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March 8, 20071 Dynamic Fault Tree analysis using Input/Output Interactive Markov Chains Hichem Boudali, Pepijn Crouzen, and Mariëlle Stoelinga. Formal.

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Presentation on theme: "March 8, 20071 Dynamic Fault Tree analysis using Input/Output Interactive Markov Chains Hichem Boudali, Pepijn Crouzen, and Mariëlle Stoelinga. Formal."— Presentation transcript:

1 March 8, Dynamic Fault Tree analysis using Input/Output Interactive Markov Chains Hichem Boudali, Pepijn Crouzen, and Mariëlle Stoelinga. Formal Methods and Tools group CS, University of Twente, NL.

2 March 8, Motivation (and setting) Systems do fail Example methodology: Dynamic Fault Trees (DFT) -- Reliability Engineering -- Goal: Reduce system failure probability. Methodology: Identify/analyze failure modes and their effects. But: DFTs have drawbacks

3 March 8, Outline Dynamic fault trees (DFT). Definition, Example, Solution, Drawbacks. Input/Output interactive Markov chains (I/O-IMC). DFT semantics in terms of I/O-IMCs. DFT compositional analysis. Translation, || Composition, Abstraction, Aggregation. Case studies. Summary.

4 March 8, Outline Dynamic fault trees (DFT). Definition, Example, Solution, Drawbacks. Input/Output interactive Markov chains (I/O-IMC). DFT semantics in terms of I/O-IMCs. DFT compositional analysis. Translation, || Composition, Abstraction, Aggregation. Case studies. Summary.

5 March 8, Dynamic Fault Trees (DFT) Extend standard fault trees with dynamic gates. Enable modelling complex behaviours and interactions between components. combination & order of failures matter. Unreliability = Prob[System fails within T time units]

6 March 8, (dynamic) Fault trees Upside-down tree (graph) Leaves: Basic events (BE) Nodes: Gates (complex events) BEs + Gates: Elements Arrows: Causal relations One top-node: the root node The top-node models system failure Failure propagation: From leaves to root

7 March 8, DFTs: Static gates (combination)

8 March 8, DFTs: Dynamic gates (order)

9 March 8, DFTs: Basic events (BE) Temperature of a BE: Relevant when used as a spare BE maps to a Basic Physical component

10 March 8, C AB Failure rate: 0.2 f/h Failure rate: 0.4 f/h AND-gate Starting state: A is operational B is operational A has failed B is operational Pr(A fails in T hours) = 1 – e -0.2T As Mean time to failure = 1/0.2 = 5 hours A is operational B has failed A has failed B has failed Convert the DFT into a Continuous-time Markov chain. Analyze CTMC using standard solution techniques. For (partially) static DFT, binary decision diagrams can be used! DFT solution Unreliability = Prob[Being in state ]

11 March 8, DFT example Road trip fails if mobile phone fails BEFORE the car fails Spare tire is cold: It cannot fail when not in use State-Space Explosion! One of the drawbacks Although distinct modules, CTMC generation in One shot

12 March 8, DFT drawbacks State-space explosion. No formal syntax and semantics. Lack of modularity: Dynamic modules (e.g. Tires subsystem in the example) can not be reused. Restrictions on certain inputs to gates (e.g. spare gate). DFT-to-MC* conversion algorithm is hard to extend and/or modify. Compositional Aggregation DAG Compositionality Lift restrictions Extension: At the element level I/O-IMC *: DIFTree algorithm

13 March 8, Outline Dynamic fault trees (DFT). Definition, Example, Solution, Drawbacks. Input/Output interactive Markov chains (I/O-IMC). DFT semantics in terms of I/O-IMCs. DFT compositional analysis. Translation, || Composition, Abstraction, Aggregation. Case studies. Summary.

14 March 8, Input/Output Interactive Markov Chains (I/O-IMC) Combination of I/O automata and CTMC Discrete state space Markovian transitions Interactive transitions Action signature ? - Input actions ! - Output actions ; - Internal actions Input-enabled λ failed! Immediate

15 March 8, Outline Dynamic fault trees (DFT). Definition, Example, Solution, Drawbacks. Input/Output interactive Markov chains (I/O-IMC). DFT semantics in terms of I/O-IMCs. DFT compositional analysis. Translation, || Composition, Abstraction, Aggregation. Case studies. Summary.

16 March 8, f(C)! f(A)? f(B)? f(A)? f(C)! f(A)? f(B)? f(A)? f(B)? f(A)? DFT semantics (DFT element to I/O-IMC) f(A)? f(B)?

