Presentation on theme: "ANDREJSALA: TRANSFORMATION THROUGH TIME Part I. ANDREJSALAS ORIGINS Rīgas geographical terrain, mapped in different centuries, looks different every time."— Presentation transcript:
ANDREJSALAS ORIGINS Rīgas geographical terrain, mapped in different centuries, looks different every time. Especially the changing Daugavas bed and waterway engineering have resulted in the appearance of new islands. After some time, they tend to either merge with one another, with the riverbank or disappear altogether.
Swedish troops cross the river Daugava in 1701. Etching by A. Litten, 1705. Source: MHRN
To improve navigation and prevent damage from flood, the city began building jetties in the 1500s. A system of jetties was completed in the latter half of the 18th century, which made new islands continue to appear in the Daugava. The Daugava from Dole Island to the mouth of the river (late 1700s). Source: National Archive.
19th-century maps of Rīga show an uninhabited island, marked as a property of the city. Since late 1840s, it is charted as Andreasholm (the Isle of Andrew). The year 1847 shape of a tenantless island in the vicinity of Vorburg and the Ķeizardārzs Park. Source: MHRN.
A plan of the island was made in 1853, totalling its area at approximately 45 acres (18 hectares), including several sandy spots, two small lakes, bush, pasture and one uninhabitable structure. Rīgas Police Departments map of 1858 (fragment). Source: MHRN.
Until mid-1800s, Andrejsala remained unused. Near it, there already existed the Ķeizardārzs (Viesturdārzs) Park with pavilions, footpaths and ponds that had replaced the former branches of the river. Rīga in 1860. Charted by F. Totleben in 1862. Source: MHRN.
RIVER-ENGINEERING OF THE DAUGAVA In early 1800s, the dredging of the Daugava became indispensable. However, it didnt achieve the goal of making the river uniformly deep. A vast number of shallows endangered the ships. Waterway engineering plans for the Daugava in 1880s. Source: MHRN.
A major impact on Andrejsala was left by the rapid growth of the city and the port. In 1869 to 1870, the YZ jetty was built, stretching from the Citadels water gate to Andrejsala and creating its first permanent link to the riverbank. A chart of the Daugavas river-engineering plans, by K. Napiersky (1871). Source: MHRN.
1874 saw the devising of a new river-engineering plan. It was also decided to expand the ports freight handling territory, and a bulwark was built near Andrejsala. The embankment (its slope above the water level) was paved with boulders. A long-term plan for Rīga with railway arteries (1870s). Source: MHRN.
In 1875 to 1877, a customs embankment was built on the YZ jetty (Andrejs Jetty). In 1894, the branch of the Daugava near Andrejsala was filled in, gaining a large new plot of land. Similarly, in 1911, the level of land nearby, between the power station and railway warehouses, was raised. Major provincial town of Rīga in 1884, by S. Klein (1885). Source: MHRN.
In 1893, the administration of Rīga created distinct land lots in the south part of Andrejsala and the Andrejosta Harbours riverside. They were rented out usually for periods of 12 months. Major provincial town of Rīga (1880 to 1883). Source: MHRN.
The inlet formed behind the jetty was named the Andrejosta Harbour and used for mooring tugboats and, in winter, other small vessels. The new bulwark allowed entrance into the harbour, where later the Railway (Eksporta) Port was built. Finally, ca. 1895, Andrejsala gained its current shape, when the Daugava branch was completely filled in. The Daugava and Rīga Port district in 1881, by A. Nagel. Source: LNL.
Rīga and surroundings, a year 1896 map, by M. Siliņš. Source: MHRN.
INFRASTRUCTURE A map of 1892 shows a publicly accessible artesian well near the herring handling facility. In 1894, Andrejsala devises an outdoor lighting system, resulting in the territory being lit up by 25 gas and petroleum streetlamps before the 1st World War. Andrejsalas infrastructure at the end of the 19th century.
In early 1890s, a wastewater system was blueprinted, to be implemented starting in 1894. Thus Andrejsala began to be crossed by central Rīgas sewer main, which remains operational to date. The historic wastewater mains outlet on the Daugava riverbank near the Rīga Ports elevator. Source: JAU.
An Andrejsalas map meticulously charts railway branches, buildings, roads and a variety of relevant infrastructure: arc lights around the railway lines, outdoor lamps in the streets and open areas, water supply network, sewer main, etc. The Rīga Ports upstream subdivision on a year 1910 map. Source: MHRN.
ROADS A sand-paved road was constructed in 1895, initially connecting Andrejsalas elevator and the Andrejosta Harbour. A while later, in early 1900s, it was re-paved with cobblestones, which remain there a century later. Cobblestone pavement in the south part of Andrejsala. Source: JAU.