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Units of analysis are who you are studying Communities Families Organizations Occupational groups Communities of interest.

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Presentation on theme: "Units of analysis are who you are studying Communities Families Organizations Occupational groups Communities of interest."— Presentation transcript:


2 Units of analysis are who you are studying Communities Families Organizations Occupational groups Communities of interest

3 Logistical Location Timing Seasonal issues Size of group Issues (special permission, supplies, home, clothes, transportation etc.) First Contact Windshield Reconnaissance Gate Keepers Key Informants

4 Not as natural as it seems! Intense, not overlooking the usual Its not data unless recorded in a usable way To record or not record? Discuss confidentiality use pseudonyms if necessary

5 Try to write as many direct quotes as possible so you can capture the language and emotions being used Make sure your notes follow the conversation as spoken Make sure you use a cover sheet and date and time each interview Devise a system to categorize interviews for quick reference Record your own thoughts on the interview

6 Made with minimum research participation Key Cultural Ideas to watch Proxemics – how people use physical space Kinesics – how people convey meaning through body language

7 Structured Observation Using a fixed setting to see how people interact in it for comparability Using an inventory for comparison across places or groups Usually unobtrusive research is structured

8 More typical of ethnography Generally only works if people in the study group have become familiar with the researcher Generally note-taking occurs in the evening or next day out of sight of the study group Participant observation is unstructured observation

9 Research Observation is not natural or intuitive There are specific types of interviews for subjects dependent on the sort of information needed for the research Types of interviews Exploratory In-depth Key Informant Open-ended Semi-Structured Life History Oral History

10 Most typical of all ethnographic Methods Usually In-Depth to give great detail and enhance the researchers understanding Usually Open-Ended so the respondent explains things from their viewpoint and the context of things. There are no forced choice questions Effectively builds rapport in a conversational setting Identifies differing views of events Sometimes collaborators can become emotional

11 Conversational style is preferredit is okay to probe or ask challenging questions Start the interview with a culturally appropriate conversation starter Generally an inquiry of family, friends, even pets Be in a comfortable setting Privacy may be a concern (balance with personal safety) Gender issues could be important Watch for cues of discomfort, length, annoyance GET THE RIGHT PERSONKEY INFORMANT

12 Its become standard practice to digitally record interviews In many cases interviews are transcribed and analyzed with content analysis software Obviously this is very intensive commitment of time and work Other times interviews of videotaped, but usually reserved for public figures and important key informants who are very publicno confidentiality

13 Other anthropologists feel that taping inhibits the interview Sensitive topics are influenced by the recordingsome may not wish to go on record If not taped note-taking is criticalespecially if content analysis is going to be preformed There are many cases where there are very good reasons not to record

14 Numerical content analysis Cultural model Key concepts Strictly descriptive

15 Predetermined questions on a specific topic Often developed after a number of exploratory interviews Sometimes just administered to key informants or a more representative sample to assess how widely the ideas are held 1. How long have you fished in this area? 2. Did your parents and grandparents fish also? 3. Is fishing the biggest source of income for your family? 4. Currently, whom do you sell your catch to? 5. In your opinion, how much has fishing in this area changed? 6. How has the fishery changed? 7. What do you think has caused changes in fishing as a way of life? 8. What do you think has caused changes in the fishery? 9. Would you say that you live in a fishing community? 10. How would you say youre doing? 11. How have you adapted to fishing changes in the past? 12. Do you belong to any fishing or other support group? 13. What appeals to you about fishing? 14. What might make you want to leave the fishery? 15. What do you say is the biggest problem for you as a fisherman? What is the biggest problem for your community?

16 Use plain language Avoid double barrels Avoid leading questions Ask questions in a chronological sequence Start simple and moved to questions Ask all questions on a single topic before moving to the next issue Work from the concrete to abstract Ask the most sensitive questions near the end of the interview

17 Archived materials are records stored from research, services, government, and other agencies Some examples include: Maps Records of births, deaths, real-estate transactions, marriages, etc. Census Church Court records Old newspapers Photos, letters, museums

18 Archived materials produce non-reactive researchtherefore are unobtrusive Secondary data is information collected by someone else for another purpose other than your work Archived materials and secondary research are missing the contextual analysis of the collaborators

19 External Validity and Internal Validity Triangulation Observation Unobtrusive Participant Observation Interviews Exploratory unstructured Semi-structured Archived materials News/history information/records Secondary data

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