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**Lecture 4 Combinational Logic Implementation Technologies**

Hai Zhou ECE 303 Advanced Digital Design Spring 2002 ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Outline Review of Combinational Logic Technologies**

Programmable Logic Devices (PLA, PAL) MOS Transistor Logic Multiplexers/Decoders ROM READING: Katz 4.1, 4.2, Dewey 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, , 5.7, 6.2 ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Programmable Arrays of Logic Gates**

Until now, we learned about designing Boolean functions using discrete logic gates We will now describe a technique to arrange AND and OR gates (or NAND and NOR gates) into a general array structure Specific functions can be programmed Can use programmable logic arrays (PLA) or programmable array logic (PAL) ECE C03 Lecture 4

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PALs and PLAs Pre-fabricated building block of many AND/OR gates (or NOR, NAND) "Personalized" by making or breaking connections among the gates Programmable Array Block Diagram for Sum of Products Form ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Why PALs/PLAs Work Equations F0 = A + B' C' F1 = A C' + A B**

F2 = B' C' + A B F3 = B' C + A Key to Success: Shared Product Terms Example: Input Side: 1 = asserted in term 0 = negated in term - = does not participate Personality Matrix Output Side: 1 = term connected to output 0 = no connection to output ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Example of PALs and PLAs**

All possible connections are available before programming ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Example of PALs and PLAs (Contd)**

Unwanted connections are "blown" Note: some array structures work by making connections rather than breaking them ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Alternative Representations**

Short-hand notation so we don't have to draw all the wires! Notation for implementing F0 = A B + A' B' F1 = C D' + C' D ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Design Example Multiple functions of A, B, C F1 = A B C F2 = A + B + C**

F5 = A xor B xor C F6 = A xnor B xnor C B C A B C ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ECE C03 Lecture 4 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6

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**Differences Between PALs and PLAs**

PAL concept — implemented by Monolithic Memories constrained topology of the OR Array A given column of the OR array has access to only a subset of the possible product terms PLA concept — generalized topologies in AND and OR planes ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Design Example: BCD-to-Gray Code Converter**

Truth Table K-maps AB CD 00 01 11 10 D B C A X 1 K-map for W AB CD 00 01 11 10 D B C A 1 X K-map for AB CD 00 01 11 10 D B C A 1 X K-map for Y AB CD 00 01 11 10 D B C A X 1 K-map for Z Minimized Functions: W = A + B D + B C X = B C' Y = B + C Z = A'B'C'D + B C D + A D' + B' C D' ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Programmed PAL 4 product terms per each OR gate ECE C03 Lecture 4**

A B C D ECE C03 Lecture 4 4 product terms per each OR gate

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**Generalized Building Blocks**

Non-Gate Logic So far we have seen: AND-OR-Invert PAL/PLA Generalized Building Blocks Beyond Simple Gates Kinds of "Non-gate logic": • switching circuits built from CMOS transmission gates • multiplexer/selecter functions • decoders • tri-state and open collector gates • read-only memories ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Steering Logic: Switches**

Voltage Controlled Switches n-type Si p-type Si "n-Channel MOS" Metal Gate, Oxide, Silicon Sandwich Diffusion regions: negatively charged ions driven into Si surface Si Bulk: positively charged ions By "pulling" electrons to the surface, a conducting channel is formed ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Switching or Steering Logic**

Voltage Controlled Switches Logic 1 on gate, Source and Drain connected Logic 0 on gate, Source and Drain connected ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Logic Gates with Steering Logic**

Logic Gates from Switches +5V A B A B +5V +5V A B A A A + B Inverter NAND Gate NOR Gate Pull-up network constructed from pMOS transistors Pull-down network constructed from nMOS transistors ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Inverter with Steering Logic**

Inverter Operation +5V +5V "1" "0" "0" "1" Input is 1 Pull-up does not conduct Pull-down conducts Output connected to GND Input is 0 Pull-up conducts Pull-down does not conduct Output connected to VDD ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**NAND Gate with Steering Logic**

NAND Gate Operation "1" "1" "0" "1" +5V +5V "0" "1" A = 1, B = 1 Pull-up network does not conduct Pull-down network conducts Output node connected to GND A = 0, B = 1 Pull-up network has path to VDD Pull-down network path broken Output node connected to VDD ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**NOR Gate with Steering Logic**

