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Why Culture Counts An Asset Model for Differentiation Sandra Darling.

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1 Why Culture Counts An Asset Model for Differentiation Sandra Darling

2 P-16 Council Recommendations Closing the Achievement Gaps Californias post- secondary schools need to embed culturally responsive instruction into both pre-service and professional development Programs. Closing the gap over a 12 year period would add $980 billion to the annual GDP in the US.

3 WHY CULTURE? All learners come to formal education with a range of prior knowledge, skills, beliefs, and concepts that significantly influence what they notice about the environment and how they organize and interpret it. This is the influence of culture – the means through which we learn and develop our own set of glasses. Williams, 2003 Childrens culture defines what they will focus their attention on, how they interpret the world to give it meaning, what background knowledge they bring to learning, and how they will value that learning. Educators need to learn how to differentiate curriculum, instruction, and assessment to address the differences with an asset model. Darling, 2008

4 What is Culture? Culture is a complex system of patterns, visible and invisible, that determines how an individual will view the future, world, people, things; it is inclusive of values, norms, traditions, language, race, ethnicity, customs, knowledge, beliefs, folkways, mores, history; and becomes a normal way of acting, feeling, and being. Dr. Rosilyn Carroll Center for Excellence in Urban Teaching

5 Cultural Proficiency Cultural proficiency is a way of being that enables both individuals and organizations to respond effectively to people who differ from them. It is esteeming culture; knowing how to learn about individual and organizational culture. It is the policies and practices of an organization or the values and behaviors of an individual that enable that agency or person to interact effectively in a culturally diverse environment. Cultural proficiency is reflected in the way an organization treats its employees, its clients, and its community, or in the way an individual treats his/her colleagues or person from different cultures. (Lindsey, Robins, & Terrell 2003 p.5) The Guiding Principles of Cultural Proficiency 1) Culture is a predominant force 2) People are served in varying degrees by the dominant culture 3) Group identity is as important as individual identities 4) Diversity within cultures is vast and significant 5) Each group has unique cultural needs. Lindsey (2003).

6 Interacting with other cultural groups using the five essential elements of cultural proficiency as the standard for individual behavior and school practices; acceptance and respect for difference; ongoing assessment of ones own and the organizations culture; attention to the dynamics of difference; continuous expansion of cultural knowledge and resources; and the adaptation of ones values and behaviors and the organizations policies and practices. (Lindsey, Nuri –Robins & Terrell, 1999, 21-22) Cultural Competence

7 Cultural pre-competence is an awareness of the limitations of ones skills or an organizations practices when interacting with other cultural groups. (Represented by individuals who want to provide fair and equitable treatment with appropriate cultural sensitivity; however, this desire is accompanied by the frustration of not knowing exactly what is possible or how to proceed.) (Lindsey, 1999) Examples: We need a Korean Vice-Principal to help us with the Korean students. Recruiting members of under- represented groups, but not providing support for them or making any adaptation to the differences they bring to the workplace. Dismissing as overly sensitive anyone who complains about culturally inappropriate comments. Cultural pre-competence

8 Cultural Incapacity Cultural incapacity is the belief in the superiority of ones culture and behavior that takes away power from anothers culture. (Represented by individuals or organizations that show extreme bias, believe in the superiority of the dominant group, and assume a paternal posture toward so-called lesser groups.) Examples: I didnt know he was gay. He doesnt look gay to me. Historical examples include restrictive immigration laws targeting Asians and Pacific Islanders, such as the Oriental Exclusion Acts and The Jim Crow laws that denied African Americans basic human rights. Cultural incapacity is announcing that a new Latina has been hired to be a role model for Latinas without recognizing that all children can profit from having role models from their own and other cultural groups. (Lindsey, 1999)

9 Cultural Blindness Cultural blindness is acting as if the cultural differences that you see do not matter or that one does not recognize that there are differences among and between cultures. (Represented by individuals who believe that color and culture make no difference and that all people are the same.) (Lindsey, 1999)

