Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Science and Technology Mr. Ramirez 6 th Grade Science 2013 - 2014."— Presentation transcript:
The Nature of Science and Technology Mr. Ramirez 6 th Grade Science
The Nature of Science and Technology Table of Contents Section 3: Science and TechnologyScience and Technology Section 1: What is science? Section 2: Doing ScienceDoing Science
Science is a way or a process used to investigate what is happening around you. It can provide answers to many questions. Tools, such as thermometers and metersticks, are used to give numbers to descriptions. Science in Society What is science? 1 1 Scientists observe, investigate, and experiment to find answers.
Throughout history, people have tried to find answers to questions about what was happening around them. Early scientists tried to explain things based on their observations. Science Is Not New What is science? 1 1 They used their senses of sight, touch, smell, taste, and hearing to make these observations.
Scientists use prior experience to predict what will occur in investigations. Using Prior Knowledge What is science? 1 1 Scientists form theories when their predictions have been well tested. A theory is an explanation that is supported by facts. Scientists also form laws, which are rules that describe a pattern in nature, like gravity.
Scientists use skills and tools to find the similarities and differences. Using Science and Technology What is science? 1 1 They use a variety of resource materials to find information.
Using Science and Technology What is science? 1 1 The computer is one tool that modern scientists use to find and analyze data. The computer is an example of technology. Technology is the application of science to make products or tools that people can use.
Doctors and scientists use skills such as observing, classifying, and interpreting data. Science Skills What is science? 1 1
Sometimes observation alone does not provide a complete picture of what is happening. Observation and Measurement What is science? 1 1 To ensure that your data are useful, accurate measurements must be taken, in addition to making careful observations.
Observation and Measurement What is science? 1 1 Comparing and contrasting are other important skills. When scientists look for similarities among data, they compare them. Contrasting the data is looking for differences.
The results of observations, experiments, and investigations are not of use to the rest of the world unless they are shared. Communication in Science What is science? 1 1 Scientists use several methods to communicate their observations.
Communication in Science What is science? 1 1 Results and conclusions of experiments often are reported in one of the thousands of scientific journals or magazines that are published each year.
1 1 Section Check Question 1 _______ is a way or a process used to investigate what is happening around you. Answer The answer is science. You use scientific thinking every day. FL: SC.H.1.3.2
1 1 Section Check Question 2 A _______ is an explanation supported by facts. A. bias B. hypothesis C. law D. theory FL: SC.H.1.3.1
1 1 Section Check Answer The answer is D. Scientists form theories when their predictions have been well tested. FL: SC.H.1.3.1
Solving ProblemsIdentify the Problem Although the investigation of each problem is different, scientists use some steps in all investigations. Scientists first make sure that everyone working to solve the problem has a clear understanding of the problem. Sometimes, scientists find that the problem is easy to identify or that several problems need to be solved. Doing Science 2 2
How can the problem be solved? Two of the methods used to answer questions are descriptive research and experimental research design. Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observation. Experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps. Doing Science 2 2
How can the problem be solved? Scientific methods are ways, or steps to follow, to try to solve problems. Doing Science 2 2
Descriptive Research Some scientific problems can be solved, or questions answered, by using descriptive research. Doing Science 2 2 Descriptive research is based mostly on observations. Descriptive research can be used in investigations when experiments would be impossible to perform. Descriptive research usually involves the following steps.
State the Research Objective This is the first step in solving a problem using descriptive research. Doing Science 2 2 A research objective is what you want to find out, or what question you would like to answer.
Describe the Research Design How will you carry out your investigation? How will the data be recorded and analyzed? Doing Science 2 2 An important part of any research design is safety. Click image to view movie. These are a few of the things scientists think about when they design an investigation using descriptive research.
Eliminate Bias Sometimes, scientists might expect certain results. This is known as bias. Doing Science 2 2 Good investigations avoid bias. One way to avoid bias is to use careful numerical measurements for all data. Another type of bias can occur in surveys or groups that are chosen for investigations. To get an accurate result, you need to use a random sample.
Equipment, Materials, and Models When a scientific problem is solved by descriptive research, the equipment and materials used to carry out the investigation and analyze the data are important. Doing Science 2 2
Selecting Your Materials Scientists try to use the most up-to-date materials available to them. Doing Science 2 2 If possible, you should use scientific equipment such as balances, spring sales, microscopes, and metric measurements when performing investigations and gathering data.
