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LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Environmental Life Cycle Assessment 1 Firoz Jameel, Jesse Daystar and Richard.

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Presentation on theme: "LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Environmental Life Cycle Assessment 1 Firoz Jameel, Jesse Daystar and Richard."— Presentation transcript:

1 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Environmental Life Cycle Assessment 1 Firoz Jameel, Jesse Daystar and Richard A. Venditti* Department of Wood and Paper Science North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC *Corresponding author: (919)

2 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Introduction Learning Objectives of this section: a)Be able to define a LCA b)To understand an LCAs importance c)To identify important aspects of an LCA 2

3 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Sustainability? How do we supply societies needs without harming the environment or future generations ability to meet their needs? We have many options to meet our demands. How to choose the best option? Life cycle assessment helps to inform our choices. 3

4 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review What is a Life Cycle Assessment ? Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the potential environmental impacts of products, systems, or services at all stages in their life cycle [ISO 14001:2004]. Types of LCA Cradle to Gate: raw materials to finished good (no use or end life considerations) Cradle to Grave: Considers everything from harvesting materials to the disposal of the finished goods 4

5 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Example LCA Process 5 Production Transportation UseDisposal Recycle Energy Waste Emissions to air and water Recycled Materials Raw Materials Energy Waste

6 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Why is an LCA Important? Helps ensure compliance with government regulations Helps decrease the environmental impact of a given product -Identifies ways to improve sustainability -Identifies ways to green all aspects of products life Can reshape company strategy Can help marketing -Can reshape company image -Develop product advantage of competition 6

7 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Important Aspects of Life Cycle Assessment Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 7

8 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Goal and Scope Definition Learning Objectives of this section: a)To understand how to properly define the goals of an LCA b)To understand how to establish the boundaries of an LCA 8

9 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Defining Goals Should state the intent of the study –Intended application –Intended use –Intended audience Should also include reason for the study 9

10 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Defining Scope Define functional unit of product Help establish system boundaries for the LCA Determine data collection methods 10

11 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Goal and Scope Definition: Your Turn Exercise: Define the goal and scope of an LCA designed to study the life cycle of a peanut butter and jelly sandwich 11

12 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Important Aspects of Life Cycle Assessment Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 12

13 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis Learning Objectives of this section: a)To understand what needs to be included in an inventory analysis b)To understand the steps and processes included in an inventory analysis 13

14 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: What Needs to be Included? All relevant stages of the life of a product –Raw Materials/Energy Needs –Manufacturing –Transportation, Storage & Distribution –Use, reuse, and maintenance –Recycle & Waste Management 14 ProductionTransportationUseDisposal Recycle Energy WasteWaste WasteWaste WasteWaste WasteWaste Emissions to air and water Recycled Materials Raw Materials Energy WasteWaste

15 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: Setup In an LCA, it is necessary to standardize all units of measure For measuring energy use –Use mega joules (MJ) to measure potential energy from non-renewable sources –Use kilowatt hours (kW-h) to measure electrical energy For measuring waste materials and emissions –Use tons to measure airborne emissions and solid waste –Use gallons or liters to measure waterborne emissions Create a standard basis for comparison –Example: per product piece, or per kg of product Establish rigid boundaries for the Inventory Analysis 15

16 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: Raw Materials & Energy Needs Two types of Raw Materials –Primary- first use material –Secondary- second use material (recycled) Analyze energy requirements –Energy required to harvest the raw materials –Energy required to convert the raw materials to the finished product Look at materials associated with maintaining the raw materials Define and quantify emissions and wastes associated with the production of the raw materials 16

17 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: Manufacturing Manufacturing should take into account the following –Tools Molds, machinery, etc. –Processes –Waste Material –Packaging –All emissions produced –Energy used 17

18 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: Transportation, Storage and Distribution Transportation –Equipment used to move goods Airplanes, trucks, trains, etc –Distance Storage and Distribution –Warehouses –Wholesalers –Retailers 18

19 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: Use, Reuse and Maintenance Inventory or materials and energy required to fully utilize the product Use –Energy required for normal use –Emissions from normal use of the product Reuse –Reusing product for the intended purpose –Reusing the product in a different manner Maintenance –Replacement parts –Maintenance fluids Oils, grease, polish, paint, etc gasoline CO2, H2O motor oil, oil & air filter, hoses, tires, etc. spent motor oil, oil & air filter, hoses, tires, etc. spare parts for newer cars 19

20 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: Recycle and Waste Management Recycle –Salvage of useful parts –Production of secondary raw materials Waste Management –Disposal of non-salvageable product Landfills, hazardous waste dumps, etc Incineration Composting 20

21 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: Types of Pollution Three main types of pollution –Airborne emissions Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, etc –Waterborne emissions Wastewater, untreated chemicals, etc –Solid waste Scrap materials, process waste, etc 21

22 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: ISO Standard Overall steps for LCA are defined in ISO Steps for conducting an inventory analysis are explained in ISO Steps involved 1.Preparing for data collection 2.Data collection 3.Validation of data 4.Relating data to unit process 5.Relating data to functional unit and data aggregation 6.Refining system boundaries 22

