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Learning Design beyond the school gate

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1 Learning Design beyond the school gate
bringing together the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of teaching and learning for improved learner engagement and achievement South Australian DECD Teaching and Learning Services 1

2 User notes Materials required: Bubble gum and bubble blowers
Copies of TfEL Framework guide For copyright reasons, no film clips are embedded in this PowerPoint. Instead the URLs are provided. Schools will need internet access to view the film clips. 2

3 Today, together, we will wear 3 hats
I am a learner 'What do I need to do to build my skills so I can help others build theirs?' I am responsible for other people’s learning 'How can what I learn today impact on the learning of my colleagues, my students and the people I lead?' I need to be a project leader of learning 'How do I continually challenge myself to build engaged and inquisitive learners?' 3

4 In this session, we will…
engage in rigorous thinking discuss this thinking together… Explain the intentions for this learning today using a creative example (in an engaging way) from beyond the school gate make visible the thinking behind intentional and responsive learning experiences © Hawkexpress,‘Human Brain Evolution’, used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) licence Image: 'paint the mutha green' 4

5 The ‘what’ – curriculum What do we want them to learn?
How will we know if they got it? Facilitation Notes: This is the concept – bringing together the what and how of teaching and learning: what we want them to learn and how we want them to experience that learning through the pedagogy we use – learning experiences that are connected and meaningful to them. In the past, introduction of new curriculum has traditionally focused on the ‘what’ – this is the content of the new Australian Curriculum, the Early Years Learning Framework and the SACE. We now know from numerous research studies, such as TALIS from OECD (2009), and neuroscience that the ‘how’ is important – how we engage learners in the learning; how we interest them in the learning in the first place; how we help them make sense of what they are exploring and developing understanding about; and whether they see it as part of their lives or just ‘stuff’ you hear about. So how will we get there? The ‘how’ – pedagogy 5 5 5

6 So what exactly is Learning Design?
Engaging with the Australian Curriculum – History in DECD through Learning Design Year 4-5 Click the link to access the video on the DECD YouTube. This clip shows Learning Design through a history perspective in a South Australian primary classroom. Each step of the process is explained. bringing together the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of teaching and learning for improved learner engagement and achievement South Australian DECD Teaching and Learning Services 6

7 Learning Design Doing this thinking together
The key idea in designing learning is about ‘doing the thinking together’: really getting to the heart of what we want our kids to learn as well as what they bring to the learning together finding and sharing ways that connect the curriculum with our students ensuring that the learning experiences we engage kids in are rich in types of assessment that continue to move each student’s learning forward Think deeply about the intended learning for students as well as drawing on what they already bring. Find ways to connect the curriculum with the learners so they are truly engaged in their learning. Design learning experiences that are rich in assessment processes which both inform the teaching and students’progress. 7

8 Let’s look at the TfEL framework
Let’s look at the TfEL framework. Each mouse click will relate to the dot points below. In this PowerPoint we are focusing on: designing, planning and organising for teaching and learning to further develop our deep pedagogical and content knowledge through learning and talking in learning communities all the while gaining a greater understanding of how we and others learn We are really focusing on the element ‘explore the construction of knowledge’: the element we have found to be the causal element across the whole of the TfEL framework —the pivotal element that connects the other elements to the learning. Our research has shown that in South Australia teachers demonstrate particularly strong pedagogy in the first 2 elements of Domain 2. 8

9 Learning Design Designing the teaching and learning plan
All teachers plan. We want our teachers to be creative and engaging designers of learning: thinking deeply not only about what we teach, but also how we teach will create engaging and challenging experiences for our students. Learning Design makes our thinking visible: it makes our teaching plan intentional and responsive, and it creates opportunities for educators to plan and design learning together. As the diagram demonstrates, designing the teaching and learning plan requires a great deal of thinking. The process we will run through today will help make this thinking visible so we can feed this into a plan that is intentional and responsive to all of our learners’ needs. This PowerPoint explains the process and poses questions for you to explore in future learning sessions with your colleagues. TfEL 1.6 Design, plan and organise for learning and teaching. 9

10 Making meaning of Learning Design using a learning experience from beyond the school gate
Begin with a simple concept, as a way of understanding this design. Think about the learning concept and relate it to the learning you are responsible for. This PowerPoint just scratches the surface by putting the learning into the context of Learning Design. The DECD Leaders’ resource webpage also has a lot of information on learning design. The same material was sent out to all schools on a dvd (Leaders’ resource) and the material is replicated in a DECD moodle site (further details in later slides). This PowerPoint is intended to create some curiosity and perhaps touch on areas to investigate further to build your capacity as educators. This design process can be used to design student and adult learning, and was used to design this learning. The implementation of the AC will be complete in We have a great deal of time to work in this space and develop our knowledge and thinking in this area. No-one expects us to be experts yet, but we do invite people to play in this space together to get a clear and deep understanding of teaching and learning to give our students an exciting start to their future lives. Image: 'paint the mutha green' 10

