Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byDenisse Totty Modified over 4 years ago

1
SWAN sourcedrain Moores Law No exponential is forever! But can we delay forever?

2
SWAN Cavin, Hutchby, Zhirnov, Bourianoff

3
SWAN

5
Cavin, Hutchby, Zhirnov, Bourianoff

6
SWAN DMS: A&M, Maryland, UT MQCA:ND Phasetronics: UT Path Integral Monte Carlo: ASU, UT Pseudospintronics on Graphene: UT, UTD, Maryland Future of Microelectronics: The beginning of the end or the end of the beginning? Sanjay Banerjee, Univ. of Texas Task 5: Nanoscale Characterization UTD Task 4: Nano plasmonic interconnects Rice Task 3: Nanoscale Thermal Management UIUC, NCSU ΓΓK M Phonon Frequency (cm -1 ) Graphene Monolayer Task 2:Spintronics in DMS Task 1: Logic Devices with Alternate State Variables

7
SWAN South West Academy of Nanoelectronics Director: S.Banerjee Executive Committee E.Vogel (UTD) A.MacDonald (UT) S. DasSarma (Maryland) W.Porod (Notre Dame) Industrial Mentors: Jeff Welser (IBM) L.Colombo (TI) G. Bourianoff (Intel) G. Carpenter (IBM) MacDonald,Register,Ruoff, Tutuc, Sahu (UT) Vogel, Kim, Kim, Wallace, Cho,Chabal (UTD) Sinova (A&M) Massoud, Halas, Nordlander (Rice) DasSarma (Maryland) Shumway (ASU) Porod, Bernstein (Notre Dame) Pop (UIUC). Kim (NCSU) TI, Intel, IBM, Micron, AMD, Freescale, NIST Texas ETF

8
SWAN DNA ~2-1/2 nm diameter Things Natural Things Manmade Fly ash ~ 10-20 m Atoms of silicon spacing ~tenths of nm Head of a pin 1-2 mm Quantum corral of 48 iron atoms on copper surface positioned one at a time with an STM tip Corral diameter 14 nm Human hair ~ 60-120 m wide Red blood cells with white cell ~ 2-5 m Ant ~ 5 mm Dust mite 200 m ATP synthase ~10 nm diameter Nanotube electrode Carbon nanotube ~1.3 nm diameter The Challenge Fabricate and combine nanoscale building blocks to make useful devices, e.g., a photosynthetic reaction center with integral semiconductor storage. Microworld 0.1 nm 1 nanometer (nm) 0.01 m 10 nm 0.1 m 100 nm 1 micrometer ( m) 0.01 mm 10 m 0.1 mm 100 m 1 millimeter (mm) 1 cm 10 mm 10 -2 m 10 -3 m 10 -4 m 10 -5 m 10 -6 m 10 -7 m 10 -8 m 10 -9 m 10 -10 m Visible Nanoworld 1,000 nanometers = Infrared Ultraviolet Microwave Soft x-ray 1,000,000 nanometers = Zone plate x-ray lens Outer ring spacing ~35 nm Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Science, U.S. DOE Version 10-07-03, pmd The Scale of Things – Nanometers and More MicroElectroMechanical (MEMS) devices 10 -100 m wide Red blood cells Pollen grain Carbon buckyball ~1 nm diameter Self-assembled, Nature-inspired structure Many 10s of nm More is different! Smaller is different!

9
SWAN Subthreshold leakage is diffusion current from S to D (as in BJT) S= ln10 kT/q (1 + C d /C ox )

10
SWAN

11
Bandstructure effective mass, m *, is inversely related to curvature of bands, and depends on crystal orientation and strain. Density of states m * is related to geometric mean of bandstructure m *. Conductivity m * is harmonic mean of bandstructure m *. Effective

12
SWAN Gapless, unless GNR Electric field induced gap in bi-layer Linear E(k) at K point; Dirac massless fermions Min, Sahu, Banerjee, MacDonald, PRB (2007) U ext =0, E gap =0 k space Graphene Bandstructure

13
SWAN 0 dI T /dV 0 V I. Spielman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5808 (2000) Charge-neutral superfluid: Bose-Einstein condensate of excitons! Electron-hole pairing enhanced interlayer conductance with NDR Pseudospintronics in Bilayers at low T, high B

14
SWAN Atomic Levels: Electrons in Magnetic Field: Electrons in Atomic Orbitals: E0E0 E2E2 E1E1 E3E3 B ħ c Electrons in a Magnetic Field: Landau Levels (Landau levels) E n = (n + 1/2) h c c = eB meme Macroscopic degeneracy: eB/h = 2.42 cm -2 T

