Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Everyday language Communicative Universal across all native speakers Usually takes 2 to 3 years to master Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency Reading/writing connection Abstract thinking Academic instruction Usually takes from 5 to 7 years to master
Is taught and learned in the following order: Listening Speaking Reading Writing
Contrastive Analysis Errors in L2 are a result of differences between first and second language. Error Analysis Errors occur because of a language development or little or no development of L1 or L2.
Age Differences Pacing Gender Methods Teacher Aptitude Cognitive Development Time Learning Styles Setting Grouping Practices Motivating Attitude Materials
Code-Switching is moving from L1 to L2 and back to L1. Period with no verbal sound / communication Learner is absorbing and taking in new learning This period could last from 4 to 8 months
Pre-Production Stage Early Production Stage Speech Emergency Stage Intermediate Fluency Stage
Visual Tactile Kinestetic Auditory
Audio Lingual Approach Total Physical Response Natural Approach Language Experience Approach Silent Way Cognitive Approach
Focuses on understanding and communicating meaning Takes place within a rich, challenging and content-centered curriculum Uses many kinds of activities Incorporates students experiencies in order to provide comprehensible input
The learner would demonstrate the ability to perform such complex tasks as: Sequence of events Distinguish facts from fantasy Complete worksheets and tests in the content areas Use charts, tables, graphs, maps Engage in class discussions Work in reference material
LEFT BRAIN RIGHT BRAIN Workbooks Drill and repetition Following Directions Computations Collecting facts Creative art activities Creative writing Self-expressive activities Solving problems Values clarification
Instruction Pacing Methods
FormalInformal TAKS IDEA TELPAS Woodcock Munoz Portfolios Self assessment Oral performance Writing assessment
National Defense Education Act(1958) Provided federal money for the expansion of foreign-language teaching. Bilingual Education Act(1968) LES students will increase English-language skills, maintain and perhaps increase mother-tongue skills, and support the cultural heritage of the student. Equal Educational Opportunities Act(1974) Implement meaningful instruction for students of Limited English Proficiency.
Amendments to the Bilingual Education Act(1978) Funds for research were included. Refugee Act(1980) Legislation provides funds for educational programs and other services for refugees.
Lau v. Nichols, San Francisco (1974) 1800 Chinese students not being educated equally. Cintrón v. Brentwood Union Free School District, New York (1977) Bilingual teachers being fired. Ríos v. Read, Patchogue-Medford, New York (1977) New York should provide quality program for ESL students. Castañeda v. Pickard, Raymondville, Texas (1981) Discrimination and inadequate bilingual instruction.
Serving on the LPAC Serving on the ARD committee Serving on the SBDM committee Serving as a resource for other teachers
Parent/teacher conferences Mid-point progress checks End of an instructional reporting period Report cards
Technology that supports literacy Computer-assisted language learning Use of the Internet
Expectations for all students should be to perform at the highest level possible for each individual student. Language barrier should not be a factor in expecting the best the student has to offer.
The environment a child is raised in can have a huge impact on a students learning and the knowledge they come to the classroom with. Motivation, real life skills, self-esteem, importance of education, respect of educators, and background information are all factors that affect the students learning potential.
A AH AEC B BICS CALP ELL ELPS ESL FES HLS I ISLA L1 L2 LEP LES LPAC NCLB NES PBMAS PEIMS SIOP TEKS TELPAS