Presentation on theme: "Amir Al-Mu mineen Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) From Birth to Martyrdom 600 – 661 CE In the Name of Allah, the Infinitely Compassionate, the Most Merciful."— Presentation transcript:
Amir Al-Mu mineen Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) From Birth to Martyrdom 600 – 661 CE In the Name of Allah, the Infinitely Compassionate, the Most Merciful.
Birth Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as) was born on Rajab 13, 23 BH (600 CE). His father was Abu Talib, the uncle, custodian, and main defender of the Prophet, and his mother was Fatima bint Asad. He was the only man that was born inside the Ka ba in Makkah.
Childhood As a young child, Imam Ali was taken into custody and care by his first cousin, Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). At the age of 10, Imam Ali became the first believer in Islam and a lifelong devoted follower of the Prophet.
Adolescence Imam Ali spent his days as a student of the Prophet, and his nights in prayer and supplication. He became well known for his knowledge, wisdom, bravery, and justice. The Prophet ascribed Imam Ali with sayings such as, I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate (Kanz Al- Ummal, Tarikh ibn Kathir), and Whoever considers me his leader, Ali is also his leader.
Bravery and Courage In 622 CE, Imam Ali spent the night in the Prophet s bed, who was migrating from Makkah to Madinah to escape from assassins who were plotting to kill him. His courage in defending Islam and the Prophet was rare and unique to his character (Holy Qur an 2:207).
Marriage At the age of 24, after the battle of Badr in the year 2 H, Imam Ali married Fatima Az-Zahra (as), the Prophet s daughter. Their marriage was divinely solemnized by Allah (swt). They bore 4 children, including the 2 nd and 3 rd Imams, Hassan and Husayn (as).
Divine Appointment Before his death in 11 H (632 CE), the Prophet unequivocally appointed Imam Ali to his succession. The Holy Qur an asserts Imam Ali s appointment to succession in 5:55, 5:67, and 26:214.
The Prophet s Sayings You are in the same position with relation to me as Aaron was with Moses, except that there will be no prophet after me (Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim). Ali is the authority (wali) over every believer (mu min) after me (Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Sahih Tirmidhi).
After the Prophet s Death Abu Bakr is nominated by Umar ibn Al-Khattab and Abu Ubayda ibn Al-Jarrah, and elected by a handful of people as the first Caliph (ibn Katheer, Al-Seera Al-Nabawiya, 2:494). 3 months after the death of the Prophet, Imam Ali s wife, Fatima Az-Zahra, dies as a result of the events which took place after the death of her father. Imam Ali was ostracized from caliphate, but did not want to throw the Muslim community into bloody tribal strife. He retired into a quiet life in which religious works became his chief occupation. The first chronologically arranged version of the Holy Qur an is attributed to him, and his excellent knowledge of the Holy Qur an and hadiths aided the caliphs in various legal problems.
Caliphate 25 years elapsed, and after the death of the third caliph, Uthman, Imam Ali was put under pressure by the Muslims to become the new caliph. Imam Ali s reign lasted from 35-40 H (656-661 CE). His brief reign was beset by difficulties due mostly to the corrupt state of affairs he inherited. He based his rule on the Islamic ideals of social justice and equality.
Battle of Jamal Basra - 35 H, 656 CE On the pretext of revenging the death of Uthman, A isha instigated the Battle of Jamal against Imam Ali. The battle was quelled and A isha was forgiven and allowed to live in Madinah.
Battle of Siffin 36 H, 657 CE After the Battle of Jamal, another rebellion broke out by Mu awiya ibn Abu Sufyan against Imam Ali. The two armies met along the Euphrates River at Siffin (near the Syrian-Iraqi border), where they engaged in an indecisive succession of skirmishes, truces, and battles. Mu awiya resorted to arbitration and Imam Ali was forced by his army to accept adjudication, which led to Mu awiya s survival.
Battle of Nahrawan 37 H, 658 CE Some of Imam Ali s radical supporters refused to accept the arbitration. They believed that Imam Ali had compromised with the supporters of injustice by failing to right the wrongs committed by Uthman. They withdrew from the umma and became known as Kharijites (Seceders). The Kharijites opposed Imam Ali and began a series of armed uprisings and terror against those who did not accept their views. Imam Ali and his companions defeated most of the Kharijites in the battle of Nahrawan, but their terror continued after his assassination in 661 CE.
Martyrdom 41 H, 661 CE During the month of Ramadan, while praying at a mosque in Kufah, Iraq, Imam Ali was struck with a poisoned sword by a Kharijite. Two days later (Ramadan 21) Imam Ali died and was buried near Kufah.
Intellectual Legacy Imam Ali's political discourses, sermons, letters, and sayings, collected by ash-Sharif ar-Radhi (d. 1015) in a book entitled Nahjul Balaghah (The Peak of Eloquence) with commentary by Ibn Abi Al- Hadid (d. 1258), are well known in Islamic and Arabic literature.