3Overview of ESL (154 Supplemental) http://texes. ets Domain I (25%)Language ConceptLanguage AcquisitionDomain II (45%)ESL InstructionAssessmentDomain III (30%)Foundations of ESL EducationCultural AwarenessFamily and Community Involvement
5LanguageSocial shared code or system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rule-governed combinations of those symbols.
6Communication the signal will be interpreted as intended. Production of signals with the intention of relaying information and the expectation thatthe signal will be interpreted as intended.
7Nonlinguistic CuesIncludes gestures, body posture, facial expressions, eye contact, head and body movement, and physical distance.
8Linguistic Competence Knowledge of the operating principles needed to be a language user.Enables language users to determine what makes sense and what is nonsense.
9Nature and Concepts of Language Systems PhonologySemanticsMorphologyDiscourseSyntaxPragmaticsLexicon
10BICS vs. CALP (Cummins) Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Everyday languageCommunicativeUniversal across all native speakersUsually takes 2 to 3 years to masterCognitive-Academic Language ProficiencyReading/writing connectionAbstract thinkingAcademic instructionUsually takes from 5 to 7 years to master
11Second Language Is taught and learned in the following order: ListeningSpeakingReadingWriting
12Errors Acquiring Second Language Contrastive AnalysisErrors in L2 are a result of differencesbetween first and second language.Error AnalysisErrors occur because of a language developmentor little or no development of L1 or L2.
14Factors that Affect ELL Students’ Learning Age Differences ▶ PacingGender ▶ MethodsTeacher ▶ AptitudeCognitive Development ▶ TimeLearning Styles ▶ SettingGrouping Practices ▶ MotivatingAttitude ▶ Materials
15Understand the Process of L1 and L2 Code-Switching is moving from L1 to L2 and back to L1.Period with no verbal sound / communicationLearner is absorbing and taking in new learningThis period could last from 4 to 8 months
16Oral Fluency Levels Pre-Production Stage Early Production Stage Speech Emergency StageIntermediate Fluency Stage
19Literacy InstructionFocuses on understanding and communicating meaningTakes place within a rich, challenging and content-centered curriculumUses many kinds of activitiesIncorporates students’ experiencies in order to provide “comprehensible input”
20Development of CALPThe learner would demonstrate the ability to perform such complex tasks as:Sequence of eventsDistinguish facts from fantasyComplete worksheets and tests in the content areasUse charts, tables, graphs, mapsEngage in class discussionsWork in reference material
21Learning Activities Related to the Brain Hemispheres WorkbooksDrill and repetitionFollowing DirectionsComputationsCollecting factsCreative art activitiesCreative writingSelf-expressive activitiesSolving problemsValues clarificationLEFT BRAINRIGHT BRAIN
22Modifications in the Classroom InstructionPacingMethods
23Assessment TAKS Portfolios IDEA Self assessment TELPAS Woodcock MunozPortfoliosSelf assessmentOral performanceWriting assessmentFormalInformal
26History of Bil/ESL Education National Defense Education Act(1958)Provided federal money for the expansion of foreign-language teaching.Bilingual Education Act(1968)LES students will increase English-language skills, maintain and perhaps increase mother-tongue skills, and support the cultural heritage of the student.Equal Educational Opportunities Act(1974)Implement meaningful instruction for students of Limited English Proficiency.
27History of Bil/ESL Education (Cont.) Amendments to the Bilingual Education Act(1978)Funds for research were included.Refugee Act(1980)Legislation provides funds for educational programs and other services for refugees.
28Court Decisions Lau v. Nichols, San Francisco (1974) 1800 Chinese students not being educated equally.Cintrón v. Brentwood Union Free School District, New York (1977)Bilingual teachers being fired.Ríos v. Read, Patchogue-Medford, New York (1977)New York should provide quality program for ESL students.Castañeda v. Pickard, Raymondville, Texas (1981)Discrimination and inadequate bilingual instruction.
29Types of ESL Programs Self-contained Pull-out classes Newcomer centers Dual language classroomsImmersion programs
30Domains of an ESL Program Affective domainLinguistic domainCognitive domain
32ESL Teacher Roles Serving on the LPAC Serving on the ARD committee Serving on the SBDM committeeServing as a resource for other teachers
33Parental Communication Parent/teacher conferencesMid-point progress checksEnd of an instructional reporting periodReport cards
34Technology Integration Technology that supports literacyComputer-assisted language learningUse of the Internet
35Student ExpectationsExpectations for all students should be to perform at the highest level possible for each individual student.Language barrier should not be a factor in expecting the best the student has to offer.
36Family EnvironmentThe environment a child is raised in can have a huge impact on a student’s learning and the knowledge they come to the classroom with.Motivation, real life skills, self-esteem, importance of education, respect of educators, and background information are all factors that affect the student’s learning potential.
37Acronyms, How many do you know? ELLISLANCLBAHELPSL1NESAECESLL2PBMASBLEPFESPEIMSBICSLESHLSSIOPCALPLPACITEKSTELPAS