. - Palatal: j. - Velar: k, g, ŋ. - Glottal: h.

8 Table of English Consonant Phonemes The Place of Articulation Front Back glottalvelarpalatalPalato- alveolar alveolar dentalLabio- detal Bilabi al K g t d P b plosive tdЗtdЗ affricative h З szsz Ө ð f v fricative ŋ nm nasal l lateral jrw approximant Manner of Articulation

9 Vowels can be described according to: 1. SHAPE OF LIPS:- rounded, unrounded. 2. SHORT OR LONG 3. POSITION : u:u: u 3: ə i Λ e i: æ D a: :c

10 /i:/ long close high front unrounded. /i/ short close high front unrounded. /u:/ long close high back rounded. /u/ short close high back rounded. /e/. short mid front unrounded. /æ/ short open low front unrounded. /ə/ short mid centering unrounded. /a:/ long open low back unrounded. /D/ short open low back rounded. / / long mid back rounded. /3:/ long mid high centering unrounded. /Λ/ short mid low centering unrounded. VOWELS DESCRIPTOIN :c

11 HOW TO DESCRIBE MIXED VOWELS:- First, what are mixed vowels? Mixed vowels are vowels composed of two or three pure vowels, vowels composed of two pure vowels called diphthongs and vowels composed of three pure vowels called tripthongs. What are trpithongs? trpithongs are closing diphthongs and /ə/ : /ei/+ /ə/ = /eiə/ as in player /pleiə/ / i/ + /ə/ = / i ə/ as in oil / iəl/ /ai// + /ə/ = /aiə/ as in fire /faiə/ /əu/ + /ə/ = /əuə/ as in slower /sləuə/ /au/ +/ə/ = /auə/ as in our /auə/ We can describe the diphthongs as the following : The tongue starts from the position of vowel / - / and it glides into the position of the vowel / - / in the mouth. e.g. / ai/ : the tongue starts from the position of vowel / - / and it glides into the position of the vowel / a/ in the mouth. tongue starts from the position of vowel / - / and it glides into the position of the vowel / i / in the mouth. cc c

12 Transcription I.P.A (International Phonetics association or alphabet ) Transcription: is a system of symbol in which each symbol stands for one and only one symbol. There are two types of transcription: a. Narrow Transcription: transcription with so many aspects of English pronunciation. It is put into two brackets. e.g. put [put] b. Board Transcription: transcription with less aspects of English pronunciation. It is put into two slant lines. e.g. put /put/ h

13 The Nature of Syllable Syllable: is a sound or group of sounds with a vowel.. Parts of Syllable Onset Centre Termination (coda) Onset: consonant sound(s) preceding the vowel sound in a syllable. Centre: is the vowel sound in a syllable. Termination (coda) : consonant sound(s) following the vowel sound in a syllable. e.g. anthropology /æn Ө rə p D lə d З i/ The word above has five syllable, the first syllable /æn/ consists of the vowel /æ/ and coda /n/ and no onset, however the second / Ө rə/ consists of onset / Өr/ and the vowel /ə/ and no coda. We can know the number of syllable in a word by knowing the number of the vowel sounds in that word. Onset: consonant sound(s) preceding the vowel sound in a syllable. Centre: is the vowel sound in a syllable. Termination (coda) : consonant sound(s) following the vowel sound in a syllable. e.g. anthropology /æn Ө rə p D lə d З i/ The word above has five syllable, the first syllable /æn/ consists of the vowel /æ/ and coda /n/ and no onset, however the second / Ө rə/ consists of onset / Өr/ and the vowel /ə/ and no coda. We can know the number of syllable in a word by knowing the number of the vowel sounds in that word.

14 Notes: - The initial syllable may begins with vowel, but other syllables must begins with consonants. - If there are two neighboring consonants in a word : if there is a word begins with these consonants we cant separate them,but if three is not we should separate them: e.g. willingly wil-lin-gly {we cant put borderline between (g) and (l) because there is a word begins with (gl) glue} inside in-side { we must separate (n) from (s) because there is no word in English begins with (ns). -If we have two similar letters we should separate them: e.g. willing wil-ling Notes: - The initial syllable may begins with vowel, but other syllables must begins with consonants. - If there are two neighboring consonants in a word : if there is a word begins with these consonants we cant separate them,but if three is not we should separate them: e.g. willingly wil-lin-gly {we cant put borderline between (g) and (l) because there is a word begins with (gl) glue} inside in-side { we must separate (n) from (s) because there is no word in English begins with (ns). -If we have two similar letters we should separate them: e.g. willing wil-ling