Selecting Your Materials Doing Science 2 2 Calculators and computers can be helpful in evaluating or displaying data.
Selecting Your Materials However, you dont have to have the latest or most expensive materials and tools to conduct good scientific investigations. Doing Science 2 2 Your investigations can be completed successfully and the data displayed with materials found in your home or classroom. An organized presentation of data is as effective as a computer graphic or an extravagant display.
Using Models One part of carrying out the investigation plan might include making or using scientific models. Doing Science 2 2 In science, a model represents things that happen too slowly, too quickly, or are too big or too small to observe directly. Models also are useful in situations in which direct observation would be too dangerous or expensive.
Scientific Methods Doing Science 2 2 This allows them to understand each others research and compare results. Scientists around the world use a system of measurements called the International System of Units, or SI, to make observations.
Scientific Methods Because SI uses certain metric units that are based on units of ten, multiplication and division are easy to do. Doing Science 2 2 Prefixes are used with units to change their names to larger or smaller units.
DataDesigning Your Data Tables A well-planned investigation includes ways to record results and observations accurately. Doing Science 2 2 Data tables are one way to do this.
DataDesigning Your Data Tables Doing Science 2 2 Most tables have a title that tells you at a glance what the table is about. The table is divided into columns and rows. These are usually trials or characteristics to be compared.
DataDesigning Your Data Tables Doing Science 2 2 The first row contains the titles of the columns. The first column identifies what each row represents.
Analyze Your Data Your data must be organized to analyze them. Doing Science 2 2 Charts and graphs are excellent ways to organize data. You can draw the charts and graphs or use a computer to make them.
Draw Conclusions After you have organized your data, you are ready to draw a conclusion. Doing Science 2 2 Sometimes, your data are not what you expected, but remember, scientists understand that it is important to know when something doesnt work. A successful investigation is not always the one that comes out the way you originally predicted.
Communicating Your Results Every investigation begins because a problem needs to be solved. Doing Science 2 2 Analyzing data and drawing conclusions are the end of the investigation. Usually, scientists communicate their results to other scientists, government agencies, private industries, or the public. Scientists usually publish their most important findings.
Communicating Your Results You can communicate your data and conclusions to other members of your science class. Doing Science 2 2 Organized data and careful analysis will enable you to answer most questions and to discuss your work confidently. Analyzing and sharing data are important parts of descriptive and experimental research.
Experimental Research Design Another way to solve scientific problems is through experimentation. Doing Science 2 2 Experimental research design answers scientific questions by observation of a controlled situation. Experimental research design includes several steps.
Form a Hypothesis A hypothesis (hi PAH thuh sus) is a prediction, or statement, that can be tested. Doing Science 2 2 You use your prior knowledge, new information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
Variables In well-planned experiments, one factor, or variable, is changed at a time. Doing Science 2 2 This means that the variable is controlled. The variable that is changed is called the independent variable. A dependant variable is the factor being measured.
Variables To test which of two antibiotics will kill a type of bacterium, you must make sure that every variable remains the same but the type of antibiotic. Doing Science 2 2 The dependant variable is the growth of the bacteria. In this experiment, the independent variable is the amount or type of antibiotic applied to the bacteria.
Variables The variables that stay the same are called constants. Doing Science 2 2 You cannot run the experiments at two different room temperatures, for different lengths of time, or with different amounts of antibiotics.
Identify Controls Your experiment will not be valid unless a control is used. Doing Science 2 2 A control is a sample that is treated like the other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it.
Identify Controls Doing Science 2 2 In the experiment with antibiotics, your control is a sample of bacteria that is not treated with either antibiotic. The control shows how the bacteria grow when left untreated by either antibiotic.
Identify Controls Once you begin an experiment, make sure to carry it out as planned. Doing Science 2 2 Dont skip or change steps in the middle. Also, you should record your observations and complete your data tables in a timely manner. Incomplete observations and reports result in data that are difficult to analyze and threaten the accuracy of your conclusions.
