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Basic Electronics Ninth Edition Basic Electronics Ninth Edition ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies Grob Schultz

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Basic Electronics Ninth Edition Basic Electronics Ninth Edition ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies 31 CHAPTER Digital Electronics

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Topics Covered in Chapter 31 Binary and Decimal Numbers Decimal to Binary Conversion Hexadecimal Numbers Binary Coded Decimal System The ASCII Code Logic Gates, Symbols, and Truth Tables

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Boolean Algebra DeMorgan's Theorem Treating Unused Inputs TTL and CMOS Circuits Active HIGH/Active LOW Terminology Topics Covered in Chapter 31 (continued)

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Topics Covered in Chapter 31 (continued) Combinational Logic Circuits Binary Adders Flip-Flops, Counters, and Registers New Logic Symbols Troubleshooting Digital Circuits

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Number Systems Decimal Base 10; digits are 0 through 9 Most commonly used by humans Binary Base 2; digits are 0 and 1 Most commonly used by computers Hexadecimal Base 16; digits are 0 through F BCD Binary Coded Decimal

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DecimalBinaryHex 000 111 2102 3113 41004 51015 61106 71117 810008 910019 101010A 111011B 121100C 131101D 141110E 151111F Decimal (base 10) 134 10 = 4 x1 + 3x10 + 1x100 = 134 10 Different Base Numbers Binary (base 2) 10000110 2 = 0x1 + 1x2 + 1x4 +0x8 + 0x16 + 0x32 +0x64 + 1 x 128 = 134 10 Hex (base 16) 86 16 = 6x1 + 8x16 = 134 10

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Logic Gates AND gate OR gate XOR gate NAND gate NOR gate XNOR gate Inverter ( NOT gate)

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Logic Inverter A logic inverter switches the state of its input. Changes 0 to 1 Changes 1 to 0 Logic inverters can invert the outputs of other logic gates. Change an AND gate to a NAND gate Change an OR gate to a NOR gate Change an XOR gate to an XNOR gate A10A10 B01B01 A B

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AND / NAND Logic Functions AND function NAND function B0011B0011 C0101C0101 A0001A0001 B0011B0011 C0101C0101 A1110A1110 A B C A B C

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OR / NOR Logic Functions OR function NOR function B0011B0011 C0101C0101 A0111A0111 B0011B0011 C0101C0101 A1000A1000 A B C A B C

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XOR / XNOR Logic Functions XOR function XNOR function B0011B0011 C0101C0101 A0110A0110 B0011B0011 C0101C0101 A1001A1001 A B C A B C A = B+C

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DeMorgans Theorems X A B X A B A + B = A B = A B = A + B A B X A B = X

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Combinational Logic Circuits ABCX 0000 0010 0100 0110 1000 1011 1101 1111 A B C X X = A(B + C)

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X = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC ABCX 0000 0011 0100 0110 1000 1011 1101 1111 Truth Table Boolean Expression Simplify X = BC(A + A) + AB(C + C) X = BC + AB Factor: 1 { 1 {

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Flip-Flop Circuits Flip-flop circuits are digital devices that hold a 0 or 1 output until some event triggers them to the opposite output. They are commonly used for storing digital data on a temporary basis.

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Major Types of Flip-Flop Circuits Set/reset (SR) flip-flops. Q Q S R Q Q D CLK Q Q J K J-K flip flops. D-type flip-flops.

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Q Q S R SR Flip-Flop with Active HIGH Inputs Q Q S R Time Q Q S R

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Q Q R S SR Flip-Flop with Active LOW Inputs Q Q S R Time +V CC Q Q S R

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Q R CLK S Time Clocked SR Flip-Flop Q Q S R CLK

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Q Q D Negative-Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop Q CLK D Time CLK

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Q Q J Negative-Edge Triggered JK Flip-Flop Q CLK J Time CLK K K ModeJKQ Inhibit00Q Set101 Reset010 Toggle11Q

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Q Q J CLK K Binary Counter 1 1 Q Q J K 1 1 Q Q J K 1 1 Q Q J K 1 1 Q0Q0 Q1Q1 Q2Q2 Q3Q3 Q2Q2 CLK Q0Q0 Q1Q1 Q3Q3

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