10 Cultural Destructiveness Cultural Destructiveness is the elimination of other peoples cultures. (Lindsey, 1999) Examples: Slavery, Japanese interment, Genocide Holocaust

11 Achievement Gap – Racial Gap

12 Achievement Gaps Based on Race/Poverty – North Carolina NAEP – 2007 – 4 th Grade Impact of Culture White39% Proficient or Better - 61% Not at Proficiency Black 27 points below White - 12% Proficient or Better – 88% Not Hispanic21 points below White – 18% Proficient or Better – 82% Not Asian/Pacific Is. 2 points above White – 41% Proficient or Better – 59% Not American Indian22 points below White – 17% Proficient or Better – 83% Not Impact of Poverty Students in Poverty – 16% Proficient or Better – 23 points below White Students NOT in Poverty – 41% Proficient or Better – 2 points above White Impact of Poverty – 25 points Discrepancy

13 Remediation Classes Required CALIFORNIA 45% of High School graduates still required remediation courses in College. 26% of White Students require remediation courses 63% of African American students require remediation courses 61% of Latino students require remediation (Closing the Achievement Gap, 2008)

14 Palomar PALOMAR STAFF Full Time Staff – 80% White Part Time Staff – 78% White Classified Staff – 65% White STUDENTS Over ½ from Vista, Poway, and Oceanside Vista – 52% Hispanic; 30% White Poway – 14% Hispanic; 71% White Oceanside – 55% Hispanic; 27% White Credit Students – 52% White – increasing in Hispanic Non-Credit Students – 40% White – decreasing in Hispanic

15 The Challenge The US Education System was designed for white, middle-class kids. The US Education System is very successful for the students whose needs it was designed to meet. However, white, middle- class students are not who is sitting in our classrooms today.

16 BARRIERS Skim the handout – Why is it so difficult… Identify three (3) things that you believe are barriers to closing the achievement gaps for students at Palomar. Explain why you think those barriers exist? Be ready to share your groups 3 barriers.

17 The Challenge Focus of improvement in education Pre-K to Post Secondary has been on improving curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Data consistently show that students of color, students from poverty, and English language learners are not benefitting from those improvements. WHY? Deficit thinking prevails Cultural differences are not addressed in the teaching – learning process Curriculum is not contextualized for culture Instruction isnt modified for cultural values that impact learning

18 Differences: Deficit vs Asset Thinking

19 Background Knowledge Individualist vs Collectivist Value Systems (70% of the worlds population is collectivist) Vocabulary High Expectations Resilience

20 Increasing Achievement – Closing Gaps We can do BOTH Improving Achievement Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Title I, Special Education, Gifted and Talented, ELL Programs After School Programs, Tutoring Pacing Guides, Increased Assessment, Posting Standards Closing the Achievement Gap Focus on the LEARNER Culture TRUMPS Poverty Culturally responsive teaching Honoring collectivist value systems Building resilience Differentiating context, content/product, process and assessment with assets

21 NEW FRAMEWORK and MODEL Planning Differentiating Context Differentiating Content/Product Differentiating Process Differentiating Assessment Building Resilience

22 Strategies for Planning Identifying learning expectations Examples of quality work Culturally responsive classroom Grouping Strategies Pre-teaching Vocabulary +49 Aligned Instructional Database (Darling, 1999)

23 Pre-Teaching Vocabulary +49 Step 1 - Present students with a brief explanation or description of the new term or phrase that is contextualized for culture. Step 2 - Present students with a nonlinguistic representation of the new term or phrase. Step 3 - Have students generate their own explanations or descriptions of the term or phrase. Make sure to include reporting orally, musically, or in writing Step 4 - Have students create their own nonlinguistic representation of the term or phrase. Step 5 - Periodically have students review the accuracy of their explanations and representations. Aligned Instructional Database (Darling, 1999)

24 Strategies for Differentiating Context Contextualize for culture - curriculum and classroom environment Affirmations – GRIOT Mirror back gifts Provide opportunities to lead – KIVA Voices and Choices Verbalization +46 Movement Cooperative Learning +28 Wait time +40 Aligned Instructional Database (Darling, 1999)

