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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Modeling and design of on-chip inter-block decoupling capacitors for PSN and EMI reduction Josep Rius 1 and Maurice Meijer 2 UPC 2 Digital Design and Test Group Philips Research Laboratories, The Netherlands 1 Departament dEnginyeria Electrònica Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Motivation Feature size[nm] gate switching time [ps] … …. 10 This work concerns a model and design procedure for on-chip MOS decaps targeting PSN and EMI reduction high frequency content of PSN Small gate switching times Chip Package PCB Power supply ~mm ~ cm ~ 10cm Dimensions comparable to the wavelength of the HF components EMI On-chip decoupling capacitors (decaps) Effective solution to reduce power supply noise (PSN) Decreases current loops thereby reducing EMI Design constraints: performance, leakage, …

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Proposed Decap Model Model characteristics: Distributed RGC model to take into account HF effects Gate leakage modeled by a voltage-dependent current source (B) rGrG GND V DD c rBrB n+ cBcB p+ GND substrate l i(v) r r G = poly gate resistance r = channel resistance c = gate to channel capacitance c B = channel to substrate capacitance r B = substrate resistance i(v) = direct tunneling gate current ALL PARAMETERS ARE PER UNIT LENGTH NMOS decap:

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Proposed Decap Model (cntd) Model simplification: Exploit symmetry of the decap Poly gate resistance (r G ) << channel resistance (r) Channel-to-substrate capacitance (C B ) neglected r G = poly gate resistance r = channel resistance c = gate to channel capacitance c B = channel to substrate capacitance r B = substrate resistance i(v) = direct tunneling gate current ALL PARAMETERS ARE PER UNIT LENGTH NMOS decap:

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, MOS Decaps: Analytical Solution Diffusion equation with proper boundary and initial conditions V DD GND x 0 l r, c v(x,t) -l-l i(v) Gate leakage term Channel term Steady-state response can be separated into DC+AC solution

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Example DC response. l = 10 m, w = 3 m, w = 3 m, 65nm CMOS Drop voltage along the channel increases with channel length Drop voltage along the channel increases as t OX is reduced Normalized distance along a half of channel length 90nm CMOS 65nm CMOS 45nm CMOS l = 5 m l = 10 m l = 20 m Normalized voltage along the channel +l+l 0 +l+l 0

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Example AC response. No leakage case V M e j t r, c x +l+l 0 -l-l v(x,t) L Normalized voltage along the channel Amplitude A(x) changes along the channel. It depends on r and c as well as 0 L Normalized voltage along the channel Normalized voltage along the channel 0 l maximum effective decap length

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Example AC response. Leakage case V M e j t r, c x +l+l 0 -l-l v(x,t) g L Normalized voltage along the channel Now L can be approximated by Normalized voltage along the channel 0 L Normalized voltage along the channel L 0 l Amplitude A(x) changes along the channel. It depends on r, c and g as well as

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Input Impedance of a MOS Decap Z IN r, c g l Critical frequency at l= The frequency that separates lumped and distributed behaviour Lower critical frequency in case of gate oxide leakage NO LEAKAGE: LEAKAGE:

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Normalized R and C as a function of frequency

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Intra-block and Inter-block MOS decaps Digital logic block System-on-Chip Intra-block decaps have constrained dimensions – For example, the are implemented in the standard-cell template Inter-block decaps do not suffer from this constraint – Typically, used for EMI reduction purposes

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, WSWS (B) Y YVDD LFLF (A) ZZ GND VDD LFLF LFLF LFLF LFLF LFLF LFLF ZZZZZZZ GND VDD Example Inter-Block Decap: Gate length must be limited

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Stripe VDD GND VDD GND VDD Stripe Finger Example Inter-Block Decap: Fingers and Stripes

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Inter-Block Decap Model Parameters Channel sheet resistance [ /] Gate capacitance per unit area [F/m 2 ] Gate oxide conductance per unit area [S/m 2 ] Gate current density per unit area [A/m 2 ] Critical frequency Total gate-oxide leakage Total gate area [m 2 ] Model parameters are defined to be independent of length and width

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Procedure for Optimum Inter-Block Decap Design 1. Define the total decoupling capacitance C DEC to be included in the IC 2. Determine the effective total area as 3. Obtain the gate length of a finger L F0 to get the maximum frequency f C for which the decap needs to perform 4. Define the number of gate fingers as 5. Obtain the gate length of a single decap as 6. Define the number of stripes as where W MAX is the maximum allowed gate width 7. Obtain the gate width of a single decap as 8. Calculate total leakage

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Example 90nm GP technology Required decap C DEC = 1nF Three gate-oxide thicknesses red : tox = 6.5 nm magenta: tox = 5 nm black: tox = 1.6 nm Results: Area factor = 1.01 to 1.23 Total leakage current – I LEAK = 1.1 mA red : tox = 6.5 nm magenta: tox = 5 nm black: tox = 1.6 nm Total decap area vs. f C Gate length of a finger vs. f C

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IDEW06 Barcelona, September 5, Conclusions Distributed decap model based on physical grounds Relevant parameters for each technology node are easily obtained Such parameters are independent of dimensions for inter-block decaps Critical Frequency f C qualifies decoupling performance Defines the border between full and reduced decap performance Relevant expressions have been derived Simple procedure to design inter-block decaps based on the proposed model

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