23 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: Example Example product: copy paper Raw Materials –Wood, water, various chemicals, energy –Chemical and Energy Recovery Manufacturing –Machinery, processes, packaging material Transportation and Distribution –Storage of paper in warehouses, selling of it via wholesalers/retailers Use –Products associated with the use of copy paper Disposal –Waste products, Recycling, landfilling –Energy recovery 23

24 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Inventory Analysis: Your Turn Exercise: Conduct an Inventory Analysis of a Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich: 24

25 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Important Aspects of Life Cycle Assessment Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 25

26 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Assessment Learning Objectives of this section: a)To understand what needs to be included in an impact assessment b)To identify the usual steps and processes included in an impact assessment 26 Definition: Impact assessment is the process of identifying the future consequences of a current or proposed action. (cbd.int/impact)

27 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Assessment: ISO Standard Overall steps for LCA are defined in ISO Protocol for an impact assessment is explained in ISO Mandatory elements for an impact assessment –Selection of impact categories –Assignment of inventory analysis results –Calculation of category indicator results (characterization) Optional elements –Calculation of the magnitude of category indicators (normalization) –Grouping –Weighting 27

28 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Assessment: What Needs to be Included? All environmental impacts associated with the production, use and disposal of the product Ecological Systems Degradation Resource Depletion Human Health & Welfare 28

29 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Assessment: Ecological Systems Degradation Chemical –Toxicity Physical –Habitat Loss Biological –Foreign Species 29 Ecological system : An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro- organisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. (Christopherson, 1996) Invasive species-Kudzu

30 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Assessment: Ecological Systems Degradation – Risks Assessment Ecological Response to Indicator Intensity of Potential Effect Time Scale of Recovery Spatial Scale Transport Media There is no global agreement in weighting risks C F Cl Freon Hole in ozone layer caused by Freon

31 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Assessment: Resource Depletion Resources are either renewable or non-renewable –Renewable Hydroelectric energy, biomass products, most crops, etc –Non-renewable Oil, minerals, metals, etc Ideally want to recycle as many non-renewable based components as possible 31

32 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Assessment: Human Health & Welfare Analyze impact of product on human health –Diseases that could potentially be caused by using the product Cigarettes: Cancer –Diseases that can be caused by wastes produced by the product or the production of it Solid particulates emitted in stack gasses for a coal burning plant: Cancer Products that harm human health can have a negative impact on a companys image 32

33 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Environmental Indices 33 1.I GW – global warming 2.I SF – smog formation 3.I OD – ozone depletion 4.I AR – acid rain 5.I INH – human inhalation 6.I ING – ingestion toxicity 7.I CINH -human carcinogenic inhalation 8.I CING – carcinogenic ingestion toxicity 9.I FT – fish toxicity

34 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Assessment: Example Example product: copy paper Ecological systems degradation –Impact of cutting down trees –Impact of discharged chemicals in the water waste on the water quality Resource depletion –Resource is renewable because it is trees, but it is not rapidly replaceable –The paper is easily recyclable, reducing primary raw material needed –For energy, mostly self sufficient Human health and welfare –Impact of chemicals used on human health –Impact of stack emissions from chemical and energy recovery on health of population around mill 34

35 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Assessment: Your Turn Exercise: Conduct the impact assessment for a Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich 35

36 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Important Aspects of Life Cycle Assessment Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 36

37 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Interpretation Learning Objectives of this section: a)To be able to identify what needs to be included in an interpretation b)To understand how this step can be best used 37

38 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Interpretation: ISO Standard Overall steps for LCA are defined in ISO Proper protocol for interpretation is explained in ISO Aside from presenting results, the interpretation should conduct these checks –Completeness check –Sensitivity check –Consistency check Include conclusions and recommendations 38

39 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Interpretation: The Feedback Mechanism Analyze opportunities to reduce or mitigate the environmental impact throughout the whole life cycle of a product, process or activity. Analysis may include both quantitative and qualitative measures of improvement –Changes in product design –Changes in raw material usage –Changes in industrial processes Original product After Improvement Analysis 39

40 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Interpretation: Example Example product: copy paper Changes in product design –Determining potential areas of improvement for the product design –Lighter weight paper? –Lower brightness paper? Changes in raw materials –Using more secondary materials in place of primary materials –Use alternative chemicals Changes in industrial process –Changing from Acid to Alkaline papermaking –Changing from chlorine containing bleaching processes to chlorine free bleaching processes 40

41 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Interpretation: Your Turn Exercise: Interpret the results of your LCA and present them to the group 41

42 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 42 Carbon Footprint Model for Bleached Pulp and Paper Products Trevor H. Treasure, Jesse S. Daystar and Richard A. Venditti* Department of Wood and Paper Science North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC *Corresponding author: (919)

43 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Waste Paper What do we do with it all? 43 Paper More than 700 lb/person annual paper consumption in the USA 40% of all municipal waste is paper What should be done with waste paper?