11 Blowing bubbles Let’s have a go together!
A fun activity for most children/ adults for generations around the world... past and present. Some make a career of it! Making meaning of a concept outside your learning area is often a good way to understand it. Everyone has encountered the art of blowing bubbles sometime in their life: some have gone on to make a career of it. This presentation takes this concept and invites you to think about how it relates to the learning you are responsible for. What key messages have you heard that you can take back and develop yourself and with your colleagues? Image: '12 of 365' 11

12 Why focus on bubbles? Bubbles, a phenomenon of nature, have always been around, but the sport of playing with bubbles didn’t really exist before the invention of soap. Pears, in 1886, first used the image of bubbles to advertise their soap product. Bubble gum as we know it was invented in by Walter Diemer, with $1.5m sales in first year. The Wrigley company is one of the single biggest users of mint worldwide: it employs 16,000 people and has retail sales for gum of $2 billion a year in the US alone. Chewing gum is included in field and combat rations for the Australian Armed Forces. Bubbles were chosen because they are big business. In the US alone, retail sales for bubble gum tops $2 billion. When invented in 1923, sales topped $1.5 million in the first year—huge money in Diemer, a salesmen for the company, invented the gum through a moment of creative insight in his back shed. It has been predominately pink for many years because it was the only food colouring he had in his cupboard at the time. He never patented the idea: he was just happy he’d made kids happy around the world. Image: 'Blowfly blowing bubbles' 'I've done something with my life. I've made kids happy around the world.' Walter Diemer Image: 'Day 21/365' 12

13 Learning Design Step 1 What is the intended learning and why is it important? So let’s unpack the model, while focusing on bubble blowing. 13

14 Bubble blowing: Why is this learning important as a human being?
TfEL Domain 4: Personalising and connecting the learning. How would kids’ lives be different without this skill, knowledge, understanding? What could kids not do? Where do we see this learning demonstrated in our everyday lives? Take time out to think about and answer these questions. Being clear in our minds why we are teaching this skill will enable us to be intentional with our teaching Image: 'more bubbles' 14

15 Share initial meanings
What is the intended learning and why is it important? The Learning: Bubble blowing What this means to me… an important part of children’s social development important for fine motor skill development in children, especially special needs students enables the development of other skills. The big ideas, essential questions and understandings in this for me… an important development strategy takes persistence and practice fun high intrinsic value creates a sense of wonder. Once we’ve been through this process we are able to make clarity, making clear the big ideas of this learning. Where could this learning lead to? Image: 'Pompas2' 15

16 Read the relevant Australian Curriculum references
Look at the different learning areas. For example, for Science, look at the Organisation and the Foundation–Year 10 Curriculum to find year level descriptions, content descriptions and achievement standards that could provide a connection. Bubble blowing is not learning that we would find in the Australian Curriculum (AC). And this was not the intention for the learning in this PowerPoint. However, unpacking the learning begins with the AC. This activity could lead to and open up huge possibilities for future learning in many curriculum areas—think of the links you could make to learning experiences using this as a hook to engage students’ interests. For example, using the Science learning area as an example, select the ‘Organisation’ tab and look at the overarching ideas. One of these is ‘stability and change’. This might provide a connection to kids’ interests around bubble blowing. Furthermore, a year 5 content descriptor is: ‘Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways’. The elaborations for this content descriptor are: recognising that substances exist in different states depending on the temperature observing that gases have mass and take up space, demonstrated by using balloons or bubbles exploring the way solids, liquids and gases change under different situations such as heating and cooling recognising that not all substances can be easily classified on the basis of their observable properties. But there are many other ways you can connect the learning to the Australian Curriculum. 16

17 Getting to shared understanding is important.
Step 1 Getting to shared understanding is important. 17

18 Learning Design Step 1 What is the intended learning and why is it important? So let’s unpack the model, while focusing on bubble blowing. TfEL 4.1 Build on learners understandings. 18