15 The Nature of Stress Stress: is the power that we put on the syllable to make it longer and stronger, i.e. to make the syllable prominent distinguished. - One word syllables stressed. - Two word syllable, one of them is stressed. - Three word stressed, one of them stressed and others are weakened. - Four / five word syllables, two are stressed ; one is primary stressed and the other is secondary. * : words of four / five syllables, the primary and secondary stress are: the first syllable & the third. the second & the fourth. the third & the fifth. They must be separated by a weakened syllable. Note

16 There are four items decide the place of stress: 1. Grammar : lexical & functional word. 2. Word class. 3. Number of syllables. 4. Morphology : simple & complex. There are four items decide the place of stress: 1. Grammar : lexical & functional word. 2. Word class. 3. Number of syllables. 4. Morphology : simple & complex. STRESS PLACEMENT

17 Almost the functional words are weakened. But in four situation they are given stress : 1. If they are at the end of the sentence: e.g. It is 'you. 2. When they are contrasted : e.g. It is from 'him not to 'him.. 3. When they are emphasis : e.g. Its 'him who told me. 4. When they are cited or quoted: e.g. You never put 'and at the end of a sentence. Lexical & Functional Words

18 Word class & Number of syllable:- The word with syllable:- is stressed. Words with two syllables :- _ Verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, nouns : if the final syllable is having long vowel or diphthong or ends with more than one consonant, we get it stress. If its not check the syllable before. Words with three syllables :- _ Verb, adverb : start checking the final syllable, if it is having long vowel or diphthong or ends with more than one consonant, we get it stress. If its not check the syllable before. _ Nouns, adjective : start checking the first syllable, if it is having long vowel or diphthong or ends with more than one consonant, we get it stress. If its not check the next syllable.

19 Complex Words:- _ Some suffixes carry the stress: ese Ja pa'nese ain ee re fu 'gee eer {carry the stress} mou n tia 'neer ette ci ga 'rette eque picturesque _ Some suffixes dont effect in the stress of the original word. ish 'de vi lish ing co 'cer ning ful beau ti ful en {dont effect} 'spo ken age 'an cho rage able 'com for ta ble al re 'fu sal

20 _ Some suffixes dont carry the stress, but effect in the stress of the word, i.e. words end with these suffixes, the syllable preceded these suffixes carries the stress: eous ad van 'ta geous graph pho 'to graph ail pro 'ver bial ic cli 'ma tic (s/t )ion in for 'ma tion ion per 'fec tion ent pro 'mi nent ance im' por tance ive re 'fle xive _ Some words end with the suffixes below, count three syllable from the end of the word, the third is stressed (antipenttimate): ity ly y The stressed syllable is the syllable preceded the suffixes ** Prefixes never effect in the stress of the word at all.

21 Compound Word:- The general rule is the first element carry the stress. But sometimes the stress moves to the second element : _ If the first element is a number. e.g. four-'wheels. _ If the first element is adjective and the second ends with (ed). e.g. bad-'tempered. _ If the compound word is functioned as an adverb. e.g. South-'East. _ If the compound word is functioned as a verb. e.g. ill-'treat.

22 Word Class Pairs ( words similar in spelling, different in meaning) Noun _ verb : If its used as a noun, the first syllable given stress. If its used as a verb, the second syllable given stress. e.g. ' de sert (n.) de'sert (v.) Adjective _ Verb: If its used as an adjective, the first syllable given stress. If its used as a verb, the second syllable given stress. e.g. 'Per fect (adj.) per 'fect (v.)