25 GRIOT (gree – o) African American Call and Response Students sit at tables of four, arranged in a semicircle to face the teacher as they wait for the affirmation period. One student is the griot for the day. GRIOT: Greetings, Brothers and Sisters. CLASS: Greetings, Griot. (Group claps three times.) GRIOT: Todays affirmation is, I have solved problems like this before. CLASS: (Individual students interpret what the affirmation means to them and for the work they must do for the day. They also relate how the affirmation will help them to be successful in their respective tasks.) GRIOT: The Griot is finished. CLASS: Thank you, Griot. (Group claps three times.)

26 Strategies for Differentiating Content/Product Scaffolding Visual Representations + 49 Heuristics +38 Rubrics Multiple Intelligences Contracts Differentiated Instruction +37 Aligned Instructional Database (Darling, 1999)

27 Process of Learning – Making Meaning Self – Metacognitive - Cognitive Self System – Metacognitive System – Cognitive System – Do I want to? Am I motivated? Whats in it for me? Do I believe I CAN do this? What do I already know about this? How would I do this task? What do I want to learn? How will I monitor if Im learning it? What strategies will I use to make meaning of this content? Marzano, R. (1998) Theory-based Meta-analysis of Research on Instruction. Aurora, CO: McREL

28 Strategies for Differentiating Process – Self System Teaching for Relevancy +40 Praising Effort +29 Cooperative Learning +28 High Expectations Listening to Storytelling Mirroring Assets Aligned Instructional Database (Darling, 1999)

29 Strategies for Differentiating Process – Metacognitive System Goal Setting +39 Collaborative planning, identifying resources, sequencing steps Disposition Monitoring +33 Activating Prior Knowledge +46 Verbalization +46 Graphic Representations +49 Aligned Instructional Database (Darling, 1999)

30 Strategies for Differentiating Process – Cognitive System Compare and Contrast +41 Model Making +31 Manipulatives +31 Critical Thinking Skills + 41 Concept Attainment +41 Aligned Instructional Database for more Aligned Instructional Database (Darling, 1999)

31 Where to begin? CULTURAL PROFILE BEGIN WITH ME!!! Take 2 – 3 minutes and complete the Cultural Profile. Share your Profiles with each other and reflect on the similarities and differences you found. BECOMING CULTURALLY AWARE IS AN INSIDE- OUT PROCESS.

32 Macro – Micro Cultures Macro culture is the original culture of a group of people. There are five major Macro cultures in the USA: American Indian African American Latino European American Asian American Micro cultures are groups within a Macro culture. Take the Macro-Micro table and fill in your groups knowledge of the Macro and Micro cultures served at Palomar. NOTE: Use the characteristic topics from YOUR Cultural Profile to describe them.

33 CONTEXTUALIZING CURRICULUM In your group, choose a unit of instruction from any class that is taught at Palomar. Discuss the content to be learned by students. EMBED your groups knowledge about your students cultures into the unit. List strategies that engage diverse learners into the Treasure Chest of Strategies

34 INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES THAT ENGAGE DIVERSE LEARNERS As a group (using the Instructional Needs Rubric and the Differentiation Model Rubric), choose instructional strategies for your contextualized unit/curriculum that will build resilience, help students to connect with their culture, and build vocabulary. Share you revised unit.

35 WHY CULTURE COUNTS! As a group, Think-Pair-Share... Why do YOU think culture counts at Palomar College? What is one commitment you can make to be more culturally responsive?

36 For More Information Sandra K. Darling, Ph.D. Learning Bridges® 743 W Nolan Way Chandler, AZ 85248 480-883-0704 Tileston, D., Darling, S. (2008). Why Culture Counts: Teaching Children of Poverty. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Tileston, D., Darling, S. (2008). Closing the Culture and Poverty Gap. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press We could learn a lot from crayons: some are sharp, some are pretty, some are dull, some have weird names, and all are different colors....but they all exist very nicely in the same box.

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