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**Digital CMOS Logic Circuits**

CMOS digital circuits: small size ease of fabrication low power dissipation CMOS Inverter sedr42021_1004.jpg Figure (a) The CMOS inverter and (b) its representation as a pair of switches operated in a complementary fashion.

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**Dynamic Operation of CMOS Inverter**

sedr42021_1006.jpg Figure Circuit for analyzing the propagation delay of the inverter formed by Q1 and Q2, which is driving an identical inverter formed by Q3 and Q4.

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sedr42021_1007a.jpg Figure Equivalent circuits for determining the propagation delays (a) tPHL and (b) tPLH of the inverter.

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**Basic Structure of CMOS Logic Gate Circuits**

alternative circuit symbols sedr42021_1008.jpg Figure Representation of a three-input CMOS logic gate. The PUN comprises PMOS transistors, and the PDN comprises NMOS transistors.

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CMOS NOR Gate sedr42021_1012.jpg Figure A two-input CMOS NOR gate.

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**CMOS NAND Gate sedr42021_1013.jpg**

Figure A two-input CMOS NAND gate.

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sedr42021_1014.jpg Figure CMOS realization of a complex gate.

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**CMOS XOR Gate sedr42021_1015a.jpg**

Figure Realization of the exclusive-OR (XOR) function: (a) The PUN synthesized directly from the expression in Eq. (10.25). (b) The complete XOR realization utilizing the PUN in (a) and a PDN that is synthesized directly from the expression in Eq. (10.26). Note that two inverters (not shown) are needed to generate the complemented variables. Also note that in this XOR realization, the PDN and the PUN are not dual networks; however, a realization based on dual networks is possible (see Problem 10.27).

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**Transistor Sizing sedr42021_1016.jpg**

Figure Proper transistor sizing for a four-input NOR gate. Note that n and p denote the (W/L) ratios of QN and QP, respectively, of the basic inverter.

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sedr42021_1017.jpg Figure Proper transistor sizing for a four-input NAND gate. Note that n and p denote the (W/L) ratios of QN and QP, respectively, of the basic inverter.

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CMOS Logic Gates. NMOS transistor acts as a switch 2 When gate voltage is 0 V No channel is formed current does not flow easily “open switch” When gate.

CMOS Logic Gates. NMOS transistor acts as a switch 2 When gate voltage is 0 V No channel is formed current does not flow easily “open switch” When gate.

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