19 'Inspire me! What tomorrow will bring'
Are these our students? 'Inspire me! What tomorrow will bring' Children and young people are at the centre of everything we do. What are we facing in the 21st century? Click on the link to view the clip. While watching this, think about the key messages they are giving. What jumps out at you, at the end of the film? Chat to the person next to you about a key point you found interesting. What do these students have in common with ours? 19

20 Process – What about our kids? What do they bring? 
Think of students in your class/school. What do they have in their virtual backpack when they come to school every day? strengths/skills experiences/knowledge understandings/misconceptions. How will this impact on their ability to learn (to blow bubbles)? How do we capture and enable this to be shown? No one day is ever the same in teaching. Understanding students’ learning dispositions—understanding what they bring to the classroom in knowledge, skills, and their learning identity—is vitally important as a teacher and leader in a school setting. These may differ from subject to subject, even unit to unit. Understanding this will help you set the tone for the classroom, and give you a real heads-up in delivering a curriculum that will engage all learners and help you prepare for the days when their bag is full of bad baggage from beyond the school gate. Think about one student in your school or class. Run through this list in your head. Share your thinking with a colleague. Image: 'boy, with back pack, running' 20

21 Interest – key to learning The greatest resource available to teachers!
'Persistence and effort. Research has shown that when a student has interest in a task, he or she is likely to expend more effort and persist longer at that task. Interest has been shown to lead to more persistent motivation and greater effort in a range of learning tasks.’ Edelson & Joseph, 1991, p.9 Edelson & Joseph have drawn on the research of Hannover, 1998; Nenniger, 1987; Schiefele, 1991; Schiefele, Wild, & Winteler, 1995; Wade 1992 21

22 You are my class: What do you bring?
Demonstrating existing understandings, skills and knowledge Bubble challenge: Have a go at blowing the biggest bubble you can! Time for a break and an activity. You are my class. How do you go at blowing bubbles? You may already be munching on your gum: if you are not, you are invited to now. If you have a bubble blower, get it out. Let’s see who can blow the biggest bubble! You have a couple of minutes to give it a go. Good luck! Image: 'more bubbles' 22

23 How else could I find out what you bring?
Notice self Do you engage or retreat...or even really care? Powerful teaching comes when we see learning through the eyes of our students. What was your disposition to that activity? How does this relate to the classroom? How else could this have been done? Image: 'reflections (A)' How else could I find out what you bring? TfEL 4.1 Build on learners’ understandings. Key actions - Students Record what they know and understand by writing, drawing or other ways that show it best. 23

24 4.1 Personalise and connect learning Build on learners’ understandings
TfEL Ways to…> Ideas for practice TfEL Framework guide pp. 65 and 66 tan panels: ideas for practice Support this with key actions and language from the guide Reflection partners: Students work with a partner to reflect on their learning. Useful starters are: ‘I know what I’m learning about because...’, ‘I could use this learning elsewhere by...’, ‘This is my understanding...This is how I got to it...’, ‘I came to this conclusion because...’, ‘I heard you say...Is this what you meant...?’. Starting from scratch: Pose brainteasers to create new challenges for students. Some triggers might include: Structures in nature-what use are they to us? Light-who needs it? Taste-how do we change it? What can’t we measure? After students choose a brainteaser, ask them what they make of it, what is the big concept, how much do they already know about it, and how many ways can their thinking go. Have fun with all the interpretations and build new knowledge together. What is one reflection question you could ask students to reflect on for this learning? What’s a brainteaser you could pose to create new challenges for your students? 24

25 RECAP Step 2 Interest is key to learning.
We can build growth mindsets by affirming and acknowledging effort. Challenge builds positive learner identify. 25

26 Learning Design Step 3 What could the intended learning look like at this level? 26

27 What could the intended learning look like at this level?
What does ‘at this level’ mean? How will students know what is high quality learning? What examples have we seen of high quality learning at this level? What intended learning is not evident in the achievement standard? How do you find this learning? There are 5 key questions that teachers need to think about when considering what the intended learning looks like at this level. 27

28 What does ‘at this level’ mean?
Image: '12 of 365' Image: 'truman blowing bubbles, army family day' For bubble blowing, it is relatively simple. Knowing where your learners are, and the level you expect them to reach before moving on to the next stage, is important information to share. The curriculum has continuums that are very clear about what ‘at this level’ means, and what is expected to be achieved in this level. Knowing these will help to plan intentional and relevant learning opportunities for our students to achieve positive learning outcomes, while all the time challenging them to stretch their learning. To view the continuum of learning, you can go to the AC website and either: Select download from the tabs at the top and check the learning area in which you are interested and the scope and sequence charts or Go to the curriculum learning are in which you are interested, select ‘Foundation to year 10’ and choose ‘view year levels in columns across the page’ (third option) Image: 'Blowing Bubbles' Image: 'Day 253/365' Image: 'IMG_7748' 28

