2 PurposeThe purpose of this presentation is to introduce Advanced Product Quality Planning to Aerospace SuppliersNote: The full APQP Introduction presentation is available to the public on the IAQG SCMH website (Hint: Google: “iaqg scmh” and then Bookmark it!
3 Supply Chain Management Handbook (SCMH) The APQP material is located in Chapter 8.4APQP Introduction
4 Document structureStructure for Aerospace APQP guidance material content:Definition and BenefitsAerospace APQP Model - PillarsOrganizational commitment & Management supportCross functional teamEffective project planningAerospace APQP model - PrinciplesProduct orientedStructurePhasesElementsDeliverablesChecklistProduction Part Approval Process (PPAP)Implementation and customizationAssessments/ratingsReportingEscalationRefer to the SCMH for more information
5 What is APQP? 5-Phase Quality Planning Cycle (PDCA) APQP is a structured method that deploys the necessary steps to assure that a product satisfies the customer5-Phase Quality Planning Cycle (PDCA)Up-front planning (First 3 phases)Implementation (Last 2 phases)Success DriversManagement commitmentIntegrated cross-functional teamsEffective project managementDefined deliverables & outputs for each phase
6 BackgroundThe IAQG Guidance material on APQP and PPAP builds on the principles of quality planning as pioneered by Deming from the 1950s and the Automotive industry during the later decades of the 20th Century.GM, Ford & Chrysler published the first combined APQP manual for the automotive industry in June 1994IAQG recognizes that the Aerospace industry is different from other industries and has developed guidance material which is tailored to suit companies working in this industry.Low volumesLong life cyclesHigh levels of regulation
7 BenefitsProducts are successfully launched when all functions/disciplines work together to achieve common project objectives. Aerospace APQP encourages cross functional teamwork and early engagement of all functions and suppliers.The APQP approach helps satisfy the customer with:Better product quality by reducing process variation and anticipating risks and defectsShorter lead time by reducing waste and reworks and better manage capacityLower costsThese steps will be summarized in a Quality Plan Timing that aids Program Management in tracking the development of the project to assure its goals are met at the time of launch (i.e. Maturity at Entry-Into-Service, EIS).Keep in mind that change is risk and what we need to do is to minimise and manage risks.It aids Program Management in tracking the development of a project to assure its goals are met at the time of launch. (ie. Maturity at Entry into Service, EIS) => This is what is important to the Work Package Leader.APQP HISTORYAdvanced Product Quality Planning, or APQP, was developed by Chrysler, Ford and General Motors, during the 1980s as an attempt to regain domestic market share from their growing Asian competitorsIn an effort to commonize requirements to the supply base a single standard was developed by the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG). It took 5 years to develop the standard, which was launched initially in 1994.While it mainly remains in the automotive industry, the APQP framework is a viable solution for any production environment.
9 Organizational commitment & management understanding and support Aerospace APQP main pillarsOrganizational commitment & management understanding and supportAerospace APQP brings success when it is embraced by the whole organizationTop management demonstrates commitment through:Completing specific APQP trainingAllocating appropriate resourcesLeading periodic reviewsStandardizing APQP practicesRemoving RoadblocksFull engagement and commitment of top managementfrom project launch is key.
10 Aerospace APQP main pillars Cross functional teamEstablish a cross functional team including: Engineering, Procurement, Manufacturing, Quality, Sales, Field Service, and others as appropriateThe team should consist of representatives from both the supplier and the customerRolesTeam leader (project management function) determines the team membership, guides, assigns tasks, escalates issues to managementMembers complete the required tasks and deliverablesQuality (APQP) management arranges for the meetings, ensures on-time and on-quality of deliverables, documents and recordsCross functional team approach ensures effective communication acrossthe business & enables faster product development.
11 Effective project planning Aerospace APQP main pillarsEffective project planningSchedule the tasks defined by the APQP elements and monitor them in order to deliver a product conforming to quality, cost and delivery targetsAerospace APQP Planning cascades program key targets throughout the value stream; driven from final customer through internal operations and all sub-tiersThis establishes a customer/supplier relationship throughout the value streamQuality Plan Timing Not to be confused with a Quality Timing Plan.We need to set milestones and have a prevention mindset. What we are trying to achieve with timing & planning is trying to plan to ensure we are aiming to achieve right first time.10 years ago we delivered an Aircraft on time. As Work Package Leader APQP is the framework to help us to deliver on Time and on Quality.If we deliver on time and not on Quality, we are affecting the timing upstream Refer to the AC-Element structure.The time plan needs to ensure that the systems engineering approach of decomposing the product into its constituent components will be considered by the various constituent components (product development layers) is taking into account the overall program timing (alignment).Team members need to be convinced that the tasks can be accomplished in the assigned timing slot, unrealistic timing mindset has to be avoided. Issues should be highlighted and solutions ralentlessly found.Commitment of the project team to Aerospace APQP planningis key to the project success.
