4 All over the world OUR RANGE 9.500 articles developed by IKEA of Sweden.IKEA GROUPFY10 the IKEA Group had operations in 41 countries.29 Trading Service Offices in 25 countries, 27 Distribution Centers and 11 Customer Distribution Centers in 16 countries.
5 All over the world IKEA STORES 325 stores in 38 countries. In addition 45 IKEA franchise stores in 26 Countries/territories.IKEA VISITORSFY10 the IKEA Group stores had 626 million visitors and the IKEA websites had 712 million visits.IKEA SUPPLIERSFY10 IKEA had 1,074 suppliers in 55 countries.
6 Towards Healthier & Safer Living Understanding, Identifying, Measuring, and Reducing Toxic Substances in FurnitureAgendaBackgroundHow IKEA works with chemicalsIdentifying and measuring toxic substancesResponsible for:To secure that the IKEA range sold in their country complies with the national requirements/legislation with regards to: Safety, Environment, Health, Quality and Legal InformationIn the supply chain we work to secure that our articles comply with IKEA requirements (one basis for these is legal requirements)
7 1. Background IKEA products are: Safe to use Responsibly produced Well designedCustomer friendlyDurable and functionalSafe to useResponsibly producedSafe to use – customers not having to worry, must feel – and be! – safeResponsibly produced – as regards chemicals, the working environment and the outside environment
8 Common Customer Questions Which materials areused in this product?Why does this productSmell so strange? Can you guarantee there is no health risk related to the smell?My child is allergic to some chemicals. Does this product contain these?Which product can you recommend us?Our customers care. During last years our customers’ awareness, knowledge and concerns grow, as well as media attention to chemicals in furniture materials.Are there any dangerous chemicals in this product?How is this producttreated (glue, lacquer, formaldehyde)?
9 Precautionary Principle "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically."These are the reasons why we follow the precautionary principle in IKEA. It means “Better safe than sorry”Example: in children’s articles we ban all phthalates, because we are sure that more than the 10 legally restricted phthalates are harmful, even if we don’t know for sure that all phthalates are equally harmful (maybe take in further slides, or skip as too detailed)Better safe than sorry!99
10 It’s about the ...... the IKEA brand, the brand, the brand! it consists of trust.IKEA brand is one of the most valuable brands in the World – and we need to keep it that way.Chemical demands are good and necessary for business – both IKEA’s and the IKEA supplier’s. Protect our brand – protect our suppliers’ business.
11 2. How IKEA works with chemicals I wrote IKEA of Sweden instead of IoS
12 Potential sources of hazardous chemicals Direct use of the substancee.g. as an additive in some chemical products used at IKEA supplier or at sub-sub(-etc)-supplierContaminationfrom recycled materialprocess contaminationInsufficient process controlSay: direct use can be far back in the supply chain, but still remain in the article. Take an example.Recycled mat is good, but we need to secure that it’s free from any hazardous or restricted compoundsExamples for process control and parameters of it (e.g. curing of paint/coating, gluing)Where do the hazardous chemicals come from? Usually three reasons…Direct use of the substance e.g. as an additive in some chemical products used. This may happen not only at the IKEA supplier, it can happen also at the sub-sub(-etc)-supplierContamination, either from recycled material, or from process contamination if restricted chemicals are used for other customers’ articles from the same factory.Insufficient process control. (Process control is important for some substances that participate in chemical reactions. E.g. FA in wood-based board)This is what the IKEA supplier has to secure!This is why we have chemical requirements in IKEA[?]