44 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -Recycling Paper Products Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 44

45 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Goals To compare the carbon footprint of three waste management scenarios for copy paper 1. Landfilling 2. Incineration 3. Recycling To perform a systematic and quantitative evaluation of these three waste management options To provide a tool for consumers and waste management personnel for determining the best waste management practices 45 Goal and Scope Definition

46 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Scope Three waste management scenarios considered. 1.Landfilling 2.Incinerating 3.Recycling This study will not consider the effect of recycling on the value of wood or its consequences on the wood market A full impact assessment will not be performed This analysis only accounts for carbon emissions Other significant pollutants are emitted but are not accounted for in this study, example heavy metals 46 Goal and Scope Definition

47 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Assumptions 1 of 2 Increased recycle production has no effect on tree production Methane emissions from land fills have been converted to carbon dioxide equivalents using a ratio of 21:1 (IPCC 1995, table 4, pg. 26) Avoided CO 2 releases based on fuel mix for national electricity grid Heating value of copy paper 6213 BTU/lb ( PTF White Paper No.3) Net heating value of methane 21,433 BTU/lb (engineeringtoolbox.com) 47

48 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Assumptions 2 of 2 Responsible silviculture replant to harvest ratio equals 1:1 Carbon sequestration based on wood makeup and weight percent carbon of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin All mills are considered to be average in energy and production efficiency Office paper is assumed to be 20% inert, inorganic filler material Office paper fibers: 20% softwood and 80% hardwood 48

49 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -recycling paper products Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 49

50 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Raw Material Composition 50 ComponentSoftwoodHardwood Cellulose42%45% Hemicellulose27%30% Lignin31%25% Paper Composition% % Soft Wood20% % Hard Wood80% Component% carbon by weight Major Hemicellulose - SW44.68% Minor Hemicellulose - SW47.31% Major Hemicellulose - HW37.76% Minor Hemicellulose - HW43.60% Lignin60.93% Source: Dr. Dimitris S. Argyropoulos, course pack for WPS 332

51 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Carbon Equivalents 51 Carbon Equivalents Conversion ` 12+(4x1)=16 CO 2 Tons 12 g carbon/mol =Carbon Equivalents 44 g CO 2 /mol Methane Tons 12 g carbon/mol =Carbon Equivalents 16 g CH 4 /mol Methane Tons combusted12 g carbon/mol =Carbon Equivalents 16 g CH 4 /mol

52 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Process Flow Diagram 1 of 2 Virgin Production + Landfilling 52 Energy/fuel CO 2 Emissions Filler

53 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Process Flow Diagram 1 of 2 53 CO 2 Emissions Carbon Stored in landfill Energy/fuel Electricity production Energy/fuel CO 2 Emissions Methane Emissions CO 2 Emissions=0Energy/fuel=0

54 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Process Conversions 54 Processlb CO 2 Per tonSource Green Wood Transportation305Green woodPaper Task Force White Paper Virgin Production2995PaperPaper Task Force White Paper Transportation to Market33PaperPaper Task Force White Paper Collection and Landfill Equipment84PaperPaper Task Force White Paper Landfill% by wieghtSource CO 2 Landfill Emmisions15.2%Paper task force white papers Methane Landfill Emissions22.9%Paper task force white papers Carbon Sequestured61.9% Mathane Recovered50.0% Assume 50% (CORRIM) CO 2 from Methane Combustion75.0% Carbon Offset from Electrical ProductionSource CO 2 Offset from Electrical Production127CO 2 lbs per MMBTUPaper Task Force White Paper Net BTU21433BTU per lb MethaneEngineering Tool Box 1 ton methane is equal to 21 ton CO 2 equivalents

55 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Virgin Production + Landfill Energy Requirements and Carbon Emissions 55 Negative values represent either energy created or carbon sequestered Energy MMBTUUNIT PROCESS Emissions Ton Carbon Equivalents 0Tree Growth Tree Harvest and Transport Paper Mill Paper Transport to Market4.5 ~0Use of Product~0 527Collection Vehicle & Landfill Equipment Landfill Total812

56 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Process Flow Diagram 1 of 2 Virgin Production + Incineration 56 Energy/fuel CO 2 Emissions

57 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 57 Process Flow Diagram 2 of 2 CO 2 Emissions Energy/fuel Carbon CO 2 Emissions Methane Emissions Energy/fuel=0CO 2 Emissions=0

58 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Virgin Production + Incineration Calculations 58 White paper #3 tons carbon in wood Virgin paper mill yield %Fiber in paper tons paper tons virgin production 6213 BTU2000 lbs lb paper ton 1,000,000 BTU 1 MMBTU Incinerator carbon equivalents emissions= Energy produced from paper combustion=

59 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Virgin Production + Incinerate Energy Requirements and Carbon Emissions 59 Negative values represent either energy created or carbon sequestered Energy MMBTU UNIT PROCESS Emissions Ton Carbon Equivalents 0Tree Growth Tree Harvest and Transport Paper Mill Paper Transport to Market4.5 ~0Use of Product Collection Vehicle & Landfill Equipment Incineration Total866

60 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Process Flow Diagram 1 of 3 Recycled Production + Recycling 60 Energy/fuel Filler CO 2 Emissions Rejects to waste treatment

61 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 61 Energy/fuel Possible decrease in demand Forest used in more profitable ways such as construction Process Flow Diagram 2 of 3 Recycled Production + Recycling NOTE: Tree growth loss is assumed to be zero for this study Energy/fuel=0 Carbon sequestered in product CO 2 Emissions

