Presentation on theme: "BESEIGING CASTLES AND TOWNS : Old Sarum, Salisbury."— Presentation transcript:
BESEIGING CASTLES AND TOWNS : Old Sarum, Salisbury.
ATTACK AND DEFENCE
AN ARMY PREPARES TO BESEIGE A CASTLE What items can you see being loaded on to the wagons?
AN ARMY CAMP DURING A SEIGE Note the baggage wagons are on the outside. The foot- soldiers tents are in the inside ring, and the knights tents are in the centre. Notice the guarded gate on the left, and the bar and gambling tables on the right.
THE SIEGE What are the attackers doing? Notice the siege tower to the left.What have the archers set up in the centre to protect themselves? What are the defenders doing?
COUNTER- ATTACK: As the siege went on, the defenders would become hungry and they often became ill. They would often make surprise attacks from the castles, called sorties. Notice the trebuchet, a large-machine for throwing rocks at walls.
HOW TO BESIEGE A TOWN Here are three methods of breaking into a medieval castle or town: tunneling, using mangonels and trebuchets, and using siege towers. What were they designed to do?
TUNNELING UNDER CASTLE WALLS
SIEGE WEAPONS: DIFFERENT TYPES OF MANGONEL Left: This machine is used for hurling large arrows aver the walls of castles. Right: A similar device for throwing huge rocks. The rock would be held in the swing at the top
THE BATTERING RAM The ram How are the defenders protecting themselves? Housing provides protection
EARLY CANNON: 14 TH AND 15 TH CENTURIES A.D. A bombard, from around 1330 AD. Mid- 15 th century, with an early type of elevating gear. Late 15 th century, cannon mounted on a wheeled carriage. STORMING A CASTLE, 14 th century AD
SIEGE TOWERS AND CANNON Early cannon Crossbow men Siege Towers Drawbridge to allow attackers to reach walls
WOODEN HOARDINGS IN USE
MACHICOLATIONS: These holes in the floors of the towers and were used to drop items onto attacking troops below. What sort of materials would be used?
MACHICOLATIONS IN USE:
ONCE MORE UNTO THE BREACH DEAR FRIENDS A breach was a gap in the castle walls made by the attackers. The attackers then rushed into the breach to try to take the castle.
LOOTING AND PILLAGING
PILLAGE AND MURDER WHY WERE ARMIES SO RUTHLESS TOWARDS PEASANTS?
ARMIES ON THE MARCH Soldiers attacking a merchants house.
HENRY VIIIS CASTLES – Deal Castle, Kent. Henrys castles were really forts and were used to protect England from invasion by the French.
16 th CENTURY CASTLES Walmer Castle, Kent A new type of castle for a new age. How does the design of this castle differ from ordinary castles? Why?
CROSS-SECTION OF DEAL CASTLE In what ways is this castle designed differently from a normal castle? Why?
NEW CASTLES FOR A NEW AGE Notice, the gun-ports (openings in the castle walls) at Walmer Castle [left] and at Pendennis Castle in Cornwall [below].