Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Science and Technology"— Presentation transcript:
1The Nature of Science and Technology Mr. Ramirez6th Grade Science
2The Nature of Science and Technology Table of ContentsThe Nature of Science and TechnologySection 1: What is science?Section 2: Doing ScienceSection 3: Science and Technology
3What is science?1Science in SocietyScience is a way or a process used to investigate what is happening around you.It can provide answers to many questions.Tools, such as thermometers and metersticks, are used to give numbers to descriptions.Scientists observe, investigate, and experiment to find answers.
4What is science?1Science Is Not NewThroughout history, people have tried to find answers to questions about what was happening around them.Early scientists tried to explain things based on their observations.They used their senses of sight, touch, smell, taste, and hearing to make these observations.
5What is science?1Using Prior KnowledgeScientists use prior experience to predict what will occur in investigations.Scientists form theories when their predictions have been well tested.A theory is an explanation that is supported by facts.Scientists also form laws, which are rules that describe a pattern in nature, like gravity.
6Using Science and Technology What is science?1Using Science and TechnologyScientists use skills and tools to find the similarities and differences.They use a variety of resource materials to find information.
7Using Science and Technology What is science?1Using Science and TechnologyThe computer is one tool that modern scientists use to find and analyze data.The computer is an example of technology.Technology is the application of science to make products or tools that people can use.
8What is science?1Science SkillsDoctors and scientists use skills such as observing, classifying, and interpreting data.
9Observation and Measurement What is science?1Observation and MeasurementSometimes observation alone does not provide a complete picture of what is happening.To ensure that your data are useful, accurate measurements must be taken, in addition to making careful observations.
10Observation and Measurement What is science?1Observation and MeasurementComparing and contrasting are other important skills.When scientists look for similarities among data, they compare them.Contrasting the data is looking for differences.
11Communication in Science What is science?1Communication in ScienceThe results of observations, experiments, and investigations are not of use to the rest of the world unless they are shared.Scientists use several methods to communicate their observations.
12Communication in Science What is science?1Communication in ScienceResults and conclusions of experiments often are reported in one of the thousands ofscientific journals or magazines that are published each year.
13Section Check1Question 1_______ is a way or a process used to investigate what is happening around you.AnswerThe answer is science. You use scientific thinking every day.FL: SC.H.1.3.2
14Question 2 1 A _______ is an explanation supported by facts. A. bias Section Check1Question 2A _______ is an explanation supported by facts.A. biasB. hypothesisC. lawD. theoryFL: SC.H.1.3.1
15Section Check1AnswerThe answer is D. Scientists form theories when their predictions have been well tested.FL: SC.H.1.3.1
16Solving Problems—Identify the Problem Doing Science2Solving Problems—Identify the ProblemAlthough the investigation of each problem is different, scientists use some steps in all investigations.Scientists first make sure that everyone working to solve the problem has a clear understanding of the problem.Sometimes, scientists find that the problem is easy to identify or that several problems need to be solved.
17How can the problem be solved? Doing Science2How can the problem be solved?Two of the methods used to answer questions are descriptive research and experimental research design.Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observation.Experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps.
18How can the problem be solved? Doing Science2How can the problem be solved?Scientific methods are ways, or steps to follow, to try to solve problems.
19Doing Science2Descriptive ResearchSome scientific problems can be solved, or questions answered, by using descriptive research.Descriptive research is based mostly on observations.Descriptive research can be used in investigations when experiments would be impossible to perform.Descriptive research usually involves the following steps.
20State the Research Objective Doing Science2State the Research ObjectiveThis is the first step in solving a problem using descriptive research.A research objective is what you want to find out, or what question you would like to answer.
21Describe the Research Design Doing Science2Describe the Research DesignHow will you carry out your investigation? How will the data be recorded and analyzed?These are a few of the things scientists think about when theydesign an investigation using descriptive research.An important part of any research design is safety.Click image to view movie.
22Doing Science2Eliminate BiasSometimes, scientists might expect certain results. This is known as bias.Good investigations avoid bias.One way to avoid bias is to use careful numerical measurements for all data.Another type of bias can occur in surveys or groups that are chosen for investigations.To get an accurate result, you need to use a random sample.
23Equipment, Materials, and Models Doing Science2Equipment, Materials, and ModelsWhen a scientific problem is solved by descriptive research, the equipment and materials used to carry out the investigation and analyze the data are important.