23 The Aspects of Connected Speech (Fluency) is the pause that we put between certain sounds to distinguish between phrases in meaning. e.g. an aim /ən 'eim/ & a name /ə 'neim/ in writing we can distinguish between them but in fluent speech both of them have the same pronunciation we can distinguish between them by : a. the context. b. stress ( the position of the stress). c. Juncture (short stop). is insert certain sounds (r, j,w) between two words in the connected speech. /r/ : if a word ends with / iə, 3:, ə, :, uə / and followed by a word begins with vowel, we insert /r/ between these two words. e.g. India and Pakistan. / indiə(r) ənd ……/ /w/ : if a word ends with / əu, au, u:/ and followed by a word begins with vowel, we. insert /w/ between these two words. e.g. go on /gə(w)ən/, how is /hau(w)iz/, you are /ju;(w)a:/ is insert certain sounds (r, j,w) between two words in the connected speech. /r/ : if a word ends with / iə, 3:, ə, :, uə / and followed by a word begins with vowel, we insert /r/ between these two words. e.g. India and Pakistan. / indiə(r) ənd ……/ /w/ : if a word ends with / əu, au, u:/ and followed by a word begins with vowel, we. insert /w/ between these two words. e.g. go on /gə(w)ən/, how is /hau(w)iz/, you are /ju;(w)a:/ Linking Juncture c

24 /j/ : if a word ends with / ai, ei, :, i:/ and followed by a word begins with vowel, we insert /j/ between these two words. e.g. my aunt /mai(j)a:nt/ see ant /si:(j)ænt/ /j/ : if a word ends with / ai, ei, :, i:/ and followed by a word begins with vowel, we insert /j/ between these two words. e.g. my aunt /mai(j)a:nt/ see ant /si:(j)ænt/ is a disappearance of sound(s) as a result of a neighboring sound. Sometimes a whole syllable is elided. Elision of Vowels: a. In a sequence of unstressed syllables following by a stressed syllable: e.g. /ə/ is often elided as in : family /'fæm(ə)li/ factory /'fækt(ə)ri/ b. The weak vowels /ə/ and /i/ in unstressed syllables immediately preceding stressed ones may be elided in very rapid speech: e.g. police /p(ə)'li:s/ believe /b(i)'li:v/ c. Vowels across word boundaries also can be elided, specially when a final /ə/ is followed by a linking /r/ and a word begins with a vowel ; the final /ə/ is elided: is a disappearance of sound(s) as a result of a neighboring sound. Sometimes a whole syllable is elided. Elision of Vowels: a. In a sequence of unstressed syllables following by a stressed syllable: e.g. /ə/ is often elided as in : family /'fæm(ə)li/ factory /'fækt(ə)ri/ b. The weak vowels /ə/ and /i/ in unstressed syllables immediately preceding stressed ones may be elided in very rapid speech: e.g. police /p(ə)'li:s/ believe /b(i)'li:v/ c. Vowels across word boundaries also can be elided, specially when a final /ə/ is followed by a linking /r/ and a word begins with a vowel ; the final /ə/ is elided: Elision

25 e.g. matter of fact /mæt(ə)rəv fækt/ *. Established (or fixed) elision of vowels is also possible specially in a sequence of unstressed syllables following a stress syllable: e.g. history /'histri/ Elision of Consonants:- Elision of consonant often takes place in the language to reduce consonant clusters and make speech easier. a. /t/ and /d/ are often elided in a sequence of voiceless continuant + /t/ or voiced Continuant + /d/ followed by a word beginning with a consonant as in : e.g. next day /neks(t) dei/ fast bus /fa:s(t) b Λ s/ Note:- all consonants other than plosives and affricatives are continuants. b. /t/ and /d/ are also elided in a sequence of voiceless stop + /t/ or voiced stop + /d/ when followed by a word beginning with a consonant. e.g. helped me / help(t) mi:/ begged one /beg(d) w Λ n/ c. In the sequence of /---skt/,/k/ rather than /t/ is often elided as in: / ֽ risked prison /ris(k)t prizn e.g. matter of fact /mæt(ə)rəv fækt/ *. Established (or fixed) elision of vowels is also possible specially in a sequence of unstressed syllables following a stress syllable: e.g. history /'histri/ Elision of Consonants:- Elision of consonant often takes place in the language to reduce consonant clusters and make speech easier. a. /t/ and /d/ are often elided in a sequence of voiceless continuant + /t/ or voiced Continuant + /d/ followed by a word beginning with a consonant as in : e.g. next day /neks(t) dei/ fast bus /fa:s(t) b Λ s/ Note:- all consonants other than plosives and affricatives are continuants. b. /t/ and /d/ are also elided in a sequence of voiceless stop + /t/ or voiced stop + /d/ when followed by a word beginning with a consonant. e.g. helped me / help(t) mi:/ begged one /beg(d) w Λ n/ c. In the sequence of /---skt/,/k/ rather than /t/ is often elided as in: / ֽ risked prison /ris(k)t prizn

