2The Middle Ages The Roman World Collapses Introduction to Feudalism Consolidation of KingdomsDevelopments in EnglandPopes, Kings, and PawnsArt, Literature, and ArchitectureThe End of an Age
3Mandatory Reading Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Read each assigned section and be prepared to talk about it or to take a short quiz.Create a PowerPoint that highlights the major characters, events, and themes – no minimum or maximum – you are competing against each other.Full Text Version –
5The Roman World Collapses SS.912.W.2 Recognize significant events, figures, and contributions of medieval civilizations (Byzantine Empire, Western Europe, Japan).SS.912.W.2.2: Describe the impact of Constantine the Great's establishment of "New Rome" (Constantinople) and his recognition of Christianity as a legal religion.SS.912.W.2.3: Analyze the extent to which the Byzantine Empire was a continuation of the old Roman Empire and in what ways it was a departure.SS.912.W.2.4: Identify key figures associated with the Byzantine Empire.SS.912.W.2.5: Explain the contributions of the Byzantine Empire.Loosening of the moral fiber of Romans (me-first and materialistic), no belief in civic duty, in-migration of non-Romans and non-Roman citizens, and weakening of currency through inflationPower was decentralized, trade slowed and in some regions stopped, it became necessary to manufacture of all one’s needs at homeland
6The Roman World Collapses What were the four primary causes for the fall of the Roman Empire?How did life change from the Roman period to that of the Middle Ages?During the Roman period, the possession of precious metals signified wealth. What would come to signify wealth after the collapse of the empire?CaligulaLoosening of the moral fiber of Romans (me-first and materialistic), no belief in civic duty, in-migration of non-Romans and non-Roman citizens, and weakening of currency through inflationPower was decentralized, trade slowed and in some regions stopped, it became necessary to manufacture of all one’s needs at homeland
7The Roman World Collapses The Middle Ages are often referred to as the Dark Ages – for what reason?Is this an accurate assessment of the period?What is the difficulty in assessing the beginning and end of this period?Those who lived in the Renaissance looked upon this period as a time of stagnation in which there were few technological, literary, or artistic developments; culture had gone darkIt is not a completely accurate statement; though the Middle Ages did not have the same degree of advances and learning as the Roman period previous or the Renaissance after, it was a time when new universities were created and major advances in architecture took placeReligious, social, economic, and political history rarely overlap to create a nice, tidy organization; future events always depend on past and present events and so it can be very difficult to wrap it into one neat eraKeen, p. 11
8The Roman World Collapses How did the Roman Empire exist after the fall of the west in A.D. 476?While the west fell, the eastern half of the empire continued on with the center of culture and religion at Constantinople; the Roman Empire would never be unified again
10Introduction to Feudalism SS.912.W.2 Recognize significant events, figures, and contributions of medieval civilizations (Byzantine Empire, Western Europe, Japan).SS.912.W.2.9: Analyze the impact of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire on Europe.SS.912.W.2.10: Describe the orders of medieval social hierarchy, the changing role of the Church, the emergence of feudalism, and the development of private property as a distinguishing feature of Western Civilization.Loosening of the moral fiber of Romans (me-first and materialistic), no belief in civic duty, in-migration of non-Romans and non-Roman citizens, and weakening of currency through inflationPower was decentralized, trade slowed and in some regions stopped, it became necessary to manufacture of all one’s needs at homeland
11Introduction to Feudalism Feudalism is the system in which society is highly stratified. Little social mobility is evident or available. The system relies on low-wage workers or serfs to work the land and provide for the king’s or nobles domains.
13Introduction to Feudalism In feudalism there exists another system in which nobles or kings offer land (fiefs) to other nobles (vassals) in exchange for military service and loyalty. As with everything in the Middle Ages it is not as simple as it sounds.
14Introduction to Feudalism They system was confusing because it was possible for a vassal to be more powerful or control more lands than his lord. When Henry II ascended to the monarchy in England, he was technically a vassal of King Louis VII of France, he held more French lands than Louis.