62 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 62 Energy/fuel CO 2 Emissions Methane Emissions Process Flow Diagram 3 of 3 Recycled Production + Recycling CO 2 Emissions

63 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 63 Calculations Recycled Production + Recycle tons carbon in wood Tons virgin production Virgin paper mill yield %Tons recycled paper Carbon sequestered in use= tons organics Filler content (1-.382) Carbon sequestered in landfill= Tons organics in sludge= Tons recycled paper % Filler Total sludge Paper Task Force: White Papers

64 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Recycled Production + Recycle Energy Requirements and Carbon Emissions 64 Negative values represent either energy created or carbon sequestered Energy MMBTUUNIT PROCESS Emissions Ton Carbon Equivalents 989Recovered Paper Collection Material Recovery Facility Transport to Recycle Mil Recycle Paper Mill Transportation to Market4.5 0Use Collection Vehicle and Landfill Equipment Landfill Total156.1

65 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Unit Process Emissions 65 All values are tons Virgin Prod. + Landfill Virgin Prod. + Incinerate Recycle Prod. + Recycle Carbon sequestered in tree growth-791 N/A Raw material acquisition Paper mill production Transport to market4.5 Carbon sequestered in product Collection and landfill equipment/ sorting Landfill Carbon sequestered in landfill IncinerateN/A89N/A Total Carbon Equivalents Total Carbon Equivalents per ton Total Carbon Equivalents per ton

66 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review % Difference From Landfilling 66 Carbon Equivalents Emissions Comparison % Difference from Landfilling Landfill reported in tons for comparison Virgin Prod. + Landfill Virgin Prod. + Incinerate Recycle Prod. + Recycle Raw material acquisition1390%-73% Paper mill production14180%-67% Collection and landfill equipment/ sorting11-44%-57% Landfill %-39% Carbon sequestered in landfill %-39% Total Carbon Equivalents8127%-83% Total Carbon Equivalents per ton0.8127%-83%

67 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Sensitivity Analysis Virgin Production + Landfill 67 Base case value of.812 carbon equivalents per ton of production Landfill methane recovery rate has the largest impact on carbon emissions Methane is 21 times more harmful than CO 2 Sensitivity Analysis on Carbon Equivalents per ton for Virgin Production + Landfill Percent Change10%-10% Change from base Case Softwood % % Transportation emissions % Landfill methane recovery %

68 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Sensitivity Analysis Virgin Production +Incinerate 68 Sensitivity Analysis on Carbon Equivalents per ton for Virgin Production + Incinerate Percent Change10%-10% Change from base Case Softwood % % Transportation emissions % Landfill methane recovery % Base case value of.866 carbon equivalents per ton of production The carbon emissions of this waste management practice are not greatly impacted by these sensitivities

69 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Sensitivity Analysis Recycled Production + Recycling 69 Sensitivity Analysis on Carbon Equivalents per ton for Recycled Production + Recycle Percent Change10%-10% Change from base Case Softwood % % Transportation emissions % Landfill methane recovery % Base case value of.141 carbon equivalents per ton of production Landfill methane recovery rate has the largest impact on carbon emissions Transportation emissions significantly impacted the total

70 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Interpretation The Recycling scenario has the smallest carbon footprint Landfill carbon footprint is highly dependent on the methane recovery rate Increased recycling may reduce green house gas emissions Increased recycling may impact the wood market – These impacts are outside the scope of this study 70 Waste Management Methodton C produced/ton paper Virgin Production + Landfill0.650 Virgin Production + Incinerate0.725 Recycle Production + Recycle0.207

71 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Interpretation: Environmental Improvement Opportunities Potential Process Improvement – Increase methane recovery in landfills – Decrease transportation of products and raw materials – Increase paper production efficiency Energy – Use renewable transportation fuels – Utilize renewable electrical power – Increase energy efficiency in production process 71

72 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Wood for Building Houses An Example of LCA Adam Taylor Assistant Professor Forestry, Wildlife & Fisheries 203 Forestry Products, 2506 Jacob Drive Knoxville, TN Phone:

73 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review What Do You Think? 73

74 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Acknowledgment All of the information in this presentation is based on work conducted by CORRIM 74

75 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review CORRIM Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials Aims to provide a database of information for quantifying the environmental impacts and economic costs of building materials 75

76 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Motivation The environmental consequences of changes in forest management, product manufacturing, and construction are poorly understood Lack of up-to-date, scientifically sound, product life-cycle data in the United States, particularly life-cycle data regarding wood and bio-based products For example, concerns about the sustainability of present forest practices have lead to changes in forest harvesting in the US. As a result, the US wood products sector has lost a substantial market share to non-wood substitutes and foreign suppliers 76

77 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Mission: To create… A consistent database to evaluate the environmental performance of wood and alternative materials from resource regeneration or extraction to end use and disposal, i.e., from "cradle to grave. (Figure 1). A framework for evaluating life-cycle environmental and economic impacts. Source data for many users, including resource managers, manufacturers, architects, engineers, environmental protection and energy analysts, and policy specialists. An organizational framework to obtain the best science and peer review 77