26 d. /t/ and /d/ are normally elided, except in careful speech as in: mostly /məus(t)li/ exactly //igzæk(t)li/ friendship /fren(d)ip/ hand bag /hæn(d) bæg/ e. /l/ is often elided when preceded by / / as in: already / (l)redi/ * Elision of /l/ is established (historical) in the following words: walk /w k/ talk /t k/ f. /Ө/ is sometimes omitted as in: months /m Λ n(Ө)s/ cloths /kl D (Ө)s/ g. Historical elision as in : write /rait/, listen /lisən /, castle /ka:səl/, know /nəu/ d. /t/ and /d/ are normally elided, except in careful speech as in: mostly /məus(t)li/ exactly //igzæk(t)li/ friendship /fren(d)ip/ hand bag /hæn(d) bæg/ e. /l/ is often elided when preceded by / / as in: already / (l)redi/ * Elision of /l/ is established (historical) in the following words: walk /w k/ talk /t k/ f. /Ө/ is sometimes omitted as in: months /m Λ n(Ө)s/ cloths /kl D (Ө)s/ g. Historical elision as in : write /rait/, listen /lisən /, castle /ka:səl/, know /nəu/ :c

27 is the process by which a certain phoneme changes due to the influence of another neighboring phoneme. Assimilation can be classified into three types: 1. Assimilation in place of articulation:- a. If a word ends with /t/, and the following word begins with /p, b, m/, /t/ becomes /p/ : e.g. right place /raip pleis/ white bird /waip b 3 :d / not me / n D p mi:/ b. If a word ends with /d/, and the following word begins with /p, b, m/, /d/ becomes /b/ : e.g. hard bath /ha:b pa:Ө/ good boy /gub b i good morning /gub m :niŋ/ c. If a word ends with /n/, and the following word begins with /p, b, m/, /n/ becomes /m/ : e.g. gone past /g D m pa:st/ gone back / g D m bæk/ ten men /tem men/ is the process by which a certain phoneme changes due to the influence of another neighboring phoneme. Assimilation can be classified into three types: 1. Assimilation in place of articulation:- a. If a word ends with /t/, and the following word begins with /p, b, m/, /t/ becomes /p/ : e.g. right place /raip pleis/ white bird /waip b 3 :d / not me / n D p mi:/ b. If a word ends with /d/, and the following word begins with /p, b, m/, /d/ becomes /b/ : e.g. hard bath /ha:b pa:Ө/ good boy /gub b i good morning /gub m :niŋ/ c. If a word ends with /n/, and the following word begins with /p, b, m/, /n/ becomes /m/ : e.g. gone past /g D m pa:st/ gone back / g D m bæk/ ten men /tem men/ Assimilation c c

28 d. If a word ends with /t/, and the following word begins with /g, k /, /t/ becomes /k/ : e.g. that girl /ðæk g 3 :l/ white coat /waik kəut/ e. If a word ends with /d/, and the following word begins with /g,k /, /d/ becomes /g/ : e.g red gate /reg geit/ bad cold / bæg kəuld/ f. If a word ends with /n/, and the following word begins with /g, k/, /n/ becomes /ŋ/ : e.g. one cup /w Λ ŋ k Λ p/ main gate /meiŋ geit/ g. If a word ends with /s/, and the following word begins with /, j/, /s/ becomes // : e.g. nice shoes /nai u:z/ this year /ði jiə/ h. If a word ends with /z/, and the following word begins with /g, k/, /z/ becomes / З / : e.g. those shops /ðəu D ps/ wheres yours /weə j : z/ d. If a word ends with /t/, and the following word begins with /g, k /, /t/ becomes /k/ : e.g. that girl /ðæk g 3 :l/ white coat /waik kəut/ e. If a word ends with /d/, and the following word begins with /g,k /, /d/ becomes /g/ : e.g red gate /reg geit/ bad cold / bæg kəuld/ f. If a word ends with /n/, and the following word begins with /g, k/, /n/ becomes /ŋ/ : e.g. one cup /w Λ ŋ k Λ p/ main gate /meiŋ geit/ g. If a word ends with /s/, and the following word begins with /, j/, /s/ becomes // : e.g. nice shoes /nai u:z/ this year /ði jiə/ h. If a word ends with /z/, and the following word begins with /g, k/, /z/ becomes / З / : e.g. those shops /ðəu D ps/ wheres yours /weə j : z/ 3 3 c

