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27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU1 Gate array design Use a sea of basic transistors (pmos/nmos) or gates (NAND/NOR) Can have cells which can provide a universal.

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Presentation on theme: "27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU1 Gate array design Use a sea of basic transistors (pmos/nmos) or gates (NAND/NOR) Can have cells which can provide a universal."— Presentation transcript:

1 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU1 Gate array design Use a sea of basic transistors (pmos/nmos) or gates (NAND/NOR) Can have cells which can provide a universal logic function Just need to add signal routing – only a few masks Advantages: Reduced design time Less chance of errors Reduced production costs Decrease time to product

2 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU2

3 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU3 Gate Array Design (Cont.) Disadvantages: Very Limited flexibility Need moderately high volume product Less easily protected IPR

4 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU4 Programmable design Use an array of logic cells Cells can provide a universal logic function Signal routing through switch box approach RAM holds routing patterns (re- programmable)

5 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU5 Advantages: Reduced design time Easily reworked Low design costs Decrease time to product Disadvantages: Limited flexibility Low volume production Less easily protected IPR

6 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU6 Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) Programmable logic device, or PLD, is a general name for a digital integrated circuit capable of being programmed to provide a variety of different logic functions. There are four main families of PLDs: - Programmable logic arrays (PLA) - Programmable array logic devices (PAL) - Read-only memories (ROM) - Complex PLDs (FPGAs, RAM)

7 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU7 Programmable switches allow connections to be made in an array of logic gates. We will look at the operation of each and examples of combinatorial and sequential design with each.

8 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU8 Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) What are the advantages of programmable logic devices? simple PLDs can realise from 2 to 10 functions of 4 to 16 variables on a single integrated circuit excellent for prototyping designs it is possible to replace a number of SSI devices with a single device to realise logic networks

9 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU9 single chip required to implement (possibly large) logic designs complex PLDs can be used realise complex digital systems – even processors! PLDs allow us to simplify designs and reduce development times – hence reduced overheads! changes in the design can be easily implemented by reprogramming the device

10 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU10 Programmable Technology Fusible link devices - e.g. the PROM - Blowing a fuse breaks a link between lines - Once programmable - Very high density possible Electrical switching elements - e.g. the EPROM, EEPROM nMOS transistors used to switch connections between lines Devices can be re-programmed Relatively high density How do we program PLDs?

11 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU11 Structure of PAL

12 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU12 Layout of a part of a Programmable Logic Cell

13 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU13 Structure of a FPGA

14 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU14 Configuration of Memory Cell

15 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU15 Configuration of Xilinx 300

16 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU16 Programmable I/O

17 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU17 General Purpose Interconnect

18 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU18 Direct Interconnect

19 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU19 Vertical and Horizontal long line

20 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU20 EPROM Programmable Switches

21 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU21 Actel antifuse structure

22 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU22 Altera 700 Logic Array Blocks

23 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU23 Xilinx 7000 CLB

24 27/11/2007DSD,USIT,GGSIPU24 References 1.S. Brown, R. Francis, J. Rose, Z. Vranesic, Field- Programmable Gate Arrays, Kluwer Academic Publishers, May 1992. 2.S. Trimberger, Ed., Field-Programmable Gate Array Technology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. 3.J. Rose, A. El Gamal, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Architecture of Field- Programmable Gate Arrays, in Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 81, No. 7, July 1993, pp. 1013-1029. 4.J. Oldfield, R. Dorf, Field Programmable Gate Arrays, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995. 5.C.H.Roth, DSD with VHDL, Thomson Learning

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