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Practical Aspects of Reliability Analysis for IC Designs T. Pompl, C. Schl ü nder, M. Hommel, H. Nielen, J. Schneider.

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Presentation on theme: "Practical Aspects of Reliability Analysis for IC Designs T. Pompl, C. Schl ü nder, M. Hommel, H. Nielen, J. Schneider."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Practical Aspects of Reliability Analysis for IC Designs T. Pompl, C. Schl ü nder, M. Hommel, H. Nielen, J. Schneider

3 Purpose Address practical links between IC design and reliability of IC operation. Demonstrate state of the art aspects as well as future issues. Direct input of experts working in the field of process reliability and ESD. Whats required in EDA tools to promote design-in reliability?

4 Outline Gate oxide integrity Device reliability Interconnect reliability Electrostatic discharge (ESD) Summary

5 Gate oxide integrity: Overshoot events Each electric stress consumes oxide lifetime; degradation is cumulative! Main driver of degradation is the voltage drop across gate oxide (other driver: temp., active area). Statistical nature: qualified for e.g. <10 ppm 10 y, 10 mm 2, 100°C]. Voltage overshoot is an additional electric stress. Analysis of voltage overshoot between any terminal and gate (guideline: > 10% of Vdd). Needed: voltage amplitude, duty cycle, device type, terminals (e.g. gate and drain).

6 Gate oxide integrity: New definition of GOX failure criteria To be used for ultra-thin SiO 2 -based oxides; high-k? Consequences: adds gate leakage and gate noise. Digital designs: OK. Digital designs: OK. Analog designs: my not tolerate this. Analog designs: my not tolerate this. log(gate leakage) log(time) log(gate leakage) log(time) Traditional criterion: 1 st soft breakdown (SBD) = 1 st irreversible local leakage path across the gate oxide. Future criterion: 1 st SBD reaching a certain absolute current level. t

7 Gate oxide integrity: New definition of GOX failure criteria Circuit simulation of NOR gate with SBD between gate/source and gate/drain Monte Carlo runs: Up to 8 SBD on/off. Up to 8 SBD on/off. Device parameter variation. Device parameter variation. SBD with low & high gate leakage level. This is a worst case study; realistic is one SBD. OK for low level SBD

8 Device reliability: Increasing challenge Process evolution will lead to higher device stress. Reliability safety margins decreases in modern technologies. Electric field across gate oxide Designers have to be supported by smart soft- ware tools with build-in reliability know how! Circuit reliability is not longer a task only for tech- nology development but also for circuit designers.

9 Device reliability: Full-custom design Reasonable for relatively low numbers of transistors (analog / RF circuits). Circuit simulators with built-in reliability can simulate entire circuit blocks. Based on models parameter degradation for each device can be calculated. Designers can access each device characteristic to optimize the circuit.

10 Device reliability: Constrains for semi-custom design For digital applications a more automated design approach is used. Library elements are placed automatically. Designers dont know in advance where a single element is placed. No direct access. Thus, its difficult to manually determine reasonable operation conditions for single library elements. A single library element is used in many different sub-circuits, and within, is exposed to a lot of different applications/operation conditions. For all of these combinations a delay-calc. would be necessary, since digital design is delay driven.

11 Device reliability: On-chip variation (OCV) approach Smart software tools can check time paths. In the case of time conflicts, gates can be replaced by faster ones, but this consumes area & power. In semi-custom design a completely different approach is necessary. A possible consideration: calculation of parameter degradation as a part of OCV. Stress-induced parameter variation can be transformed in propagation-delays.

12 Interconnect reliability: Critical layout structures Electromigration Single vias connected to … Single vias connected to … Wide metal lines with … Wide metal lines with … Current flow in downstream direction. Current flow in downstream direction. Stress-induced voiding Single vias connected to … Single vias connected to … Wide metal plates or slitted plates. Wide metal plates or slitted plates. Breakdown of Inter-metal dielectric Metal lines with minimum pitch, operated at … Metal lines with minimum pitch, operated at … Maximal potential difference of neighbored lines. Maximal potential difference of neighbored lines.

13 Interconnect reliability: Analysis of critical structures Geometrical dimensions. Electrical operation conditions: DC-current density DC-current density DC-pulses DC-pulses AC-current AC-current Other operation conditions: duty cycle of operation duty cycle of operation temperature temperature … Example for geometrical analysis

14 Interconnect reliability: EM – Influence of geometry EM life time as function of line width for a single via down-stream structure w EM life time is limited by single vias on wide lines. By avoiding these structures higher current densities could be used for product design.

