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Trusted System Elements and Examples CS461/ECE422 Fall 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Trusted System Elements and Examples CS461/ECE422 Fall 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trusted System Elements and Examples CS461/ECE422 Fall 2011

2 Reading Material Chapter 10 in the text. Sections 3, 4, and 5 Intel Architectures Software Developer Manuals – s/architectures-software-developer-manuals.html s/architectures-software-developer-manuals.html TCG Specification Architecture Overview Specification – g_architecture_overview_version_14 g_architecture_overview_version_14 – More details on TPM

3 What is a Trusted Computer System? A system that employs sufficient hardware and software assurance mechanisms to allow its use for simultaneous processing of a range of sensitive or classified information. Implements strong security mechanisms – Effective – Expressible High assurance implementation – Proof that the system works as advertised.

4 Reference Monitor Regulates access of subjects to objects – Access policy in Security Kernel Database Must provide: – Complete mediation – Isolation – no unauthorized modification – Verifiability – prove correctness of implementation

5 Reference Monitor Reference Monitor Security kernel db Subject: security clearance Object: security classification Audit File Subject Object

6 Trusted Computing Base (TCB) TCB contains elements of hardware and software that enforce security – Reference Monitor – Software/hardware primitives that reference monitor relies on TCB must be tamperproof TCB cannot be circumvented

7 Trojan Horse example

8 Memory Protection Rings Originally in Multics In Intel arch since x386

9 Privilege Levels CPU enforces constraints on memory access and changes of control between different privilege levels Similar in spirit to Bell-LaPadula access control restrictions Hardware enforcement of division between user mode and kernel mode in operating systems – Simple malicious code cannot jump into kernel space

10 Data Access Rules Access allowed if – CPL <= DPL and RPL <= DPL

11 Data Access Rules Three players – Code segment has a current privilege level CPL – Operand segment selector has a requested privilege level RPL – Data Segment Descriptor for each memory includes a data privilege level DPL Segment is loaded if CPL <= DPL and RPL <= DPL – i.e. both CPL and RPL are from more privileged rings

12 Data Access Examples

13 Calling Through Gates DLP

14 Call Gate Access Rules For Call – CPL <= CG DPL – RPL <= CG DPL – Dst CS DPL <= CPL Same for JMP but – Dst CS DPL == CPL

15 Call Gate Examples

16 Stack Switching Automatically performed when calling more privileged code – Prevents less privileged code from passing in short stack and crashing more privileged code – Each task has a stack defined for each privilege level

17 Hardware Rings Only most basic features generally used – 2 rings – Installed base Time to adoption – Must wait for widespread system code, e.g. Windows NT

18 Limiting Memory Access Type The Pentium architecture supports making pages read/only versus read/write A more recent development is the Execute Disable Bit (XD-bit) – Added in 2001 – Supported by Windows XP SP2 Similar functionality in AMD Altheon 64 – Called No Execute bit (NX-bit)

19 Trusted Computing Group Consortium developing standards for computer architectures using secure co-processors – Called the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) – Numerous computers (particularly laptops) already ship with TPMs – Windows 7 uses TPM for bitlocker. Secure booting? – Many vendors targeting specific enterprises like Health Care that are particularly concerned with privacy (due to HIPAA)

20 TPM Basics TPM stores a number of key pairs – Private Endorsement Key (EK) encoded at time of manufacturing – Manufacturer signs Endorsement certificate. TPM has some protected storage – Platform Configuration Registers (PCRs) TPM can be used to boot strap security locally TPM can respond to remote requests for system data – E.g. what version of libraries is the system running

21 TPM Layout

22 Root of Trust for Storage (RTS)

23 TPM Protected Message Exchanges Binding – Encrypting using public key – If using non-migratable key value is bound to TPM Signing – Encrypt with private key – Some keys are indicated as signing only keys Sealing – Binding a message with set of platform metrics (expressed in PCRs) – So can only unseal values when the platform metrics match Sealed-signing – Have a signature also be contingent on PCR values

24 TPM Supported Disk Encryption Used by Bitlocker in Windows 7 – vista/BitLocker-Drive-Encryption-Overview vista/BitLocker-Drive-Encryption-Overview TPM creates a symmetric key – Seals key – Will only unseal key if the specified system components match the values sealed with the key Moving disk to another system will fail – Key can only be decrypted by TPM on original system

25 TPM Architecture Overview

26 Attestation in Booting TPM leverages trusted building blocks (as shown in bold in previous diagram) – CRTM == Core root of trust for measurement TPM signs system state using an Attestation Identity Key (AIK) CRTM verifies integrity of next level boot code before proceeding – Inductively each level verifies the next higher level

27 Transitive Trust

28 Certification Services Measurement values – Representation of data or program code – Can be stored anywhere Measurement digests – Hash of the measurement values – Stored in the TPM – Fixed number of Platform Configuration Registers (PCRs)

29 Integrity Reporting Two purposes – Expose shielded locations for storage of integrity measurements Means to manipulate PCRs – Attest to the authenticity of stored values based on trusted platform identities Integrity reports signed by Attestation Identity Keys (AIK) AIK is associated with particular TPM

30 Example Reporting Protocol

31 Usage Scenarios Store root secrets in secure co-processor In an enterprise, IT group is responsible for machine admin – They set up the TPM – End user cannot muck with TPM even if they are root on the machine Ensure platform is in particular configuration – Verify the digest values of SML of configurations of interest

32 Digital Rights Management (DRM) One scenario concerns protecting data from the user for the vendor – Alice buys a song from Recording Company – License agreement says that Alice buys song for personal use – Trivial for Alice to share song with 10,000 of her closest friends – Hard for Recording Company to track Want to protect their assets Can use specialized players, as in Sonys recent rootkit problems

33 Using TPM for DRM Alice registers with Record Company for the ability to play their songs – Record Company sends her certificate to store on in her TPM and a player to install – On boot, TPM verifies that player has not been changed Alice buys a song from Record Company – Song is sealed to the correct player configuration on Alices computer To play song – Player passes sealed blob to TPM – TPM detects that it is invoked from legal player – TPM decrypts if sealed PCR values match – Player plays it – No unauthorized program can decrypt song

34 Limitations of TPM for DRM Even if no other program can spoof player in TPM interactions – Root user can use program debugger to access decrypted program in memory – Then may copy unencrypted copy for use outside player Could use more stringent OS mechanisms – But if I own system, I can bypass most any OS mechanism

35 Summary Trusted System a kind of fuzzy concept – Some common mechanisms – High assurance Reference Monitor Multilevel System Hardware support – Memory protection rings – TPM


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