15Introduction to Feudalism I, Thiebault, count palatine of Troyes, make known to those present and to come that I have given in fee to Jocelyn d'Avalon and his heirs the manor which is called Gillencourt, which is of the castellanerie of La Ferte sure Aube; and whatever the same Jocelyn shall be able to acquire in the same manor I have granted to him and his heirs in augmentation of that fief. I have granted, moreover, to him that in no free manor of mine will retain men who are of this gift. The same Jocelyn, moreover, on account of this has become my liege man, saving however, his allegiance to Gerard d'Arcy, and to the lord duke of Burgundy, and to Peter, count of Auxerre. Done at Chouaude, by my own witness, in the year of the Incarnation of our Lord 1200 in the month of January. Given by the hand of Walter, my chancellor; note of Milo.
16Introduction to Feudalism It is difficult to say that all of Europe remained under feudalism for an extended period of time. Social, political, and religious institutions differed from region to region and nation to nation. No one system existed in all places at all times. It is akin to saying that the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany have the same socio-political systems.
17Europe Unified Under the Church “Within this period western Europe (or Latin Christendom, the terms being more or less analogous) regarded itself, and can be regarded, as a single society, in a sense in which it was not before, and has not been since. Of this outward and visible sign is the fact that Europeans were prepared to recognize in their society some sort of common authority.”Medieval Europe, Maurice Keen, p. 12
18The Manorial System How did the class of serfs come into being? What did they owe the landowner?What did they receive in return?Did serfs have the opportunity for upward mobility?They were a mix of the old Roman slave population and the free peasantryTaxes or tithes from the land that was given them – also to work the fields of the lordSmall plots of land and protectionno
21The Manorial System“He received also a sufficient and handsome hall well ceiled with oak. On the western side is a worthy bed, on the ground, a stone chimney, a wardrobe and a certain other small chamber; at the eastern end is a pantry and a buttery. Between the hall and the chapel is a sideroom. There is a decent chapel covered with tiles, a portable altar, and a small cross. In the hall are four tables on trestles.”
22The Manorial System“There are likewise a good kitchen covered with tiles, with a furnace and ovens, one large, the other small, for cakes, two tables, and alongside the kitchen a small house for baking. Also a new granary covered with oak shingles, and a building in which the dairy is contained, though it is divided. Likewise a chamber suited for clergymen and a necessary chamber. Also a hen-house. These are within the inner gate.”
23The Manorial System“Likewise outside of that gate are an old house for the servants, a good table, long and divided, and to the east of the principle building, beyond the smaller stable, a solar for the use of the servants. Also a building in which is contained a bed, also two barns, one for wheat and one for oats.”
24The Manorial System“These buildings are enclosed with a moat, a wall, and a hedge. Also beyond the middle gate is a good barn, and a stable of cows, and another for oxen, these old and ruinous. Also beyond the outer gate is a pigstye.”
25ChivalryThou shalt believe all that the Church teaches, and shalt observe all its directions.Thou shalt defend the Church.Thou shalt respect all weaknesses, and shalt constitute thyself the defender of them.Thou shalt love the country in which thou wast born.Thou shalt not recoil before thine enemy.
26ChivalryThou shalt make war against the Infidel without cessation, and without mercy.Thou shalt perform scrupulously thy feudal duties, if they be not contrary to the laws of God.Thou shalt never lie, and shall remain faithful to thy pledged word.Thou shalt be generous, and give largess to everyone.Thou shalt be everywhere and always the champion of the Right and the Good against Injustice and Evil.
28Consolidation of Kingdoms SS.912.W.2 Recognize significant events, figures, and contributions of medieval civilizations (Byzantine Empire, Western Europe, Japan).SS.912.W.2.9: Analyze the impact of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire on Europe.SS.912.W.2.10: Describe the orders of medieval social hierarchy, the changing role of the Church, the emergence of feudalism, and the development of private property as a distinguishing feature of Western Civilization.SS.912.W.2.11: Describe the rise and achievements of significant rulers in medieval Europe.SS.912.W.2.16: Trace the growth and development of national identify in England, France, and Spain.Loosening of the moral fiber of Romans (me-first and materialistic), no belief in civic duty, in-migration of non-Romans and non-Roman citizens, and weakening of currency through inflationPower was decentralized, trade slowed and in some regions stopped, it became necessary to manufacture of all one’s needs at homeland
29Clovis and the Merovingians From the ashes of the western empire rose the Merovingian dynasty.Who was Clovis?How did the Merovingians organize their government?Keen, p
31Clovis and the Merovingians How did Merovingian rule differ significantly from that of the Romans?What is a fisc?What does the term fidelis mean?How did the Frankish kings suffer from their land-giving practice?