12 Aerospace APQP main pillars Effective planning includes flow down of timing requirements throughout the value streamxxQRepresentativeDeliverableOwnerDeliverablesCustomerAPQPtimelineRequirementsProgress reportsSupplierAPQPtimelineQuality Plan Timing Not to be confused with a Quality Timing Plan.We need to set milestones and have a prevention mindset. What we are trying to achieve with timing & planning is trying to plan to ensure we are aiming to achieve right first time.10 years ago we delivered an Aircraft on time. As Work Package Leader APQP is the framework to help us to deliver on Time and on Quality.If we deliver on time and not on Quality, we are affecting the timing upstream Refer to the AC-Element structure.The time plan needs to ensure that the systems engineering approach of decomposing the product into its constituent components will be considered by the various constituent components (product development layers) is taking into account the overall program timing (alignment).Team members need to be convinced that the tasks can be accomplished in the assigned timing slot, unrealistic timing mindset has to be avoided. Issues should be highlighted and solutions ralentlessly found.xxQRepresentativeDeliverableOwnerDeliverables
13 Aerospace APQP Deliverables Aerospace APQP modelPhasesElementsAerospace APQP Deliverables5 PHASESELEMENTS DEFINING ACTIVITIESKEY DELIVERABLESThe structure is based on phases and is a cascade:Phases: Few (alignement with timing)Elements: Many / the things we want to concentrateCritical to Quality: Most (things are on Quality or not) - The things we want to measure
14 Aerospace APQP modelAerospace APQP enhances the product development processProduct Development Process (PDP) specifies activities across functions and suppliers, with associated deliverables and interim approvals at defined points, e.g. gate reviewsAerospace APQP aligns with Product Development ProcessEnsures that all activities are completed on-time and on-qualityFacilitates effective communicationProvides timely escalation and resolution of road blocks
15 Aerospace APQP model aligns with PDP Alignment with Product Development Process (PDP)APQP supports Product Development Process (PDP)Applies to each item of the product breakdown structureStandardizes deliverables for each Aerospace APQP PhaseEvaluates maturity based on timing and quality of required deliverablesEnd of conceptEnd of designProduction readinessProduct validationKick offProduct DevelopmentProcessAPQP phasesDAEBCAPQP milestones
16 Aerospace APQP model Cascade through Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) 3 - Report APQP status at project levelEnd of conceptEnd of designProduction readinessProduct validationKick offProduct DevelopmentProcessSystem levelSub-system levelComponents level1 - Cascade deliverables and align timing for each levelNote: Compressed timeline to support program timing2 - Bottom up status based on on-time on-quality deliverablesTypical PBS:system→ sub-system→ component
18 Aerospace APQP principles Aerospace APQP organized into 5 PhasesLogical steps to deliver a product from concept to production that can be applied to any product at any level across the supply chainThe 5 phases are:PlanningProduct design and developmentProcess design and developmentProduct and process validationProduction
19 Aerospace APQP principles Phase 1 – PlanningIdentifies and gathers all the inputs applicable to the productCollects the technical and non-technical requirements applicable to the project/productDefines the product and project goalsEnsures that the organization has decided what will be made in house and what will be purchased/sub-contractProvides an agreed timing for deliverables attached to each Aerospace APQP elementsOutputThe product concept is frozen (milestone A) and a pre-design is availableConcurrent product design and process design can start
20 Aerospace APQP principles Phase 2 - Product design & developmentTurns product specifications into a robust product definitionProvides a verified product designTeam commits to product manufacturabilityOutputSpecified prototype testing (e.g. simulation & functional testing) have been completedThe product design is verified and validated (milestone B) by the design organizationAny design changes after this phase requires change management
21 Aerospace APQP principles Phase 3 - Process design & developmentCreates a robust manufacturing process that meets requirements in terms of quantity and quality of productDefines the means to control the manufacturing process and its outputsOutputThe process is defined, established, verified (production readiness review - milestone C) and ready for validation.
22 Aerospace APQP principles Phase 4 - Product & process validation:Launches the significant production runCollects data to demonstrate the manufacturing and assembly processes can produce conforming product at the required rateManagement determines process readiness for entry into serial production by reviewing the results of:The product and process design is validated by the organizationProduction readiness evaluationCorrective actions taken for any issues identified to date
23 Aerospace APQP principles Phase 4 - Product & process validation:OutputStart of production & FAI (milestone D) verify that the initial product made using all full production means conforms to specified requirementsFirst Article Inspection (FAI) is compiled, approved and available for customer reviewProduction Part Approval Process (PPAP) (milestone E) is compiled, approved and available for customer review
24 Aerospace APQP principles Phase 5 - ProductionRecords Lessons Learned for continuous improvementEnsures robust product realization processes are in placeImplements actions to reduce product and process variation in order to achieve quality goalsSupports on-going Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO) operationsPerforms capacity monitoringOutputsProject goals are achieved, including reliability, quality, and customer satisfactionOn-time, on-quality, on-cost production and service
25 Aerospace APQP principles ElementsDescribes key activities accomplished during each Aerospace APQP phaseAssure the health of the project through monitoring on-time,on-quality key deliverablesEncourages a standardized approachApplicability evaluated for each projectPhasesElementsDeliverables
26 Aerospace APQP principles DeliverablesSpecific outputs defined for each elementTangible outcomes of the cross functional team activitiesProvides the base for assessing the on-quality of the Aerospace APQP elementsProvides standardized content wherever possible (e.g. FMEA, Control plan etc.)Element Descriptions coming soon!
27 Aerospace APQP principles ChecklistStandardized tool to evaluate on-quality of deliverables and elementsShort set of simple, clear questions which will deliver closed answers (Y/N)Provides document references as evidence and records deviationsCollects corrective actions to recover deviationsEstablishes the first level of Red/Yellow/Green ratingChecklists coming soon!PhasesElementsDeliverables
28 Aerospace APQP key milestones Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)PPAP validates that the manufacturing process has the potential to produce product that consistently meets all requirements at the intended production rate.Success DriversCompletion of key requirements at the right time during planning process (PPAP is an output of APQP)Risk mitigation and improved process controlLinkage of DFMEA PFMEA Control PlanProcess Capability validationProduct verification (FAI)Process Validation
29 SummaryAdvance Product Quality Planning (APQP) is taking hold in the Aerospace IndustryAPQP ensures the delivery of product on-time, on-quality, on costPPAP validates the production processThe full APQP Introduction presentation is available in Chapter 8.4 of the SCMHMore information on this topic will be available in November 2013