How to construct a Data Report for qualitative or quantitative data
Topics we will cover n What is data? n Terminology n Formats used to collect data n Formats used to report data n Organizing quantitative data n Examples n Other sources of information
Terminology n Quantitative data: data which is numerical in nature, statistics is one example n Qualitative data: data which is narrative and non-numerical in nature, a description of religious customs is an example n Emergent categories: topic categories in qualitative data that become obvious as the researcher examines the gathered data. n Raw data: returned surveys, verbatim text of interviews, verbatim answers on questionnaires
What is data? n Data is information you will collect in the field to explore your project topic n Data is not the information you found for your literature review n Data is sets of observations, sets of answers to questions on questionnaires or surveys, information gathered from interviews, information gathered from historical or informational documents (e.g.. school statistics, letters, handbooks, brochures)
Formats used for collecting data n questionnaires and surveys –a set or sets of predetermined questions each participant is asked –written or oral –anonymous or known subjects n interviews –a set of predetermined questions/topics with follow-up clarification and expansion questions –oral with notes/recording –known subjects
Formats for reporting data nQnQnQnQuantitative: –t–t–t–tables (with text explanations) –g–g–g–graphs (with text explanations) –f–f–f–figures (with text explanations) nQnQnQnQualitative –c–c–c–categorically organized text –i–i–i–images (with text explanations) –s–s–s–sound (with text explanations)
Reporting Qualitative Data: organizing your data n type up your data and store it on a diskette n look for emergent categories in your data n these categories may or may not match Literature Review subtopics n cut and paste data chunks into titled emergent categories n review your data to be sure it is all included in the report n do not report raw data
Reporting Quantitative Data: organizing your data n type up your data and store it on a diskette n organize/combine the data into categories n these categories may or may not match Literature Review subtopics n create graphs, figures or tables that best fit the data you are reporting and insert the summarized data n review your data to be sure it is all included in the report n do not report raw data
Quantitative Example: Graph and Chart This graph and chart illustrate the percents of student population by race/cultural group. Note that school 1 is the only school housing Hispanic students. School 3 is about half and half White and Black. Other in School 2 is predominantly Asian American.
Qualitative reporting example Parent views of teacher roles (very abbreviated) Parents 1 and 5 viewed teachers as surrogate parents. They should Parents 1 and 5 viewed teachers as surrogate parents. They should discipline and work with the child as the parent would. They should know the parents discipline styles and follow them in the classroom. Parents 2, 3 and 4 viewed the teacher as an outsider authority figure who would not know their culture. Teacher views on parent roles All teachers thought parents should be responsible for traditional All teachers thought parents should be responsible for traditional assistance at home (assist with homework, make cupcakes for class functions), assist the teacher with jobs in the classroom (copying, reading to students) and participate in PTO. Teacher 3 also felt parents should have input into the types of participation they could do. This would include suggesting how they could inform the students about their home culture.
Where to get more information n Samples of various data reporting formats are on reserve in the Learning Resource Center in UCOM in the course folders n Look at findings sections of empirical articles in journals for good examples n Case Studies (without the analysis section) in our textbook are examples of qualitative data reporting
Review nYnYnYnYou have learned what data is nBnBnBnBe careful to report only data you have collected in your Data Report nRnRnRnReport all data you collected (you cant only report the data that supports your view or the plan you have in mind nQnQnQnQuestions should be directed to –1–1–1–1) your support groups first, –2–2–2–2) other class members second, and –3–3–3–3) myself