15 Interconnect reliability: SIV – Influence of geometry Life time of stress-induced voiding (SIV) as function of line extension length L Increasing the distance of the single via from the plate increases the SIV life time.

16 Electrostatic discharge (ESD) ESD represents a major threat to ICs. Standard ESD specifications Human Body Model (HBM) Human Body Model (HBM) Pre-charged human being touches IC. Pre-charged human being touches IC. V charge = 2 kV, corresponding to I max ~ 1.3 A, pulse width V charge = 2 kV, corresponding to I max ~ 1.3 A, pulse width of 150 ns. Charged Device Model (CDM) Charged Device Model (CDM) Pre-charged IC discharges via one pin. Pre-charged IC discharges via one pin. 500 V, I max ~ A, pulse width 1-2 ns. 500 V, I max ~ A, pulse width 1-2 ns. ESD damage Melting in silicon (diffusions of MOS devices, diodes,…). Melting in silicon (diffusions of MOS devices, diodes,…). Breakdown of gate oxides. Breakdown of gate oxides.

17 Electrostatic discharge: ESD and IC design 2 types of rules DRC like: standard DRC tools with ESD marking layers. DRC like: standard DRC tools with ESD marking layers. Net-oriented: in-house tools for circuit analysis. Net-oriented: in-house tools for circuit analysis. Lots of ESD rules to be followed… Special diodes D1, D2 in place. Special diodes D1, D2 in place. Power clamp ggnmosESD in place. Power clamp ggnmosESD in place. Output drivers N1, P1 must follow ESD layout rules. Output drivers N1, P1 must follow ESD layout rules. N1, P1 must match to the supply voltage at VDD. N1, P1 must match to the supply voltage at VDD.

18 Electrostatic discharge: Design rule check (DRC) Detect ESD relevant areas via ESD layer. Recognize layout of diodes, MOS devices, SCR, … Example: drain contact-to-gate spacing a D with silicide blocking. Requires some awareness of layouter. Better: parameterized ESD cells. aDaD DS sal. block

19 Electrostatic discharge: Net-oriented rule checking Idea: extract netlist from layout and check ESD rules Like LVS, take ESD marking layers into account. Like LVS, take ESD marking layers into account. Information on pin types needed, e.g. supply voltages. Information on pin types needed, e.g. supply voltages. Can also be realized on pre-layout netlists. Can also be realized on pre-layout netlists. Rule types Existence and connectivity of ESD devices. Existence and connectivity of ESD devices. Matching of device classes and supply voltage classes. Matching of device classes and supply voltage classes. Examples: Thin oxide device between power domains (not allowed). Thin oxide device between power domains (not allowed). Thin oxide cap. at VDD/VSS. Thin oxide cap. at VDD/VSS. Existence of correct power clamps. Existence of correct power clamps.

20 Electrostatic discharge: ESD awareness of future EDA tools ESD DRC is OK with existing DRC tools. No commercial tools for net-oriented ESD rules available. Should be imbedded in design flow. Should be imbedded in design flow. Need for infrastructure: ESD pin types, power domains, ESD endangered interfaces. Need for infrastructure: ESD pin types, power domains, ESD endangered interfaces. Also for pre-layout-synthesis checks. Also for pre-layout-synthesis checks. Should work on data of a whole IC. Should work on data of a whole IC. Tool for IR-drop analysis of ESD pulses. Find bad metallization, ESD endangered positions on IC,… Find bad metallization, ESD endangered positions on IC,… Auto-placement of ESD cells according to some formalized guidelines would be great!

21 Summary Gate oxide reliability Identify voltage overshoot events. Identify voltage overshoot events. New gate oxide failure criteria to be considered. New gate oxide failure criteria to be considered. Device reliability Increasing electric field; NBTI becomes design issue. Increasing electric field; NBTI becomes design issue. Simulation using degraded devices: constraints for semi-custom design OCV approach. Simulation using degraded devices: constraints for semi-custom design OCV approach. Interconnect reliability Control via placing to improve EM & SIV. Control via placing to improve EM & SIV. Identify metal line with minimal pitch (TDDB risk). Identify metal line with minimal pitch (TDDB risk).ESD Net-orientated ESD rules, IR-drop analysis. Net-orientated ESD rules, IR-drop analysis. Automated placement of ESD and I/O cells. Automated placement of ESD and I/O cells.


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