33The “Hammer”North African Muslims had conquered the Iberian Peninsula, crossed the Pyrenees, and had designs for the complete submission of Christian kingdoms in western Europe. How was the Muslim incursion stopped?
34Pippin the Short Who was Pippin the Short? To where did he move his capital?How did Pippin gain the favor of the pope and thus provide stability to his and his heir’s power base?How did problems that began under the Merovingians continue under the rule of the Carolingians?Eastern Frank; first in the Carolingian line of kings after deposing those Franks that were in power; father of CharlemagneAachenThe pope worried that the Lombards would try to conquer and control Rome; the pope’s alliance with Pippin offered the church protection and gave Pippin the opportunity to seize more lands and establish himself as the preeminent king in western EuropeThe Carolingians continued the practice of rewarding loyal service with lands from the public fisc – eventually the king would run out of land to give away and any reason to remain loyal to the king would cease to exist; the only reason the Carolingians overcame this problem was their superior military skills; they replenished the fisc through warKeen, p. 30
35Charles the Great Also known as Charlemagne The son of Pippin the ShortHow is the rule of Charlemagne best described?The Franks were in a nearly constant state of war under the rule of Charlemagne; he engaged in a war against the Lombards to prevent their incursion into Rome and central Italy, and he fought a long protracted war with the Saxons from 772 until 804; he also fought the Spanish Saracens (Muslims, usually of Arab descent)
36Chivalry La Chanson de Roland Charlemagne’s troops march through the Basque country of Spain to meet with the Muslim governor of the city of SaragossaWhat is Roland’s temperament, especially in regard to his step-father?How does the story illustrate the concept of chivalry?Roland is a young knight, the nephew of Charlemagne – in council he speaks before his elders – Roland offers up his step-father as an envoy to the governor of Saragossa– seeing that the two previous ambassadors have come back to France in chopped up in small pieces and hand-delivered in a basket, it’s safe to assume that there’s a previous feud going on between the two
37Charles the GreatWhat was the importance of Charlemagne’s coronation which was headed by the pope?“Him, the catholic Church of Europe took as its emperor.”St. WillehadWhy would the Catholic Church ally itself with a secular king?The church was again unified with an empire that could provide protection and the means to spread the religion; the church offered Charlemagne and his heirs legitimacy – if you are against the Carolingians, then you are against the church, which means you are against God
38The Coronation of Charlemagne Christmas Day, 800
39Charles the Great “Your part is to aid our efforts with your prayers.” Charlemagne in a letter to Pope Leo III
41Charles the GreatHow did Charlemagne maintain a high level of military organization?How did this organization benefit him?All freemen were required to serve in the military; they would report to their local counts; all nobles were required to outfit their freemen with war materiel and suppliesCharlemagne extended the borders of his territory into the Saxon and Slavic lands on the eastern frontier and into Spain south of the Pyrenees
42Problems with Succession Both the Merovingians and Carolingians struggled with succession… why?What is primogeniture?What happened following the death of Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pious?The Franks did not have a system of primogeniture, which is the passing of the entire estate to the eldest son. Instead, all lands were divided as evenly as possible between all of the sons. As is understandable, this led to in-fighting among the sons. The empire was divided more and more with each succeeding generation. Upon the death of Louis the Pious, who had no plan for succession, the empire was to be divided into thirds. It was not until the Treaty of Verdun (843) that the lands of Charlemagne were divided between his three grandsons. Upon Lothar’s death his lands were split by Charles the Bald and Lewis the German. Lothar II receives title of emperor and the portion that includes the capital at Aachen.
43Succession of Frankish Kings Charles Martel “The Hammer”Pippin “the Short”CharlemagneLouis “the Pious”LotharLothar IICharlesLouis IICharles “the Bald”Louis “the German”
45Problems for the Empire What problems did the empire experience that made it difficult to keep it together?The empire included many different ethnicities and languages; the Italian portion of the empire was cut off from the rest of the empire geographically by the Alps, and the Italians had a strong trading relationship with the Orient; no common traditions or cultures; little fealty between kings and noblesAll of these problems would lead to the rise of a new dynasty: the Capetians