78 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Membership in CORRIM Research Institutions and Voting Board Members University of Washington Oregon State University University of Minnesota University of Idaho FORINTEK, Canada Virginia Tech North Carolina State University Purdue University University of Maine Penn State University State University of New York APA, The Engineered Wood Association Western Wood Products Association Composite Panel Association Research Foundation Washington State University Louisiana State University Mississippi State University 78

79 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -applied to building products Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 79

80 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Goals To develop a database and modeling system for environmental performance measurements associated with materials use To respond to specific questions and issues related to environmental performance and the cost effectiveness of alternative management and technology strategies. 80

81 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Scope Houses built with different materials Minneapolis (cold climate) - wood & steel Atlanta (warm climate) - wood & concrete 81

82 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Minneapolis House – Front Elevation 82

83 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Design Differences: Minneapolis CharacteristicWood DesignSteel Design 1 st and 2 nd Floors Engineered wood I 16 (400mm) o/c & 19/32 (15mm) plywood decking Steel 18 ga. C 12 (300mm) o/c & 19/32 (15mm) plywood decking Above grade exterior walls 2 x 6 wood 16 (400mm) o/c, #15 organic felt, OSB sheathing, R19 fiberglass batt insulation, 6mil polyethylene vapor barrier, 12mm gypsum board, vinyl siding 1.5 x 3.63 Steel 20 ga. C 16 (400mm) o/c, #15 organic felt, OSB sheathing, R13 fiberglass batt insulation, 1.5 EPS insulation, 6mil polyethylene vapor barrier, 12mm gypsum board, vinyl siding Below grade exterior walls 2x4 wood 24 (600mm) o/c, R13 fiberglass batt insulation, poly vapor barrier, 12mm gypsum board 1.5 x 3.63 Steel 25 ga. C 24 (600mm) o/c, R13 fiberglass batt insulation, poly vapor barrier, 12mm gypsum board Partition walls 2x4 wood 16 (400mm) o/c, 12mm gypsum board two sides 1.5 x 3.63 Steel 25 ga. C 16 (400mm) o/c, 12mm gypsum board two sides Full Basement2062 sq.ft. 2 story 83

84 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Design Differences: Atlanta 2153 sq.ft. 1 storyOn-Slab CharacteristicWood DesignConcrete Design Single-family dwelling type1 story bungalow slab-on-grade Floor area2153 sq. ft. (200 sq.m) Structure & Envelope Foundation (footing and slab)3000psi (20 Mpa) concrete Foundation wallsNone Main floor100mm reinforced Slab-on-grade on footings Exterior walls 2x4 wood 16 (400mm) o/c, #15 organic felt, OSB sheathing, R13 fiberglass batt insulation, 6mil poly vapor barrier, 12mm gypsum board, vinyl siding Concrete Block furred out with 2x4 wood studs 24(600mm) o/c, R13 fiberglass batt insulation, 6mil poly vapor barrier, 12mm gypsum board, two-coat stucco finish Window system PVC frame, operable, double glazed Low E Argon filled Partition walls 2x4 wood 16 (400mm) o/c,12mm gypsum board two-sides Roof Light Frame Wood Trusses with OSB sheathing, R30 blown cellulose insulation, 6mil poly vapor barrier, 16mm gypsum board with 25 yr durability asphalt shingles over #15 organic felt building paper. 84

85 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -applied to building products Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 85

86 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Inventory Analysis for Wood Building Materials OTHER RELEASES PRODUCTS COPRODUCTS EMISSIONS EFFLUENTS SOLID WASTES MATERIALS ENERGY WATER Forest Management (Regeneration) (Transportation) Raw Material Acquisition (Harvest) (Transportation) Product Manufacturing (Transportation) Building Construction (Transportation) Use/Maintenance (Transportation) Recycle/Waste Management (Transportation) 86

87 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review System Boundaries Forest Resources: NW and SE ( years) Harvesting ( < 1 Year) logs NW and SE Processing ( < 1 Year) lumber SE and NW (green and dry) plywood NW and SE OSB SE Glulam, LVL, I-Joists Construction ( < 1 Year) wood and steel Minneapolis (cold) wood and concrete Atlanta (warm) Use and Maintenance (40 – 100+ years) Disposal (< 1 Year) Cradle Gate to Gate Grave 87

88 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Boundaries: Regeneration to waste disposal Primary source for wood data Secondary source for non wood data (ATHENA) Regional product detail Multi-material detail Environmental Performance: Air, water, toxic substances, energy, carbon, waste mid-point parameters for human health risk Protocol: Strategic Research Plan (1998) Study Guideline (2000) – ISO consistent 88

89 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Building Product LCIs For building products – for lumber, plywood, OSB, LVL, glulam, I-joists, trusses Unit process descriptions (saw, dry, plane etc.) Mill surveys at unit process level Non-wood inputs (energy by source, raw materials) Emissions and solid waste outputs Yields, flows (co-products) and mass balances Unit factor estimates (raw materials, air, water, and solid emissions, energy, carbon) before and after impacts from purchased energy and transportation 89

90 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review U.S. LCI Database Project ATHENA & NREL Publicly available info on common materials, products and processes Could lead to eco-impact labels – similar to food labeling 90