NOR Gate Operation "0" "0" "1" "0" +5V +5V "1" "0" A = 0, B = 0 Pull-up network conducts Pull-down network broken Output node at VDD A = 1, B = 0 Pull-up network broken Pull-down network conducts Output node at GND ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**CMOS Transmission Gate**

nMOS transistors good at passing 0's but bad at passing 1's pMOS transistors good at passing 1's but bad at passing 0's perfect "transmission" gate places these in parallel: Control Control Control In Out In Out In Out Control Control Control Switches Transistors Transmission or "Butterfly" Gate ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Selection/Demultiplexing**

1 Z Selector: Choose I0 if S = 0 Choose I1 if S = 1 S S Z Demultiplexer: I to Z0 if S = 0 I to Z1 if S = 1 S I S Z 1 S ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Use of Multiplexers or Demultiplexers**

A Y Demultiplexers Multiplexers B Z A Y Demultiplexers Multiplexers B Z So far, we've only seen point-to-point connections among gates Mux/Demux used to implement multiple source/multiple destination interconnect ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Well-formed Switching Logic**

Problem with the Demux implementation: multiple outputs, but only one connected to the input! S Z S "0" I S S Z 1 S "0" S The fix: additional logic to drive every output to a known value Never allow outputs to "float" ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Use of Multiplexers/Selectors**

Multi-point connections A0 A1 B0 B1 Multiple input sources Sa MUX MUX Sb A B Sum Ss DEMUX Multiple output destinations S0 S1 ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**General Concept of Using Multiplexers**

2 data inputs, n control inputs, 1 output used to connect 2 points to a single point control signal pattern form binary index of input connected to output n Z = A' I A I 1 A 1 Z I 1 I 1 I 1 A 1 Z 1 Functional form Logical form Two alternative forms for a 2:1 Mux Truth Table ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Use of Multiplexers/Selectors**

2:1 mux Z = A' I A I Z 1 I 1 A I I 1 4:1 mux Z Z = A' B' I0 + A' B I1 + A B' I2 + A B I3 I 2 I 3 A B I I 1 I 2 I 3 8:1 mux Z = A' B' C' I0 + A' B' C I1 + A' B C' I2 + A' B C I3 + A B' C' I4 + A B' C I5 + A B C' I6 + A B C I7 I 4 Z I 5 I 6 n I 7 2 -1 In general, Z = S m I k=0 k k n in minterm shorthand form for a 2 :1 Mux A B C ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Alternative Implementation**

B I0 Z I1 I2 I3 Gate Level Implementation of 4:1 Mux Transmission Gate Implementation of 4:1 Mux twenty transistors thirty six transistors ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Design of Large Multiplexers**

Large multiplexers can be implemented by cascaded smaller ones I 1 2 3 8:1 mux Control signals B and C simultaneously choose one of I0-I3 and I4-I7 Control signal A chooses which of the upper or lower MUX's output to gate to Z 4:1 mux I 1 I 2 I 3 S 1 2:1 mux Z I 4 1 2 3 1 4:1 mux S I 5 I I 6 I 1 1 S I 7 S 1 C I B C A 2 I 3 1 S 1 Alternative 8:1 Mux Implementation C Z 2 I 4 3 S0 S1 I 5 1 S A B C I 6 I ECE C03 Lecture 4 7 1 S C

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**Multiplexers/Selectors as General Purpose Blocks**

:1 multiplexer can implement any function of n variables n-1 control variables; remaining variable is a data input to the mux Example: F(A,B,C) = m0 + m2 + m6 + m7 = A' B' C' + A' B C' + A B C' + A B C = A' B' (C') + A' B (C') + A B' (0) + A B (1) A B C F 1 1 1 C C 1 F 2 1 C 1 4:1 F 8:1 3 1 1 2 MUX 4 MUX C 1 1 1 3 5 S1 S0 1 1 6 A B 1 7 S2 S1 S0 1 1 1 1 1 1 A B C 1 1 1 1 "Lookup Table" ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Generalization of Multiplexer/Selector Logic**