15
SWAN Resistance Magnetic Field h c B B B I V xy Filling factor = 2 = 1 (von Klitzing, 1980) Quantum Hall Effect

16
SWAN The =1 quantum Hall state = 1/2 d ~ l B BCS wave function, manifestly showing the particle-hole pairing in opposite layers: Current carrying state: Equal and opposite currents in the two layers

17
SWAN electron precession in magnetic field Spin Precession Starts on application of Magnetic Field B Electron Spin SPIN MAGNETIC MOMENT MAGNETIC FIELD μ X H mħ Polar angles ( θ, φ) H = - μ. B =

18
SWAN Quantum 2-Level Systems cos( /2) +sin( /2) e iφ AB top layer: bottom layer:

19
SWAN Pseudo-spintronic devices Device consisting of two electron and/or hole layers in close proximity Inter-layer electron-electron interaction strong layer (pseudo-spin) degree of freedom uncertain Charge transport intimately determined by the dynamics of the pseudo-spin degree of freedom zizi zjzj wiwi wjwj = 1/2 d ~ l B

20
SWAN Intra-layer vs Inter-layer interaction d E inter = e2e2 d E intra = e2e2 l B E intra E inter d lBlB = Expect exciting physics when d/l b 1 B

21
SWAN Quantum Hall Effect-Counterflow transport in GaAs-AlGaAs Vanishing counterflow longitudinal and Hall resistivities at =1 QHS Charge-neutral superfluid: Bose-Einstein condensate of excitons! Electron-hole pairing enhanced interlayer conductance + - I I V xx V xy E. Tutuc et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036802 (2004).

22
SWAN Graphene bilayer with excitons formed by MOS gate Prediction of above room temperature existence of electron-hole condensate holes in valence band electrons in conduction band Room-Temperature Superfluidity in Graphene Bilayers?, Min, Bistritzer, Su, MacDonaldMinBistritzerSuMacDonald How to make a bilayer exciton condensate flow, Su, MacDonaldSu MacDonald +

23
SWAN Bi-layer pseudoSpin Field Effect Transistor (BiSFET) Banerjee, Register, Tutuc and Macdonald Bilayer pseudoSpin Field Effect Transistor (BiSFET): a proposed new logic device S.K. Banerjee, L.F. Register, E.Tutuc, D.Reddy and A. Macdonald., IEEE EDL, accepted (2008); also patent disclosure

24
SWAN BisFET simulated output characteristics as a function of interlayer bias and gate bias. VG puts the device in an unbalanced state, leading to lower currents Layer1:Electrons [n] Inter layer bias Many body tunneling Layer2:Holes [p] Bose condensation of excitons [e-h pairs] T c = 0.1E f /k B ; T c = 300K implies n=p=4.9x10 12 cm -2 which is possible by gating Inter layer current

25
SWAN Inverter layout with complementary BisFETs and SPICE simulation 1.0 nm EOT, gate L=10 nm, corresponding to the Josephson length, and W=20 nm. Clock frequency= 100 GHz and V clock,peak 25 mV with 2.5 ps rise time. Input and output signals were subject to a fan-in and fan-out of 4 inverters. Current MOSFETs consume ~100 aJ per switching and 2020 end of the roadmap CMOS will consume ~5 aJ [www.itrs.net]. Energy consumed per switching operation per BiSFET= 0.008 aJ! (2X Landauer limit)

26
SWAN Clock: – Vlow = 0mV ; Vhigh= 25mV – Rise time= 2.5 ps – Fall time = 2.5 ps – Pulse width = 2.5ps – Pulse period =10 ps – Frequency of cock = 100 GHz – Delay between clock and input signal is 2.5 ps Maximum number of inverters the OR gate can drive: 6 Energy per operation: – For OR GATE (load = 4 inverters) total energy for 4 operations: 133.7 x 1E-21 J – Average Energy per operation 33.4 x 1E-21 J – For NAND GATE(load = 4 inverters) total energy for 4 operations: 121.81x1E-21 J – Average Energy per operation 30.45 x 1E-21 J OR and NAND Gate

27
SWAN NAND gate operation

28
SWAN The Collective FET vision k B T/nq ~ about 25mV/n

29
SWAN Graphene MOSFET Fabrication and Modeling Carrier density in the channel induced by V TG Quantum Capacitance in Graphene V TG and carrier density, n, relation