91 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review INPUTSOUTPUTS MaterialsUnits Per MSF MaterialsUnits Per MSF 3/8-in. basis Wood/resin Bark Roundwood (log) ft E E+01 lb.1.89E E+00 Phenol-formaldehyde lb.1.59E E+01 Extender and fillers a lb.8.90E+00 Catalyst a lb.1.11E E+02 Soda ash a lb.3.30E-01 Bark b lb.1.98E E+02 Dry veneer lb.6.81E E+01 Green veneer lb.1.51E E+01 Electrical energy Veneer downfall3.44E+00 Electricity kWh1.39E E+02 Fuel for energy 9.63E+00 Hog fuel (produced) b lb.3.83E+02 Solid dry veneer6.68E+01 Hog fuel (purchased) lb.3.40E E+02 Wood waste lb.5.00E-01 Liquid propane gas gal.3.59E E-02 Natural gas ft.31.63E E-03 Diesel gal.3.95E E E E E+02 CO 2 non-fossil2.78E E E E E-01 Organic substances2.20E E-01 a These materials were excluded based on the 2% rule. 8.27E-03 b Bark and hogged fuel are wet weights whereas 7.74E-04 all other wood materials are oven dry weights; Bark waste Bark ash Total Products Plywood Co-products Wood chips Peeler core Green clippings Panel trim Sawdust Total Air emissions Acetaldehyde Acetone Acrolein Benzene CO CO 2 fossil Dust (PM10) Formaldehyde Methanol NO x Particulates Phenol SO 2 SO x lb. 1.01E-01 bark weight is included in the hog fuel (produced) weight. VOClb. 6.26E-01 Life-Cycle Inventory results 1.0 MSF 3/8-in. basis plywood production b 91

92 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -applied to building products Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 92

93 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review An example of LCI comparisons: Minneapolis Extraction (primary materials in kg) Steel minus Wood 93

94 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review An example of LCI comparisons : Atlanta Extraction (primary materials in kg) Concrete minus Wood 94

95 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review GWP: Minneapolis and Atlanta 95

96 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Summary - Minneapolis Building Minneapolis designWoodSteelDifference Other Design vs. Wood (% Change) Embodied Energy (GJ) % Global Warming Potential (CO 2 kg)37,04746,8269,77926% Air Emission Index (index scale)8,5669,7291,16314% Water Emission Index (index scale) % Solid Waste (total kg)13,76613, % 96

97 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Summary - Atlanta Building Atlanta DesignWoodConcreteDifference Other Design vs. Wood (% Change) Embodied Energy ( GJ) % Global Warming Potential (CO 2 kg)21,36728,0046,63731% Air Emission Index (index scale)4,8936,0071,11423% Water Emission Index (index scale)7700% Solid Waste (total kg)7,44211,2693,82751% 97

98 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Other Studies – Same Results 1992 New Zealand study – Wood office building 55% of energy/70% carbon versus concrete – Steel wall 4x energy of wood wall 1992, 1993 Cdn studies – Wood 1/3 energy and CO 2 versus steel and concrete Wood consistently lower emissions and less energy 98

99 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -applied to building products Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 99

100 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Not All Energy is Equal 100

101 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Emissions to Water: Minneapolis 101

102 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Emissions to Water: Minneapolis On Equal Health Risk Basis 102

103 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Energy in Building Life Cycle Minneapolis HouseAtlanta House WoodSteelWoodConcrete Structure (GJ) Maintenance (GJ) Demolition (GJ)7779 Embodied energy total (GJ) years of heat & cooling energy (GJ)

104 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Carbon Dynamics vs. Steady State LCI provides a cross sectional profile of all processes -- a steady state analysis Tracking carbon pools over time offers a dynamic alternative for a more financial cost/benefit perspective 104

105 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 105

106 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Steel frame/wood frame Minneapolis Concrete frame/wood frame Atlanta 106

107 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Carbon In Forest Pools FIA data on old stands Harvest rotation years No harvest 107

108 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Carbon Dynamics Need to be Considered Averages over time intervals 108

109 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Carbon Emissions in Representative Building Life Cycle Stages CO 2 Minneapolis HouseAtlanta House Metric TonsWoodSteelWoodConcrete Emissions in Mfg Construction & Demo Emissions from Biofuel Emissions from Maintenance Emissions from Heating & Cooling Subtotal of Sources Forest Sequestration(467)(246)(103)(85) Wood product Storage(22.4)(11.8)(17.1)(14.1) Subtotal of Sinks and Stores(489)(258)(121)(100) Net emissions(55)

110 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Interpretation: Environmental Improvement Opportunities Redesign the house – use less fossil-intensive products (wood is good!) – reduce energy use (both active and passive) – improve durability to increase useful life Improve the product – greater use of biofuel – engineered products for greater raw materials efficiency – increase process efficiencies, especially in drying – pollution control improvements – increase product durability Reduce, reuse and recycle demolition wastes 110

111 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review LCA Strengths & Weaknesses Pro – System wide – Quality and objectivity – Multiple impact factors Con –Dependent on quality of LCI –LCI difficult to establish –Steady state –Resources change –Time value of money 111

112 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 112 Life Cycle Assessments Biomass to Ethanol from Different Regional feedstocks Jesse Daystar, Richard Venditti* Based on work of Kemppainen and Shonnard Department of Wood and Paper Science North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC *Corresponding author: (919)

