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Organization of Life Chapter 2. ProkaryoticProkaryotic EukaryoticEukaryotic Two Types of Cells.

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Presentation on theme: "Organization of Life Chapter 2. ProkaryoticProkaryotic EukaryoticEukaryotic Two Types of Cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organization of Life Chapter 2

2 ProkaryoticProkaryotic EukaryoticEukaryotic Two Types of Cells

3 Prokaryotic Do not have structures surrounded by membranesDo not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structuresFew internal structures One-celled organisms, BacteriaOne-celled organisms, Bacteria

4 Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranesContain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organismsMost living organisms

5 Cellular Organization 1-Cell- basic unit of structure and function in living things.1-Cell- basic unit of structure and function in living things. 2-Tissue- group of cells that function together to carry out an activity.2-Tissue- group of cells that function together to carry out an activity.

6 3-Organ- group of two or more tissues that perform an activity together.3-Organ- group of two or more tissues that perform an activity together. 4-Organ system- group of organs that work together to perform a major life function4-Organ system- group of organs that work together to perform a major life function

7 . 5-Organism- an entire living thing that carries out all the basic life functions.5-Organism- an entire living thing that carries out all the basic life functions.

8 Organism Organ system Organ Tissue Cells

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10 The Discovery of the Cell

11 Robert Hooke discovered and named cells in 1665 when he examined thin slices of cork with a compound microscope he designed.Robert Hooke discovered and named cells in 1665 when he examined thin slices of cork with a compound microscope he designed.

12 Cells got their name because they reminded Hooke of the small, boxy living quarters of monks.Cells got their name because they reminded Hooke of the small, boxy living quarters of monks.

13 Perhaps inspired by Hooke, Anton van Leeuwenhoek took up microscopy and built more than 500 microscopes, grinding the lenses himself.Perhaps inspired by Hooke, Anton van Leeuwenhoek took up microscopy and built more than 500 microscopes, grinding the lenses himself.

14 This enabled him to discover and describe red blood cells and bacteria taken from scrapings off his teeth.This enabled him to discover and describe red blood cells and bacteria taken from scrapings off his teeth.

15 Schleiden and Schwann Schleiden used microscopes to observe plant cells.Schleiden used microscopes to observe plant cells. Schwann observed animal cells under microscopes.Schwann observed animal cells under microscopes. Schleiden and Schwann summarized their observations and conclusions into the cell theory.Schleiden and Schwann summarized their observations and conclusions into the cell theory.

16 Virchow Approximately 20 years later Virchow saw that cells could not develop from anything except other cells.

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18 The Cell Theory All living things are made of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. Living cells come only from other living cells

19 Cells The Basic Units of Life

20 Objectives

21 1. Identify major cell organelles given a diagram.1. Identify major cell organelles given a diagram. 2. Distinguish between plant and animal cells given a diagram of a plant.2. Distinguish between plant and animal cells given a diagram of a plant. 3. Identify the cell organelle in which photosynthesis occurs.3. Identify the cell organelle in which photosynthesis occurs.

22 Cell Wall Supports and protects plant cells.Supports and protects plant cells. Made of non- living cellulose.Made of non- living cellulose. Makes plants stiff.Makes plants stiff.

23 Cell Membrane Is found on the outside of the cell.Is found on the outside of the cell. Allows materials to pass into and out of the cell.Allows materials to pass into and out of the cell. Protects the cell and supports it.Protects the cell and supports it. Gate of the cell

24 The large oval structure.The large oval structure. Directs the activities of the cell like a brainDirects the activities of the cell like a brain Contains the nucleolus and chromosomes.Contains the nucleolus and chromosomes. Control center Nucleus

25 Nuclear Membrane Surrounds the nucleus and allows materials to pass into or out of the nucleus.Surrounds the nucleus and allows materials to pass into or out of the nucleus.

26 Chromosomes/Chromatin Thick, rodlike objects that direct the activities of the cell and passes on its traits to new cells.Thick, rodlike objects that direct the activities of the cell and passes on its traits to new cells.

27 Nucleolus The round nucleolus is located inside the nucleus.The round nucleolus is located inside the nucleus. It produces ribosomes and is responsible for making new and repairing cells.It produces ribosomes and is responsible for making new and repairing cells. Ribosome factory

28 Cytoplasm Clear, thick, jelly-like substance in the cell between the nucleus and the cell membrane.Clear, thick, jelly-like substance in the cell between the nucleus and the cell membrane.

29 Endoplasmic Reticulum Clear, tubular passageways that carry proteins from one part of the cell to another. It is the transportation system for the cell.Clear, tubular passageways that carry proteins from one part of the cell to another. It is the transportation system for the cell. Roadways

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31 Ribosomes Where amino acids are assembled into proteins.Where amino acids are assembled into proteins. Protein factory

32 Mitochondria Rod shaped structures that break down food and release energy. This energy will be used in the cells reactions.Rod shaped structures that break down food and release energy. This energy will be used in the cells reactions. Power plants

33 Vacuoles Plant cells have very large vacuolesPlant cells have very large vacuoles Stores water and other materialsStores water and other materials

34 Vacuoles/Animal Cells Round water- filled sacs that store food and water for the cell.Round water- filled sacs that store food and water for the cell. Storage units

35 Lysosomes Small, round structures that digest food and break down old cells.Small, round structures that digest food and break down old cells. Cleanup Crew

36 Golgi Apparatus flattened membrane sacs that package cell material and ship them to other organelles or out of the cell.flattened membrane sacs that package cell material and ship them to other organelles or out of the cell. Post Office

37 VESICLES Storage centers for the cellStorage centers for the cell

38 Chloroplasts Green, irregularly shaped structures that capture the energy of sunlight and produces food through the process of photosynthesis.Green, irregularly shaped structures that capture the energy of sunlight and produces food through the process of photosynthesis. Energy producers


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