30
SWAN R vs (V TG -V Dirac ) with model: 15nm Al 2 O 3 Top-gated FET Parameters Extracted Values n 0 (cm -2 )3.19– 4.28 x 10 11 Mobility (cm 2 /Vs) 4,434- 6,190 R contact (ohm) 552 - 1579 Thinner dielectric layer lower remote charge impurities in oxide Lower initial carriers less carrier scattering Higher mobility Mobility independent of T Thinner dielectric layer lower remote charge impurities in oxide Lower initial carriers less carrier scattering Higher mobility Mobility independent of T God made solids; surfaces on the other hand are the work of the devil. (Pauli)

31
SWAN All Graphene Electronics DARPA Carbon Era Rf Applications (CERA) program with IBM LNA, interconnects, …

32
SWAN Tight Binding Model of Graphene Nearest neighbor (NN) tight binding Hamiltonian:, for NN, 0 otherwise. self-consistent potential. Perfect armchair graphene ribbon showing equal no. of atoms in successive slices. Corresponding band structures: No. of atoms in the slice = 7, 8 and 9

33
SWAN T(E) vs. E [different roughness (identical W ch )] T(E) vs. E for a 7.63 nm wide graphene channel having different roughness. r = 0.5 » random, r = 1 » perfect.

34
SWAN A=0 Precession of phase + C Phasetronics: AB device with Rashba Effect Register, Banerjee Phasetronics: AB device with Rashba Effect Register, Banerjee B=0 EX OR Gate A=0, B=0 C=0 A=0, B=1 C=1 A=1, B=0 C=1 A=1, B=1 C=0 State 0: Electron transmission is suppressedState 1: Electron transmission is permitted

35
SWANResonant Injection Enhanced Field-Effect Transistor Patent disclosure, Register, Banerjee

36
SWAN ON/OFF states of RIEFET ON state (Vg=150mV in following examples): The multiple quantum-wells below the gate serve as a nearly transparent high- order band pass filter for electrons; OFF state (Vg=0mV): The gate not only raises the channel potential directly beneath the gate relative to the source, but destroys the inter-well resonances and reduce access to the channel even for electrons with sufficient thermal energy. Energy levels of quantum states Aligned Misaligned Transport direction Top gate

37
SWAN Spintronics- Datta-Das Transistor Electrons quantum mechanically can be viewed as a spinning top which can point up or down!

38
SWAN 1100 A B C Out 110 Binary wire Inverter Majority gate M A B C Programmable 2-input AND or OR gate. Nanomagnet-Based Logic- MQCA Wolfgang Porod and Gary Bernstein, Univ. Notre Dame

39
SWAN ITRS, 2005

40
SWAN What is needed in the new switch? Speed = CV/I Active Power = CV 2 f Stand-by Power = Sub-V T, gate leakage Desirable Attributes Energy efficiency Speed (performance, noise) Room T operation (non-equilibrium devices?) Size (device/ wafer): capacitance, fan-out Gain; uni-directional signal flow (I/O isolation) Reliability, manufacturability, cost CMOS compatibility (process, topology ) CMOS ca 2020 Energy ~ 10 aJ/op; power~ 10 7 W/cm 2 Energy ~ 10 aJ/op; power~ 10 7 W/cm 2 Speed ~ 0.1 ps/op (10 THz f T ; 100 GHz circuit) Speed ~ 0.1 ps/op (10 THz f T ; 100 GHz circuit) Size ~ L g 5 nm; cell ~ 100 nm, I DN ~ 3 mA/µm Size ~ L g 5 nm; cell ~ 100 nm, I DN ~ 3 mA/µm Density ~ 10 10 cm -2 ; BIT ~100 GBit/ns/cm 2 Density ~ 10 10 cm -2 ; BIT ~100 GBit/ns/cm 2 Cost ~ 10 -12 $/gate Cost ~ 10 -12 $/gate 0.01 aJ/op 100GHz Yes 10 nm, FO=4 ??? Yes ???

Similar presentations

OK

Electrical Techniques MSN506 notes. Electrical characterization Electronic properties of materials are closely related to the structure of the material.

Electrical Techniques MSN506 notes. Electrical characterization Electronic properties of materials are closely related to the structure of the material.

© 2018 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Ppt on computer vs books Ppt on collection of data Ppt on online mobile shopping Ppt on my favourite game cricket Ppt on credit default swaps Ppt on networking topics Ppt on area of parallelogram using vectors Ppt on power system stability studies Ppt on taj mahal conservation Ppt on hybrid solar lighting system