29 How will students know what comprises high quality learning?
Image: 'Little Pencil free creative commons' 29

30 Examples of high quality learning
Click on the links below for examples of high quality bubble blowing learning: Clip 1: Small girl making huge bubbles with sticks and string Clip 2: Blowing bubblegum bubbles within bubbles Clip 3: Glass blowing What other learning will be taking place not evident in achievement standards? Persistence, collaboration, peer teaching, peer support, absorption, fine motor development, creative thinking/ designing, experimentation, prediction, hypothesising, recording and evaluating, the use of ICT Imagine sharing these clips with your students, what would be their response? Do you think they’d accept the challenge to reach this level of learning? Think about the learning that would take place that we would not see in the achievement standards 30

31 Step 3 Let our kids in on the secret of what high quality learning is.
Not all of the intended learning is evident in the Achievement Standards in the Australian Curriculum. 31

32 Learning Design Step 4 What evidence will enable us to assess the intended learning? TfEL 4.3 Apply and assess learning in authentic contexts 32

33 Process - What evidence will enable us to assess the intended learning?
What are the multiple ways learners can show their learning? Does feedback cause thinking and learning dialogue? What opportunities are there for self and peer assessment? Assessment that is responsive and for learner engagement There are three key areas we need to think about in assessment: Are we allowing our students multiple ways to demonstrate their learning? Are we providing feedback that causes thinking and learning dialogue which moves learning forward? Does self and peer assessment happen in our classrooms? 33

34 Process - Assessment of learning
Watch Iowa State Fair - Bubble gum blowing contest: Is this one assessment strategy enough? How else could we assess this learning? Think about the 3 key questions from the previous slide. Imagine it’s the end of the unit on detergent bubbles and bubblegum blowing. Next week the class is moving onto whistle pops, making music with those lovely sweet lollypops. This is my test at the end of the unit, the only assessment strategy I’ve used. There wasn’t time to do detergent bubbles, as there were none in the sink this morning: bubblegum will have to do! The blue ribbons get an A, the 2 inch a B, 1 inch a C, everyone who didn’t blow one an E. ‘I taught it, its nor my fault if they didn’t learn it.’ Watch the clip until the 1 minute 15 second stage to get the point of the discussion task. Now think about the two big questions on this slide, while reflecting on the 3 key questions from the previous slide. What are the multiple ways learners can show their learning? Does feedback cause thinking and learning dialogue? What opportunities are there for self and peer assessment? 34

35 Process – Checking for understanding
WHY? '… knowing that six or seven students understand is not the same as knowing that 32 do…' Fisher D & Frey N, 2007, p.48 Why do assessment? It is a way of knowing where all of our students are and determining the next steps for each student to move their learning forward. How often do we ask 'Are there any questions?' and rely only on a few voices, not knowing if those who are silent get it at all? Or how often do kids tell us that they don’t get it, or they ask for us to show them another way so that they do? 35

36 4.3 Personalise and connect learning Apply and assess in authentic contexts
TfEL Ways to…> Ideas for practice TfEL Framework guide pp. 73 and 74 tan panels: ideas for practice Round table conference: This is a forum for students to immerse themselves in their heart, hand and mind interests and share their passion with others. Each student plans and gives a presentation/demonstration on an issue/activity in which they feel knowledgable and confident. The panel members can be peers and/or adults, from within the school or across the broader community. Dialogue is question-driven and spontaneous. Learning shots: Students use digital cameras to capture ‘learning moments’ throughout a unit of work. Students develop captions for each shot that describe their thinking and progress made at each stage. Post these on the wall to create a ‘Learning moments’ wall collage. (Ensure that permission for photographs to be taken has been obtained from parents/guardians.) How then can we check for understanding along the way? Here are two examples from the tan panels in the TfEL Framework Guide. They provide concrete examples to try in your classroom. These activities can then be linked to the key actions and language you can use as a teacher, and the key actions you’d promote in your students. 36

37 RECAP Step 4 Feedback should cause thinking and move the learning forward. Do our assessment practices provide our students with multiple ways to demonstrate their understanding? 37

38 Learning Design Step 5 How will we engage, challenge and support their learning? TfEL 2.4 Challenge students to achieve high standards with appropriate support 38