13 How IKEA works with chemical requirements in the purchasing process Supplier and IKEA agreeSupplier securesSupplier verifiesIKEA verifies the supplierContract between supplier and sub-supplier refers to IKEA requirements13
14 Verifying documentation Self declarationTool for communication to and from sub-suppliersSummarizes chemical requirementsTest reportTesting at IKEA approved labsSafety Data Sheet (SDS)IKEA requirement for all chemical productsThird-party supervisionbasically used to secure low formaldehyde emission from wood-based materialsSD: SD from sub-supplier shows us that they have received, understood and secured the IKEA requirements.Test report:Minimum documentation demands in IKEA specifications, but it is the supplier’s responsibility to test as much as is needed in order to secure complianceSDS: . 1. not complete info but one tool for knowing more, and 2. we require SDS also for non-hazardous chemical products (but how far back in the supply chain we go depends on if ordinary article or children’s or food-contact articleThird-party is an external organisation which performs regular (e.g. quarterly) audits at IKEA supplier and evaluates process control parameters, internal laboratory, personnel competence, and also takes samples for random testing. TPC is basically used to secure low formaldehyde emission from wood-based materials.SDS: IKEA requirement for all chemical products14
15 Process control requirements We also verify process control for following special processes at all suppliers:Injection molding of thermo-plasticsGluing of wood-based materialsPrinting on textileUV-coating on wood-based materialsPolyurethane foam productionInorganic coating on metalNote that there are other kinds of process control that need to be controlled! But in the cited cases we have specific IKEA guidelines for the process control.15
16 Process control requirements Input → Process → OutputThe process control at IKEA supplier is secured when:Process scheme is followedThe measurements are within tolerancesActual measurements are recordedVerification test report is availableWe perform quality audits to verify that the process control is performed according to IKEA standard at each supplier. Suppliers also refer to IKEA process control requirements when ordering materials for our productsIKEA allows deliveries from a supplier only if these requirements are fulfilled16
18 How we measure and identify toxic substances in IKEA Collect and analyze all verification test reports recieved from IKEA suppliersWith use of IKEA-approved laboratories, perform additional random or targeted ”spot tests” on samples taken from IKEA stores or warehouses18
19 How we measure and identify toxic substances in IKEA Since 2008: Perform XRF-screening of materials with use of hand-held XRF analyzers!Based on IKEA’s world-wide experience, perform material risk assessment to improve efficiency of additional verification19
20 Just a few examples of tests that we perform in laboratories on regular basis Lead in paint and lacqueringFormaldehyde in wood-based materialsAlkylphenolethoxylates in textileVolatile organic compounds emission from final articlesAll tests, when they are available, are done in accordance with the standard methods stated in specifications20
21 All tests are done in accordance with the standard methods stated in specifications An example of standard test method in IKEA chemical specification
22 X-Ray Fluorescence Handheld Analyzers In addition to laboratory testing, we have one more verification tool…X-Ray Fluorescence Handheld Analyzers22
23 XRF analysis in IKEAAdvantages of handheld XRF:Non-destructive, reliable and precise identification of hazardous elements in various materials, based on XRF FluorescenceEasy to use in office or take to supplier, to the store or raw material warehouseCompletely safe when used by trained staffThere is no radioactivity in the device. NO radiation when turned off. And radiation is minimal if you follow the simple rulesPrecise, easy, fast and reliable measurements as additional control to secure safety in IKEA23
24 XRF analysis in IKEA Quick and easy identification of: Lead in different surface coatings: paint/lacquer on wood, powder coatings, ceramic glazeLead and Cadmium in metal alloys, glass, polymeric, textileIt saves time, money and IKEA customers’ safety24
25 XRF analysis in IKEA Quick and easy identification of: Brominated flame-retardants in plastics, e.g. in expanded polystyreneUnapproved usage of external recycled polymerics or textile materialsIt saves time, money and IKEA customers’ safety25
26 XRF analysis in IKEAXRF allows IKEA to identify chemical risk and take precautionary actions even before sending samples for wet chemical testsIt saves time, money and IKEA customers’ safety26
27 XRF analysis in IKEA When we use XRF in IKEA: Final “gate-check” of a new product before the first delivery to IKEAScreening of raw materials at suppliers to identify possible source of contaminationInspections of products in the storesOther ad hoc activities, e.g. internal investigations27
28 XRF analysis in IKEA History of implementation: XRF has been used by IKEA Test Lab since 2008In XRF analyzers were purchased by IKEA Trading, i.e. all our biggest Trading offices of IKEA are now equipped with one XRF deviceAbout 15 specialists (XRF superusers) from IKEA Trading offices worldwide were trained personally by the producers of the XRF analyzer on two special trainings28
29 XRF analysis in IKEA History of implementation: Each XRF superuser in IKEA is able to provide support and training for other users in their office2011: IKEA Guideline document about how to use the XRF, how to handle typical materials and articles; and with emphasis on clear & simple safety instructions29