17 March 8, DFT semantics (DFT element to I/O-IMC)

18 March 8, Outline Dynamic fault trees (DFT). Definition, Example, Solution, Drawbacks. Input/Output interactive Markov chains (I/O-IMC). DFT semantics in terms of I/O-IMCs. DFT compositional analysis. Translation, || Composition, Abstraction, Aggregation. Case studies. Summary.

19 March 8, Compositional Analysis Translation C AB 0.2 f(A)! 0.4 f(B)! f(A)? f(B)? f(C)!

20 March 8, Compositional Analysis Parallel Composition f(A)? f(B)? f(C)! 0.2 f(A)!

21 March 8, Compositional Analysis Parallel Composition ||1 0.2 f(A)! f(A)? f(B)? f(C)! 0.2 f(B)? f(A)! f(C)! 1||2 2||3 3||1 f(B)? 0.2 f(A)! 3||2 4||35||3 Inputs: f(A)? and f(B)? Outputs: f(C)! Inputs: none Outputs: f(A)! C A C || A Synchronize on f(A)

22 March 8, f(A); f(A)! Compositional Analysis Abstraction (hiding) 1||1 0.2 f(B)? 0.2 f(C)! 1||2 2||3 3||1 3||2 4||35||3 C AB Abstraction (hiding): Makes signal internal

23 March 8, f(A); Compositional Analysis Aggregation (weak bisimulation) 1||1 0.2 f(B)? 0.2 f(C)! 1||2 2||3 3||1 3||2 4||35||3 Weak bisimulation: Disregard internal steps Aggregation: Finding a smaller model equivalent (behaviorally) to the original

24 March 8, Compositional-Aggregation Overview Translation Composition + Hiding Aggregation (minimization) Repeat Aggregated system CTMC Result: System failure probability

25 March 8, Outline Dynamic fault trees (DFT). Definition, Example, Solution, Drawbacks. Input/Output interactive Markov chains (I/O-IMC). DFT semantics in terms of I/O-IMCs. DFT compositional analysis. Translation, || Composition, Abstraction, Aggregation. Case studies. Summary.

26 March 8, Case studies Case study Analysis method Max number of states Max number of transitions Unreliability (T=1) (a) DIFTree Comp-Agg (b) DIFTree Comp-Agg (c) DIFTree Comp-Agg

27 March 8, Outline Dynamic fault trees (DFT). Definition, Example, Solution, Drawbacks. Input/Output interactive Markov chains (I/O-IMC). DFT semantics in terms of I/O-IMCs. DFT compositional analysis. Translation, || Composition, Abstraction, Aggregation. Case studies. Summary.

28 March 8, Summary Alleviate state-space explosion problem. Formal syntax & semantics. Enhanced DFT modularity: Dynamic module reuse. Lifting restrictions on allowed inputs. Readily extensible framework (extensions at the element level); e.g. repair. Works well for highly-modular dynamic FTs. Compositional semantics for DFTs Gain at the modeling & analysis levels

29 March 8, References H. Boudali, P. Crouzen, M. Stoelinga. Dynamic Fault Tree analysis using Input/Output Interactive Markov Chains, to appear, DSN 2007 proceedings. H. Boudali, P. Crouzen, M. Stoelinga. A compositional semantics for Dynamic Fault Trees in terms of Interactive Markov Chains, Technical report, to appear. More info: The END!

30 March 8, Extra slides

31 March 8, Future work Weaker bisimulation relation (i.e. more aggressive state reduction) Extension to non-exponential distributions (e.g. use of phase-type distributions) Further extensions to DFT modeling capabilities (i.e. definition of new gates and corresponding I/O-IMC) Fully automated tool (at this point, the tool is only partially automated)

32 March 8, Parallel Composition and Hiding

33 March 8, Aggregation (Weak Bisimulation)

34 March 8, Preservation Theorem (WB is a congruence)

35 March 8, CTMC Compositional-Aggregation Overview Step 1: Translation Step 2a: Parallel Composition Step 2b: Abstraction Step 3: Aggregation Step 4: Repetition Step 2a: (C||A) || B Step 2b: Hide f(B) Step 3: Aggregate (C||A)||B Step 5: CTMC Analysis C AB C A B f(A) f(B) f(C) DFT IOIMC C||A f(C) f(B) f(A) f(B) f(C) C||A||B f(C)! f(C) IOIMC model can be reused! Steps 2–4: Compositional Aggregation


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