29 2. Assimilation in manner of articulation :- this type of assimilation is limited and not so common as the previous type e.g. good night / gun nait/ that side /ðæs said/ 3. Assimilation in voicing :- a. (e)d at the end of the word has three pronunciation according to the preceded phoneme : * (e)d pronounced as /d/ if preceded by voiced consonants except /d/: e.g. numbered /n Λ mb 3 d/: * (e)d pronounced as /t/ if preceded by voiceless consonants except /t/: e.g. talked /t :kt/ * (e)d pronounced as /id/ if preceded by /t/ or /d/ : e.g. added /ædid/ b. (e)s at the end of the word has three pronunciation according to the preceded phoneme : * (e)s pronounced as /z/ if preceded by voiced consonants except /z,,d /. * (e)s pronounced as /s/ if preceded by voiceless consonants except /s,, t/. * (e)s pronounced as /iz/ if preceded by voiced consonants except /z,,d,s,t, /. 2. Assimilation in manner of articulation :- this type of assimilation is limited and not so common as the previous type e.g. good night / gun nait/ that side /ðæs said/ 3. Assimilation in voicing :- a. (e)d at the end of the word has three pronunciation according to the preceded phoneme : * (e)d pronounced as /d/ if preceded by voiced consonants except /d/: e.g. numbered /n Λ mb 3 d/: * (e)d pronounced as /t/ if preceded by voiceless consonants except /t/: e.g. talked /t :kt/ * (e)d pronounced as /id/ if preceded by /t/ or /d/ : e.g. added /ædid/ b. (e)s at the end of the word has three pronunciation according to the preceded phoneme : * (e)s pronounced as /z/ if preceded by voiced consonants except /z,,d /. * (e)s pronounced as /s/ if preceded by voiceless consonants except /s,, t/. * (e)s pronounced as /iz/ if preceded by voiced consonants except /z,,d,s,t, /. c 33 33

30 is the rising or falling of the level of the voice. The Basic Feature of Intonation :- 1. Falling Tone :-the level of the voice goes down. [ ] 2. Rising Tone :- the level of the voice goes up. [ ]. 3. Falling_Rising Tone:- the level of the voice first goes down then rises up, [ ]. 4. Rising_Falling Tone :- the level of the voice first rises up then goes down, [ ]. 5. Level Tone :- the level of the voice stays doesnt go up or down, [___ ]. English is not much what you say. Its the way you say it. Language doesnt depend on saying words or sentences, but does depend on the way you say these words, the intonation gives a meaning to the words. The Uses :- 1. Falling tone used to indicate finality, confirmation, strong order, real gratitude, not saying any more …. is the rising or falling of the level of the voice. The Basic Feature of Intonation :- 1. Falling Tone :-the level of the voice goes down. [ ] 2. Rising Tone :- the level of the voice goes up. [ ]. 3. Falling_Rising Tone:- the level of the voice first goes down then rises up, [ ]. 4. Rising_Falling Tone :- the level of the voice first rises up then goes down, [ ]. 5. Level Tone :- the level of the voice stays doesnt go up or down, [___ ]. English is not much what you say. Its the way you say it. Language doesnt depend on saying words or sentences, but does depend on the way you say these words, the intonation gives a meaning to the words. The Uses :- 1. Falling tone used to indicate finality, confirmation, strong order, real gratitude, not saying any more …. Intonation

31 2. Rising tone used to express question, inviting to say more, continue, greeting ….. 3. Falling_rising tone used to indicate reservation, hesitation, not complete sentence… 4. Rising_falling tone used to express encourage, pleasure, strong feelings of approval or disapproval …. 5. Level tone used to express routine, no interest, pardon..,, *** 2. Rising tone used to express question, inviting to say more, continue, greeting ….. 3. Falling_rising tone used to indicate reservation, hesitation, not complete sentence… 4. Rising_falling tone used to express encourage, pleasure, strong feelings of approval or disapproval …. 5. Level tone used to express routine, no interest, pardon..,, ***

32 I hope you Pray for Us


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