39 The teacher’s role… ignite the passion draw out or provoke existing understanding awaken the craving to understand '…people learn constantly from what they see others do, and from what they are helped to do for themselves…' Smith F, 2006, p. 123 So, what’s our role as teachers in this? Our own engagement as teachers has a significant impact too. Consider your own teachers along the way who have been passionately engaged in the learning and how you were drawn in as a result. Most of us have a teacher we can remember who was an excellent role model and from whom we learnt a huge amount—they may equally have shaped our teaching and leadership careers. Image: 'Beyond The Flame' 39

40 2.4 Challenge students to achieve high standards with appropriate support
Essence: The teacher has high expectations and guides each student to achieve his/her personal best. Go to page 40 of the TfEL Framework. High expectations and the teacher’s role in guiding each learner to achieve success is encapsulated in the essence statement from the TfEL framework. If the teacher believes all of their students will blow bubbles, and supports them to achieve this, then the students probably will! Image: 'Below' 40

41 Process - 2.4 Challenge students to achieve high standards with appropriate support
TfEL guide, p.40 Key action - teacher Share my excitement and my own learning examples with my students Idea for practice Learning wall Each of the elements in Domains 2, 3, 4 in the TfEL Framework guide are set out in the same way. Process: Open the guides to page 40. What key actions would you consider developing in your classroom if you were teaching the skill of bubble blowing? Discuss in groups which key actions, and ideas for practice you would promote in your classroom. Key action - student Believe in myself, use my learning strengths and have a go —I can do it. 41

42 This element is not demonstrated if:
All tasks are geared towards final summative tests, without formative assessment to guide student progress. Practice check How do I challenge individuals and acknowledge initiative and progress? Turn the page Language teachers can use to challenge students – helps to get in the zone - teacher prompts Not demonstrated if – turned out to be one of the most powerful parts in helping us be clear about what NOT to do Practice check – quick self check How would you use these to ensure this element was being demonstrated in your classroom? Language to use to challenge students Do you understand it well enough to teach it to someone else? 42

43 Teachers are dedicated and enthusiastic, wanting the best for their students.
The TfEL Framework draws on each element to support all the others. Highlighted here is ‘challenge and support’, but another key element which complements this is ‘promoting dialogue as a means of learning’, and ‘communicating learning in multiple modes’. The framework is rich in strategies, language and key actions to build on your teaching pedagogy. Use the TfEL Framework guide as a window into your teaching practice and as a reference to continually tweak and refine the things you do. Developing key aspects of your language and actions will help engage and challenge your students to greater learning experiences. 43

44 RECAP Box 5 Engagement beyond compliance.
Expect to have an impact on achievement. Stretch ALL our learners. 44

45 Learning Design Step 6 Designing the teaching and learning plan
Learning Design makes our thinking visible: it makes our teaching plan intentional and responsive, and it creates opportunities for educators to plan and design learning together. By bringing together the intended learning and exploring why it is important what we know our students bring to this learning what the intended learning might look like at this level and how we can share this with our students the multiple ways in which we can use evidence to assess the intended learning ways to engage, challenge and support our students learning We can then design the teaching and learning plan. TfEL 1.6 Design, plan and organise for learning and teaching. 45

46 Drawing on your thinking, actions, language and activities from the TfEL elements in the framework will also support this planning. 46

47 RECAP Box 6 Bringing together the thinking from the steps in the learning process. Having a greater understanding of what we are teaching, why we are teaching, and how we do this effectively. 47

48 In summary South Australia’s approach is unique.
We believe our teachers and leaders can do this! This is staged learning: we are working toward automaticity in our thinking. This new process requires deep, collaborative and, sometimes, messy thinking and builds on what we already do—and do well. Best when learning with your peers/colleagues in PLCs, learning teams or faculty groups. Things to think about after today: What extra ‘ingredients’ can you use to engage students in rich learning experiences? How can you do this thinking ‘together’? Facilitation Notes 48

49 Supporting resources Online:
and and the Leader’s Resource DVD 49

50 References Edelson DC & Joseph DM (2004) ‘Motivating Active Learning: A Design Framework for Interest-Driven Learning’, Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Learning sciences, International Society of the Learning Sciences, pp. 166–173, available at (accessed 14 August 2012) Fisher, D & Frey, N (2007) Checking for Understanding: Formative Assessment Techniques for Your Classroom, ASCD, Alexandria, VA OECD (2009) Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First results from TALIS, OECD Publishing, available at (accessed 6 August 2012) Smith F (2006) ‘Insult to Intelligence: The bureaucratic invasion of our classrooms’, available at (accessed 6 August 2012) 50

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