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# Quiz # 1 Chapters 1,2,3, & 4.

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Quiz # 1 Chapters 1,2,3, & 4

Analog and Digital Information
Information can be represented in one of two ways: analog or digital Analog data A continuous representation, analogous to the actual information it represents Digital data A discrete representation, breaking the information up into separate elements

Digitization Initially transforming data for computer use
Assigning people social security numbers The creation of telephone numbers Encoding information became the way to transform the real world into a context that the computer could understand

Information Metamorphosis
Fitting the real world into the computer Computer’s world Electronic Fast Binary Real World Multiple forms of data / information Imprecise / vague Non uniform speeds

Information Metamorphosis
Real World Data Forms Numeric Data Character Data Graphical / Visual Data Audio Data Instructional Data Methodology needed to transform real world data into computer world (binary)

Binary Number System Binary for numeric data Binary digit = Bit
8 Bits = Byte Smallest addressable unit within the computer 4 Bytes = Word Basic unit for arithmetic Contains 32 bits Converting from binary

Numeric Data Converting to binary Repeated division by 2
Remainders are the important part Read from bottom up as if left to right

Character Data Binary for Character Data
8 bit combinations assigned to a symbol Name for mapping process is ASCII table

Graphical Data Binary for Graphical Data

Graphical Data Binary for Graphical Data

Graphical Data Binary for Graphical Data
Each black pixel is represented as a “1” Each white pixel is represented as a “0” Pixels are grouped in units of 8 so they can be stored in 1 byte

Graphical Data A 1” picture scanned at 150 DPI (dots per inch)
Total size = 150 X 150  22,500 dots Memory required = 22,500 / 8  2,813 bytes Color requires more bits to represent each dot Using 8 bits for each dot allows for 256 different colors The 1” picture now requires 22,500 bytes

Graphical Data Printers are rated in DPI for print quality
Scanners are rated in DPI for image resolution Monitors / displays have display settings for display resolution 800 X 600 1024 X 768 1280 X 1024 1400 X 1050

Audio Data Binary for audio data Sound as a waveform
Y-axis represents voltage X-axis represents time Suppose the wave form shown represents 1 second of sound

Audio Data Divide Sample into segments

Audio Data Divide Sample into more segments

Audio Data Divide Sample into even more segments

Audio Data The more segments the better the re-created wave form
The given sample was divided into 34 segments (approx) An Audio CD utilizes 44,000 samples per second of sound

Instructional Data Binary for Instructional Data
Instructional Data has not only content but sequence Driving directions to NJ Aquarium Designated number of steps Sequence of steps is critical to success Rearranging sequence will not get you to the NJ Acquarium Recipe / Directions / Program

The Unicode Character Set
Extended ASCII is not enough for international use One Unicode mapping uses 16 bits per character How many characters can this mapping represent? Unicode is a superset of ASCII The first 256 characters correspond exactly to the extended ASCII character set

Keyword Encoding Replace frequently used words with a single character

Run-Length Encoding A single character may be repeated over and over again in a long sequence Replace a repeated sequence with a flag character repeated character number of repetitions *n8 * is the flag character n is the repeated character 8 is the number of times n is repeated

Huffman Encoding In Huffman encoding no character's bit string is the prefix of any other character's bit string To decode look for match left to right, bit by bit record letter when a match is found begin where you left off,going left to right

Digitized Images and Graphics
Digitizing a picture Representing it as a collection of individual dots called pixels Resolution The number of pixels used to represent a picture Raster Graphics Storage of data on a pixel-by-pixel basis Bitmap (BMP), GIF, JPEG, and PNG are raster-grahics formats

Digitized Images and Graphics
Bitmap format Contains the pixel color values of the image from left to right and from top to bottom GIF format (indexed color) Each image is made up of only 256 colors JPEG format Averages color hues over short distances PNG format Like GIF but achieves greater compression with wider range of color depths Which is better for line drawings? Pictures?

Vector Graphics Vector graphics
A format that describes an image in terms of lines and geometric shapes A vector graphic is a series of commands that describe a line’s direction, thickness, and color The file sizes tend to be smaller because not every pixel is described

Vector Graphics The good side and the bad side…
Vector graphics can be resized mathematically and changes can be calculated dynamically as needed Vector graphics are not good for representing real-world images

Computers and Electricity
Gate A device that performs a basic operation on electrical signals Circuits Gates combined to perform more complicated tasks

Computers and Electricity
How do we describe the behavior of gates and circuits? Boolean expressions Uses Boolean algebra, a mathematical notation for expressing two-valued logic Logic diagrams A graphical representation of a circuit; each gate has its own symbol Truth tables A table showing all possible input value and the associated output values

NOT Gate A NOT gate accepts one input signal (0 or 1) and returns the opposite signal as output Figure 4.1 Various representations of a NOT gate

AND Gate An AND gate accepts two input signals
If both are 1, the output is 1; otherwise, the output is 0 Figure 4.2 Various representations of an AND gate

OR Gate An OR gate accepts two input signals
If both are 0, the output is 0; otherwise, the output is 1 Figure 4.3 Various representations of a OR gate

XOR Gate An XOR gate accepts two input signals
If both are the same, the output is 0; otherwise, the output is 1 Figure 4.4 Various representations of an XOR gate

NAND Gate The NAND gate accepts two input signals
If both are 1, the output is 0; otherwise, the output is 1 Figure 4.5 Various representations of a NAND gate

NOR Gate The NOR gate accepts two input signals
If both are 0, the output is 1; otherwise, the output is 0 Figure 4.6 Various representations of a NOR gate

Combinational Circuits
Gates are combined into circuits by using the output of one gate as the input for another

Combinational Circuits
Three inputs require eight rows to describe all possible input combinations This same circuit using a Boolean expression is (AB + AC)

Combinational Circuits
Consider the following Boolean expression A(B + C) Does this truth table look familiar? Compare it with previous table

Combinational Circuits
Circuit equivalence Two circuits that produce the same output for identical input Boolean algebra allows us to apply provable mathematical principles to help design circuits A(B + C) = AB + BC (distributive law) so circuits must be equivalent

Adders The result of adding two binary digits could produce a carry value Recall that = 10 in base two Half adder A circuit that computes the sum of two bits and produces the correct carry bit Truth table

Adders sum = A  B carry = AB
Circuit diagram representing a half adder Boolean expressions sum = A  B carry = AB

Adders Full adder A circuit that takes the carry-in value into account
Figure A full adder

Circuits as Memory The design of this circuit guarantees that the two outputs X and Y are always complements of each other The value of X at any point in time is considered to be the current state of the circuit Therefore, if X is 1, the circuit is storing a 1; if X is 0, the circuit is storing a 0 Figure An S-R latch

Ethical Issues Email Privacy Explain why privacy is an illusion.
Who can read your ? Do you send personal from work? Does everyone in your family use ?

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