Number of Trials Experiments done the same way do not always have the same results. Doing Science 2 2 To make sure that your results are valid, you need to conduct several trials of your experiment. Multiple trials mean that an unusual outcome of the experiment wont be considered the true result. The more trials you do using the same methods, the more likely it is that your results will be reliable and repeatable.
Analyze Your Results When you analyze your results, you can see if your data support your hypothesis. Doing Science 2 2 If the data do not support your original hypothesis, you can still learn from the experiment. Experiments that dont work out as you had planned can still provide valuable information. Professional scientists rarely have results that support their hypothesis without completing numerous trials first.
Analyze Your Results After your results are analyzed, you can communicate them to your teacher and your class. Doing Science 2 2 Sharing the results of experiments allows you to hear new ideas from other students that might improve your research. Your results might contain information that will be helpful to other students.
2 2 Section Check Question 1 Which answers scientific questions through observation? A. descriptive research B. experimental research design C. educated guessing D. hypothesizing FL: SC.H.1.3.2
2 2 Section Check Answer The answer is A. Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observations while experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through a series a carefully controlled steps. FL: SC.H.1.3.2
2 2 Section Check Question 2 What is the first step in solving problems? A. analyze data B. draw conclusion C. form a hypothesis D. identify the problem
2 2 Section Check Answer The answer is D. Having a clear understanding of the problem is the first step in problem solving.
2 2 Section Check Question 3 A _______ is a prediction or statement that can be tested. Answer The answer is hypothesis. You use your prior knowledge, new information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
Scientific Discoveries New discoveries constantly lead to new products that influence your lifestyle or standard of living. In the last 100 years, technological advances have enabled environments to move from live stage shows to large movie screens. Science and Technology 3 3
Scientific Discoveries Science and Technology 3 3 Now, DVDs enable users to choose a variety of options while viewing a movie.
Technological Advances Technology also makes your life more convenient. Foods can be prepared quickly in microwave ovens, and hydraulic tools make construction work easier and faster. Science and Technology 3 3 New discoveries influence other areas of your life as well, including your health. A disease might be controlled by a skin patch that releases a constant dose of medicine into your body.
ScienceThe Product of Many New scientific knowledge can mean that old ways of thinking or doing things are challenged. Science and Technology 3 3 Aristotle, an ancient Greek philosopher, classified living organisms into plants and animals. Click image to view movie.
ScienceThe Product of Many This system worked until new tools, such as the microscope, enabled scientists to study organisms in greater detail. Science and Technology 3 3 The new information changed how scientists viewed the living world. The current classification system will be used only as long as it continues to answer questions scientists have or until a new discovery enables them to look at information in a different way.
Who practices science? Scientific discoveries have never been limited to people of one race, sex, culture, or time period, or to professional scientists. Science and Technology 3 3 In fact, students your age have made some important discoveries.
Use of Scientific Information Science provides new information every day that people use to make decisions. Science and Technology 3 3 However, science cannot decide whether the new information is good or bad, moral or immoral. People decide whether the new information is used to help or harm the world and its inhabitants.
Looking to the Future Todays scientists use cellular phones and computers to communicate with each other. Science and Technology 3 3 This information technology has led to the globalization, or worldwide distribution, of information.
Looking to the Future The Internet quickly spreads word of new discoveries. Science and Technology 3 3 New knowledge and technology brought about by these discoveries are shared by people in all countries. Any information gathered from the Internet must be checked carefully for accuracy.
3 3 Section Check Question 1 _______ technology has led to the globalization, or worldwide distribution, of information. Answer The answer is information. Computers and cell phones are common and convenient methods used to communicate worldwide. FL: SC.H.3.3.7
3 3 Section Check Question 2 Which is NOT true of scientific discoveries? A. they make life more convenient B. they make life more difficult C. they help people lead healthier lives D. they challenge old ways of thinking or doing things FL: SC.H.3.3.5
3 3 Section Check Answer The answer is B. New discoveries constantly lead to new products that influence your lifestyle or standard of living. FL: SC.H.3.3.5
3 3 Section Check Question 3 Scientific discoveries are limited by _______. A. culture B. race C. sex D. none of the above FL: SC.H.1.3.6, SC.H.3.3.5
3 3 Section Check Answer The answer is D. Scientific discoveries have never been limited to people of one race, sex, culture, or time period. FL: SC.H.1.3.6, SC.H.3.3.5