4Taste taste based on chemistry= soluble substances (stimuli) Have a cooperative working relationship with smell(onion taste is really mostly smell)Also when You have a cold, food has no taste because you cannot smell itGustation- Sense of taste: Sweet, sour, bitter and saltyNow Umani ( MSG in Asian foods) Found naturally in meats, seafood, cheese)
5Taste description- tell me all about it Taste receptors- taste Buds, located on top and side of tongueTaste buds contain primary receptorsReceptors cluster in papillae a mucus membrane.“Hotline” carries information to the brainTaste is realized in the parietal lobe’s somatosensory cortex.Small children= sensitive taste buds, older= loosing sensation
6Five tastes Five basic tastes chapter 6Five tastesFive basic tastesSalty, sour, bitter, sweet, umamiDifferent people have different tastes based on:GeneticsCultureLearningFood attractiveness
7Smell: the sense of scents chapter 6Smell: the sense of scentsAirborne chemical molecules enter the nose and circulate through the nasal cavity.Vapors can also enter through the mouth and pass into nasal cavity.Receptors on the roof of the nasal cavity detect these molecules.
8SmellOlfaction- Sense of smell; chain reaction of biochemical events. 1,000’s of volatile substances (stimuli)1st odors (airborne chemicals) interact with receptor proteins (tiny hairs in the nose)2nd Stimulated nerve cells (like the ear) convey information to the olfactory bulbs.Located in underside of the brain, by frontal lobes
9More smell Olfaction has strong connection to memory. In primitive organisms, used to detect decaying foodAnimals use smell for communication: ants, termites, dogs, catsPheromones: Secreting and detecting odors.Primarily used for sexual receptivity (perfume), territorial boundaries ( dog peeing) food sources (grandmas kitchen!)
10Skin SensesProtects against injury, holds body fluids, regulates temp.Skin has nerve endings that produce sensations: touch, warm, cold (receptors)Skin Senses connected to somatosensory cortex (Like taste)10x more sensitive in our fingersTouch is primary stimulus for sexual arousalExternal contact is stimuli
12Pain Gate-Control Theory: Melzack and Wall Explains why pain can be blocked by drugs, competing stimuli (as in acupuncture) or even the expectation of treatment effects2 sensory pathways from organ to brainPain stimulus= tissue damage
13Gate-control theory of pain chapter 6Gate-control theory of painExperience of pain depends in part on whether the pain gets past a neurological “gate” in the spinal cord.
14Gate-control theory revised chapter 6Gate-control theory revisedThe matrix of neurons in the brain is capable of generating pain (and other sensations) in the absence of signals from sensory nerves.
15Gate Control Theory (1st one) 1st route- has neurons with a fatty myelin covering their axons, handles methods quickly.Fast fibers- deliver most information to brain.2nd route- No fatty sheaths, slowerHypothesis- Fast fibers can block slow fibers=stop pain. Close gate
16More GCTFor example, when you hit hand with hammer, you immediately begin to shake it. Thus generating fast fibers to close the gate of pain“Gate” is a region in the brain stem called periaqueductal gray (PAG)Pain blocking opiates and endorphins act on PAG
17Dealing with painPain is essential to survival-warns of harm, survive in hostile environments, treatments for illness.Congenital insensitivity do not feel what is hurting them= scars-deformationAnalgesic drugs: aspirin, Ibuprofen, prescriptions- morphine =controls endorphins.
18More painCan control pain with hypnosis, deep relaxation or thought distracting procedures.Placebo- pill made of sugar/saline injection.If you think you are receiving pain relief, your brain releases painkilling endorphinsShow up on brain scans
19Pain Tolerance Varies from person to person Electro shocks are the testing methodGreater activation of thalamus= greater pain tolerance
20The environment within chapter 6The environment withinKinesthesisThe sense of body position and movement of body partsEquilibriumThe sense of balanceSemicircular canalsSense organs in the inner ear, which contribute to equilibrium by responding to rotation of the head
21Position and movementNeed constant info. about body parts and relationships to our environmentVestibular sense- The body position sense that orients us with respect to gravityUsed in posture of head, straight, leaning, tilted. Also tells us when we are moving or how motion is changingReceptors are tiny hairs, semicircular canals, like the basilar membrane in the ear.
22Inside BodyKinesthetic sense- other sense of body position and movement. Keeps track of body parts relative to each otherFor example crossing your legs, knowing which hand is closest to the phone. Constant feedbackReceptors are in joints, muscles, tendons.Connect to parietal lobes in brain.Automatic unless learning new skill. Golf swing or playing an instrument