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Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials School of Biosciences Prof Lynne E MacaskieRafael OrozcoDr Mark D Redwood.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials School of Biosciences Prof Lynne E MacaskieRafael OrozcoDr Mark D Redwood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials School of Biosciences Prof Lynne E MacaskieRafael OrozcoDr Mark D Redwood

2 Unique combination of advantages: Renewable/sustainable energy sources Organic matter and sunlight Inherently free of fuel cell poisons CO, H 2 S Waste disposal food waste agricultural residues Simple/cheap process Ambient temperature & pressure

3 Method Net energy / area kWh/day/hectare Source UoBs bio hydrogen670 (UK) (+ gate fees)Biowaste2energy Photovoltaics (PV)665 (Bavaria)Bavaria Solarpark Wind480 (UK, on shore)MacKay (2009) Anaerobic Digestion (AD) 425 (+ gate fees) Vagron, Netherlands* Plant-derived bio- fuels ~120 (UK)MacKay (2009) Algae-derived bio- diesel Purportedly better than plants * Including parasitic energy and total site area. Published values use the raw energy generated and only the space occupied by the digester.

4 Dark Fermentation Photo- Fermentation Sugary waste H2H2 Organic acids Clean water We focus on 2 methods 1. Dark fermentation 2. Photofermentation Recycle excess bacterial cells for metal recovery and catalysis

5 Bench scale (1ml-20L) Pilot scale (120 L)

6 Ideally: 1 Glucose 2 H acetate + 1 ethanol + 2 CO 2 We select E. coli because Fast aerobic growth Tolerance to O 2 during anaerobic fermentation Best tolerance to H 2 partial pressure No sporulation Best-characterised genetic background for GM E.g. removal of uptake hydrogenases

7 Anion Cation Anion-selective membrane Electrodialysis uses an anion selective membrane and direct current OAs cross the membrane due to negative charge Fermentation Concentrated organic acids -+ +/-

8 Organic acids H 2 + CO 2 Purple non-sulphur bacteria Rhodobacter spp. Anoxygenic photosynthesis High yield, broad substrate range e.g. Lactate 6 H2 e.g. Butyrate 10 H2 H 2 produced by Nitrogenase enzyme Very sensitive to NH 4 + Select wastes with high C/N Light conversion efficiency Up to ~5%

9 Logging equipment for light intensity and temperature. March, June and even October Water heater pumps 30 °C water to the jackets

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11 Tubular array Simulates 0.5 m 2 of sunlit area Variable volume up to 50 L Lamps deliver programmed light patterns Simulates any location or season

12 Spin-out company: Biowaste2energy Ltd Formed in 2008 Startup investment from Modern Waste Purpose: to commercialise waste to hydrogen Business model Gate fees for disposal of biodegradable waste Biodegradable waste restricted from landfill Generate electricity from H 2 Renewables Obligation Certificate. Route to market Add-on to anaerobic digestion

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14 How much hydrogen energy could be regained? UK [food industry + domestic] = 24 M tpa Potential to produce 280 M kg of bio-H 2 Energy value: 5.6 TWh (terawatthour) and heat UKs electricity usage: ~350 TWh pa ~2% of UKs total electricity demand Not including agricultural and non- food industry wastes

15 Mol of H 2 equivalent


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