… I 1 I 2 I n F 1 I n 1 I n 1 Four possible configurations of the truth table rows … n-1 Mux control variables 1 single Mux data variable Can be expressed as a function of In, 0, 1 Example: G(A,B,C,D) can be implemented by an 8:1 MUX: 1 D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 K-map Choose A,B,C as control variables G 8:1 mux Multiplexer Implementation S 2 1 TTL package efficient May be gate inefficient A B C ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Decoders/Demultiplexers**

n Decoder: single data input, n control inputs, 2 outputs control inputs (called select S) represent Binary index of output to which the input is connected data input usually called "enable" (G) 1:2 Decoder: 3:8 Decoder: O0 = G • S; O1 = G • S O0 = G • S0 • S1 • S2 O1 = G • S0 • S1 • S2 O2 = G • S0 • S1 • S2 O3 = G • S0 • S1 • S2 O4 = G • S0 • S1 • S2 O5 = G • S0 • S1 • S2 O6 = G • S0 • S1 • S2 O7 = G • S0 • S1 • S2 2:4 Decoder: O0 = G • S0 • S1 O1 = G • S0 • S1 O2 = G • S0 • S1 O3 = G • S0 • S1 ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Alternative Implementations**

G /G Output0 Output0 Select Select Output1 Output1 1:2 Decoder, Active High Enable 1:2 Decoder, Active Low Enable /G G Output0 Output0 Output1 Output1 Output2 Output2 Output3 Output3 Select0 Select1 Select0 Select1 2:4 Decoder, Active High Enable 2:4 Decoder, Active Low Enable ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Switch Level Implementations**

Select Select G Output G Output Select Select Select "0" Select Select Output 1 Select Select Output 1 Select Naive, Incorrect Implementation All outputs not driven at all times Select "0" Select Correct 1:2 Decoder Implementation ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Switch Implementation of 2:4 Decoder**

G Output "0" Select 1 2 3 Operation of 2:4 Decoder S0 = 0, S1 = 0 one straight thru path three diagonal paths ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Decoder as a Logic Building Block**

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ABC Decoder Generates Appropriate Minterm based on Control Signals Enb 3:8 dec S 2 1 A B C Example Function: F1 = A' B C' D + A' B' C D + A B C D F2 = A B C' D' + A B C F3 = (A' + B' + C' + D') ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Decoder as a Logic Building Block**

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 A B C D F 1 Enb 4:16 dec F 2 F 3 S 3 2 1 A B C D If active low enable, then use NAND gates! ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Read-Only Memories ROM: Two dimensional array of 1's and 0's**

Row is called a "word"; index is called an "address" Width of row is called bit-width or wordsize Address is input, selected word is output +5V +5V +5V +5V n 2 -1 i Word Line 0011 Dec j Word Line 1010 Bit Lines n-1 Address ECE C03 Lecture 4 Internal Organization

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**Implementing Logic with ROMs**

F0 = A' B' C + A B' C' + A B' C F1 = A' B' C + A' B C' + A B C F2 = A' B' C' + A' B' C + A B' C' F3 = A' B C + A B' C' + A B C' Address A 1 B 1 C 1 F 1 F 1 F 2 1 F 3 1 W ord Contents ROM 8 w ords 4 bits by A B C F F 1 F 2 F 3 address outputs ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**ROMs vs PLAs Not unlike a PLA structure with a fully decoded**

AND array! Memory array Decoder 2 n word lines 2 n words by m bits n address lines m output lines ROM vs. PLA: ROM approach advantageous when (1) design time is short (no need to minimize output functions) (2) most input combinations are needed (e.g., code converters) (3) little sharing of product terms among output functions ROM problem: size doubles for each additional input, can't use don't cares PLA approach advantangeous when (1) design tool like espresso is available (2) there are relatively few unique minterm combinations (3) many minterms are shared among the output functions PAL problem: constrained fan-ins on OR planes ECE C03 Lecture 4

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**Summary Review of Combinational Logic Technologies**

Programmable Logic Devices (PLA, PAL) MOS Transistor Logic Multiplexers/Decoders ROM READING: Katz 4.1, 4.2, Dewey 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, , 5.7, 6.2 ECE C03 Lecture 4

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