113 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Biomass to Ethanol U.S. Department of Agriculture Biomass Estimation – Estimated 3.56 million dry tons on a sustainable basis in U.S. per day 2 U.S. Oil Consumption – million gallons/day 1 Potential ethanol production – 9.58 million gallons per day of oil equivalents 2 113

114 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -applied to cellulosic ethanol Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 114

115 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Goals To compare the environmental impacts of two processes that utilize different regional cellulosic feedstocks to produce ethanol. 1.Yellow Poplar regional to Michigan 2.Recycled Newsprint 115

116 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Scope "Cradle to gate – Acquisition of raw material through production of ethanol Different from cradle to grave – Will not investigate the impacts of the use of ethanol Why Cradle to Gate? – End use of ethanol for both alternatives is identical 116 Cradle Production Gate

117 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -applied to cellulosic ethanol Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 117

118 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Simulation and Modeling Yellow Poplar 118 diesel & gasoline Felling & SkiddingChippingEthanol Production Pre-manufacturing diesel Transportation electricity Raw material & energy Boustead Model Emissions Factors & EFRAT ASPEN Simulation & EFRAT

119 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Simulation and Modeling News Print 119 diesel & gasoline Collection & SortingPulpingEthanol Production Pre-manufacturing diesel Transportation electricity Raw material & energy Boustead Model Emissions Factors & EFRAT ASPEN Simulation & EFRAT

120 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Feedstock Composition 120 % dry wt basis component Yellow Poplar(NREL) 3 Yellow Poplar upper Michigan timbernewsprint cellulose xylan arabinan mannan galactan acetate lignin ash moisture

121 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Boustead Model 121 Custom Data Sets Standard Data Sets Transportation distances, materials used, utilities Life Cycle Inventory Results

122 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review NREL Process Modeling 122 Modeling software ASPEN Developed by M.I.T. and the Department of Energy Process modeling Process optimization Life Cycle Inventory Results

123 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Pre-manufacturing Energy Usage 123 upper MI timbernewsprint Kg/hMJ/h Kg/hMJ/h Premanufacturing, Chemicals ammonia1,19488, ,370 ammonium sulfate1082, ,376 antifoam26821, ,696 calcium phosphate1081, ,899 diesel gasoline9381, ,134 lime6938, ,647 sulfuric acid1,8399,4951,6808,651 subtotal132,88997,773 Premanufacturing, Operations felling (gasoline)211,68800 skidding (diesel)332,21600 transportation (diesel)1576, ,917 chipping (gasoline) pulping (electricity)09,073 subtotal11,28918,990

124 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Simplified Process Flow 124 Steam Feed Handling Pretreatment (Detoxification) Hydrolysis & Fermentation Product & Water Recovery Ethanol Storage Waste Combustion Utilities Waste Water Treatment (Solid Separation) Cellulase Electricity Steam Feedstock Recycle water Enzyme Chips Sugars Ethanol Recycle Water Nutrients Air Ammonia, Lime, Acid Excess Condensate Still Solids

125 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 125 Detailed Process Flow

126 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 126 Energy Balance Upper Michigan Timber Process loses 9.7% of total energy through processes inefficiencies 30% of total energy consumed in cooling water system This is higher than newsprint due to higher boiler throughput Energy balance has an accuracy of 2%

127 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 127 Energy Balance News Print 2.2% more energy leaves with ethanol product for newsprint compared to timber process Energy balance has an accuracy of 0.3%

128 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 128 Process Air Emissions

129 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review LCA Progress So Far 129 So far we have Defined scope Defined goal/objective Performed inventory analysis Performed energy balance Next Impact assessment LCA interpretation LCA improvement

130 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -applied to cellulosic ethanol Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 130

131 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Impact Modeling 131 Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment Tool (EFRAT) Developed by Michigan Technological Institute Department of Chemical Engineering Model basis simulation output preprogrammed chemical and soil properties Evaluates 8 environmental indices Safety factors Economic factors

132 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Environmental Indices I GW – global warming 2.I SF – smog formation 3.I OD – ozone depletion 4.I AR – acid rain 5.I INH – human inhalation 6.I ING – ingestion toxicity 7.I CINH -human carcinogenic inhalation 8.I CING – carcinogenic ingestion toxicity 9.I FT – fish toxicity

133 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Environmental Indices (Kg/L EtOH) 133 Fish ToxicityIngestion Toxicity Human Inhalation carcinogenic ingestion toxicity Human Carcinogenic Inhalation Global Warming Smog Formation Acid Rain Upper Michigan Timber premfg process a 3.83E E E-116.1E E E-03 mfg process E E-02 total (kg/L EtOH) E-116.1E E E-02 Newsprint premfg process b 3.20E E E E E E-03 mfg process E E-02 total (kg/L EtOH) E E E E-02 a Impacts from producing chemicals used in the ethanol process, for felling, skidding, and transportation of timber and of chipping. b Impacts from producing chemicals used in the ethanol process, of transportation of newsprint, and of pulping

134 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Normalized Environmental Indices 134 Each environmental index is multiplied by a weighting factor The sum of all weighted indices= I L-CC – life cycle composite index Life cycle composite index gives an overall value to process impacts

