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Modern Electrical Power Production and Delivery

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Electrical Power Production and Delivery"— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Electrical Power Production and Delivery
Ralph E. Fehr, III, P.E. Consultant and Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering University of South Florida September 16, 2004

2 This Powerpoint slideshow
is available on the USF Power website:

3 Nikola Tesla and the Induction Coil
Thomas Edison and the Incandescent Lamp

4 as a Percentage of Total Energy Usage
U.S Electricity Usage as a Percentage of Total Energy Usage 25,000 kWh / person 10 x 1012 kWh 1500 – GW peak 1880 1940 2000 2060 YEAR 10% 20% 40% 30% 50% 60% 70% 11,000 kWh / person 3 x 1012 kWh 750 GW peak 1100 kWh / person 180 x 109 kWh 40 GW peak ELECTRO- TECHNOLOGIES RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORTATION A/C HEATING REFRIGERATION APPLIANCES TV / COMPUTERS LIGHTING MOTORS

5 REVOLUTION EVOLUTION REVOLUTION ELEC & MECH ENGR R&D, MAT’LS, MFG, PWR ELECTRONICS FIRST GENERATORS AND POWER PLANTS LARGER PLANTS AND DIVERSIFIED SOURCES RENEWABLE GENERATION DISTRIBUTED AND ELEC & CIVIL ENGR R&D, PWR ELECTRONICS DISTRIBUTION EARLY AC FACTS, CUSTOM POWER, SUPERCONDUCTING XMSN HIGH-VOLTAGE AC AND DC ELEC & MECH ENGR R&D, MAT’LS, PROCESSES, PWR ELECTRONICS DIVERSIFICATION END-USE ELECTROTECHNOLOGIES ADVANCED LIGHTING AND MOTORS

6 Technology Leads To Product Development

7 Transmission and Distribution Components
Polymer Insulators (Suspension and Post)

8 Transmission and Distribution Components
ACSR Conductor (Aluminum Conductor, Steel-Reinforced)

9 Transmission and Distribution Components
High-Strength Poles (Tubular Steel and Spun Concrete)

10 Transmission and Distribution Components
Zinc Oxide Varistor Surge Arresters

11 Transmission and Distribution Components
High-Phase-Order (6-phase and 12-phase) Transmission Lines

12 Transmission and Distribution Components
Fiber-Optic Communication Systems

13 Microprocessor-Based
Transmission and Distribution Components Microprocessor-Based Protective Relays

14 Transmission and Distribution Components
IGC's 6 Megajoule, 750 kVA IPQ-750 AC Micro-SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Systems

15 Static Excitation Systems
Power Generation Components Static Excitation Systems

16 Distributed Control Systems
Power Generation Components Distributed Control Systems

17 Soft Starters and Adjustable Frequency Drives for AC Motor Control
Power Generation Components Soft Starters and Adjustable Frequency Drives for AC Motor Control

18 High-Temperature Superconducting Generators
Power Generation Components High-Temperature Superconducting Generators

19 Ratings up to 8500 volts and 12,000 amperes and increasing every year
High-Power Semiconductor Devices Ratings up to 8500 volts and 12,000 amperes and increasing every year Common Devices Diodes Thyristors Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) Gate Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) Integrated-Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCTs)

20 High-Power Semiconductor Applications
Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSCs) Static Compensators (STATCOMs) Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) Static VAR Compensators (SVCs) 230kV SVC

21 Reliability Availability
Typically at least 99.99% (excluding major storm outages) 52.5 minutes/year of outage time May be ok for today, but must improve in the future. Voltage Control Steady State = ±5% normally (ANSI Range A) = ±10% during contingencies (ANSI Range B) Transient per ITIC Chart (next slide) Harmonic Mitigation Voltage THD = 5% (V 69 kV) = 2.5% (69 kV < V < 161 kV) = 1% (V  161 kV) Current THD = 5% to 20% (depending on ratio of short circuit availability to load current)

22 ITIC Curve ANSI Range B

23 Flexible, Reliable and Intelligent Electrical eNergy Delivery Systems
FRIENDS Flexible, Reliable and Intelligent Electrical eNergy Delivery Systems FRIENDS Quality Control Center (QCC)

24 Outage Restoration after a Major Disaster

25 Widespread Power System Devastation
Worse at the Lower (Distribution) Voltages Higher-voltage (transmission) circuits are more durable and less susceptable to wind and tree problems. A utility system has many more circuit-miles of distribution than transmission; therefore, the distribution system has a much greater “exposure.”


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