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CHAPTER 2 LOGIC GATES

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates2 BASIC LOGIC GATES Logic gates are the basic building blocks to form digital circuit. It has 1 o/p terminal. O/p either HIGH (logic 1) or LOW (logic 0) depend on digital level at i/p. 7 types of Logic Gates: INVERTER AND OR NAND NOR Exclusive – OR Exclusive - NOR

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates NOT / INVERTER Used to complement a digital signal. It has only 1 output. INPUTOUTPUT AX 01 10

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates AND GATE It has 2 or more input. 2 n possible input combinations, where n = no. of bit. Operation for AND gates is multiplication (x ). O/p is HIGH when both input (A and B) are HIGH. INPUTOUTPUT A BX

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates5 TIMING DIAGRAM Draw the waveform of X where X = A.B

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates OR GATE It has 2 or more input. 2 n possible input combinations, where n is no. of bit. Operation for OR gates is adding (+). O/p is HIGH whenever input A and B are HIGH or both i/p are HIGH. INPUTOUTPUT A BX

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates NAND GATE The operation is SAME as AND gate. The o/p of NAND gate is inverted from o/p of AND gate. INPUTOutput AND Output NAND A BX Denotes inversion

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates NOR GATE The operation is the SAME as OR gate. The o/p NOR gate is inverted from OR gate. INPUTOUTPUT A BX

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates EXCLUSIVE – OR GATE INPUTOUTPUT A BX

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates EXCLUSIVE-NOR GATE INPUTOUTPUT A BX

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates11 SUMMARY of LOGIC GATES

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2.2 IC GATES Digital logic gate circuits are manufactured as integrated circuits. A number of gates is enclosed in a single package called Dual Inline Package (DIP) housing for plug in or feedthrough mounting, or Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC) for surface mounting. Part numbers specify what type of gates are enclosed. These part numbers are industry standards, meaning that a "74LS02" manufactured by Motorola will be identical in function to a "74LS02" manufactured by Fairchild or by any other manufacturer. Logic circuit part numbers beginning with "74" are commercial-grade TTL. If the part number begins with the number "54", the chip is a military-grade unit: having a greater operating temperature range, and typically more robust in regard to allowable power supply and signal voltage levels. ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates12

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates13 Packaging - SOIC Packaging - DIP

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Common TTL "DIP" circuit packages ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates14

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates15 Universality of NAND & NOR Gates NAND & NOR gates can be used as: Inverter gates AND gates OR gates

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates16 Universality of NAND

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ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates17 Universality of NOR

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Exercise ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates18 1.Draw the output waveform C and D, given the input waveforms A and B as shown below.

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Exercise (contd) ABCZ ECE351Chapter 2: Logic Gates19 2. Refer to the circuit and complete the truth table given.

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