135 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Normalized and Weighted Environmental Indices (Kg/L EtOH) 135 Upper MI TimberNewsprint (Kg/L) Index Weighted Index Weighting FactorIndex Weighted Index Weighting Factor I CINH 6.10E E-182.4E E E-182.4E-06 I CING 1.83E E-172.4E E E-172.4E-06 I FT E-087.7E E-097.7E-09 I ING E-073.8E E-073.8E-09 I INH E-093.8E E-093.8E-09 I AR 3.83E E-115.5E E E-115.5E-10 I SF 6.68E E-141.3E E E-141.3E-10 I GW E-144.6E E-134.6E-13 I L-CC MI Timber1.21E-07 Newsprint1.14E-7 Higher Weighting Factor Lower Weighting Factor Newsprint process has about 6% lower life cycle composite index.

136 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment -applied to cellulosic ethanol Interpretation Impact Assessment Inventory Analysis Goal and Scope Definition 136

137 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Improvement Analysis 137 Process improvements to reduce emissions 1.Cellulase seed reactor vent recycle stream 2.Cellulase seed reactor vent stream as combustion air

138 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Improvement Analysis Seed Reactor Recycle Stream 138 Recycle 75% of Cellulase seed reactor vent back to the Cellulase seed reactor Recycle stream already at operating pressure Recycle stream contains 90% of required O 2 concentration Yellow Poplar 4.8% reduction of compressed air 7.5 % reduction in total utilities 2.2% reduction in I L-CC Newsprint 50% reduction in compressed air 8.6% reduction in utility consumption 6.4% increase in I L-CC

139 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Improvement Analysis Seed Reactor vent stream recycle 139 Indices compared to original process Yellow Poplar All indices decreased Less volatile organic compounds released Newsprint Increase in I FT, I ING, and I SF Decrease in I GW and I AR

140 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Improvement Analysis Seed Reactor vent stream as combustion air 140 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from the seed reactor are combusted and used for energy Yellow Poplar 0.4% utilities reduction 20% decrease in I SF, and I ING 2.7% reduction in I L-CC News Print 2.1% utilities reduction 20% decrease in I SF, and I ING 18.0% reduction in I L-CC

141 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Improvement Analysis Seed Reactor vent stream as combustion air 141 Indices compared to original process The smog formation indices decrease significantly as a result of utilizing the heating value of ethanol to offset natural gas usage Reduction in the ingestion index also results from less ethanol in the vent stream

142 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment Conclusions 142 Newsprint Pros 1.Less fossil fuel required in pre-manufacturing 2.Lower ecotoxicity 3.Lower overall I L-CC Cons 1.Manufacturing process is not energy self sufficient 2.Higher index for I ING, I INH, I CING, I CINH, and I GW Yellow Poplar Timber Pros 1.Manufacturing process is self sufficient and exports electricity to the grid 2.Lower global warming index 3.Lower impacts to human health Cons 1.More fossil fuel required in pre-manufacturing 2.Higher ecotoxicity 3.Higher overall I L-CC

143 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Life Cycle Assessment Conclusions 143 Main chemical contributors to indices acetic acid Carbon monoxide Ethanol Fossil fuel energy required to produce transportation fuel Yellow Poplar (ethanol)- 14% of energy content Newsprint (ethanol)- 27% of energy content Petroleum (gasoline/diesel)- 20% additional energy needed Future Work Impacts of large scale timber harvesting need to be examine Additional studies comparing biomass-to-ethanol facilities to petroleum refineries needed to evaluate local health impacts 1

144 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review LCA Overall Review 144 What you learned how to Define the goals and scope of a LCA Perform inventory analysis Perform an impact assessment Examples reviewed Copy paper case study Building material case study Bioethanol case study

145 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Copy Paper Case Study Review 145 The Recycling scenario has the smallest carbon footprint Landfill carbon footprint is highly dependent on the methane recovery rate Increased recycling may reduce green house gas emissions Increased recycling may impact the wood market – These impacts are outside the scope of the study

146 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review Housing Case Study Review 146 Atlanta house Wood- 512 GJ embodied energy Concrete- 573 GJ embodied energy 26% higher emissions 120% higher emissions when including carbon sequestered Minneapolis Wood- 727 GJ embodied energy Steel frame- 840 GJ embodied energy 31% higher emissions 156% higher emissions when including carbon sequestered

147 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review LCA Overall Review 147 LCA has a great potential to help decrease the impacts of industrial processes LCAs can be a powerful marketing tool LCA can be an effective means to quantify and minimize emissions LCA may become increasingly important with the introduction of carbon credits

148 LCA: General Definition LCA Procedure Paper Recycling Housing Bioethanol Review 148 References 1.Energy Information Administration, Petrolium basic statistics; 2.Kelly, Stephen; Forest Biorefineries: Reality, Hype or Something in Between?; Paper Age, March 2006; 3.Kemppainen, Amber; Shonnard, David; Comparative Life- Cycle Assessment for Biomass-to-Ethanol Production from Different Regional Feedstocks; Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University; Biotechnol. Prog. 2005, 21, Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Sheehan, J.; Ibsen, K.; Majdeski, H.; Galvez. A. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Future Scenarios; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP , July 1999


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