24Selecting Your Materials Doing Science2Selecting Your MaterialsScientists try to use the most up-to-date materials available to them.If possible, you should use scientific equipment such as balances, spring sales, microscopes, and metric measurements when performing investigations and gathering data.
25Selecting Your Materials Doing Science2Selecting Your MaterialsCalculators and computers can be helpful inevaluating or displaying data.
26Selecting Your Materials Doing Science2Selecting Your MaterialsHowever, you don’t have to have the latest or most expensive materials and tools to conduct good scientific investigations.Your investigations can be completed successfully and the data displayed with materials found in your home or classroom.An organized presentation of data is as effective as a computer graphic or an extravagant display.
27Doing Science2Using ModelsOne part of carrying out the investigation plan might include making or using scientific models.In science, a model represents things that happen too slowly, too quickly, or are too big or too small to observe directly.Models also are useful in situations in which direct observation would be too dangerous or expensive.
28Doing Science2Scientific MethodsScientists around the world use a system of measurements called the InternationalSystem of Units, or SI, to make observations.This allows them to understand each other’s research and compare results.
29Doing Science2Scientific MethodsBecause SI uses certain metric units that are based on units of ten, multiplication and division are easy to do.Prefixes are used with units to change their names to larger or smaller units.
30Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science2Data—Designing Your Data TablesA well-planned investigation includes ways to record results and observations accurately.Data tables are one way to do this.
31Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science2Data—Designing Your Data TablesMost tables have a title that tells you at a glance what the table is about.The table is divided into columns and rows. These are usually trials or characteristics to be compared.
32Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science2Data—Designing Your Data TablesThe first row contains the titles of the columns.The first column identifies what each row represents.
33Analyze Your Data 2 Your data must be organized to analyze them. Doing Science2Analyze Your DataYour data must be organized to analyze them.Charts and graphs are excellent ways to organize data.You can draw the charts and graphs or use a computer to make them.
34Doing Science2Draw ConclusionsAfter you have organized your data, you are ready to draw a conclusion.Sometimes, your data are not what you expected, but remember, scientists understand that it is important to know when something doesn’t work.A successful investigation is not always the one that comes out the way you originally predicted.
35Communicating Your Results Doing Science2Communicating Your ResultsEvery investigation begins because a problem needs to be solved.Analyzing data and drawing conclusions are the end of the investigation.Usually, scientists communicate their results to other scientists, government agencies, private industries, or the public.Scientists usually publish their most important findings.
36Communicating Your Results Doing Science2Communicating Your ResultsYou can communicate your data and conclusions to other members of your science class.Organized data and careful analysis will enable you to answer most questions and to discuss your work confidently.Analyzing and sharing data are important parts of descriptive and experimental research.
37Experimental Research Design Doing Science2Experimental Research DesignAnother way to solve scientific problems is through experimentation.Experimental research design answers scientific questions by observation of a controlled situation.Experimental research design includes several steps.Cinda, these next two were supposed to be on one slide, but they obviously didn’t fit. I’m not sure where the picture should go.
38Doing Science2Form a HypothesisA hypothesis (hi PAH thuh sus) is a prediction, or statement, that can be tested.You use your prior knowledge, newinformation, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
39Doing Science2VariablesIn well-planned experiments, one factor, or variable, is changed at a time.This means that the variable is controlled.The variable that is changed is called the independent variable.A dependant variable is the factor being measured.
40Doing Science2VariablesTo test which of two antibiotics will kill a type of bacterium, you must make sure that every variable remains the same but the type of antibiotic.In this experiment, the independent variable isthe amount or type of antibiotic applied to the bacteria.The dependant variable is the growth of the bacteria.
41Variables 2 The variables that stay the same are called constants. Doing Science2VariablesThe variables that stay the same are called constants.You cannot run the experiments at two different room temperatures, for different lengths of time, or with different amounts of antibiotics.
42Doing Science2Identify ControlsYour experiment will not be valid unless a control is used.A control is a sample that is treated like the other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it.
43Doing Science2Identify ControlsIn the experiment with antibiotics, your control is a sample of bacteria that is not treated with either antibiotic.The control shows how the bacteria grow when left untreated by either antibiotic.
44Doing Science2Identify ControlsOnce you begin an experiment, make sure to carry it out as planned.Don’t skip or change steps in the middle.Also, you should record your observations and complete your data tables in a timely manner.Incomplete observations and reports result in data that are difficult to analyze and threaten the accuracy of your conclusions.
45Doing Science2Number of TrialsExperiments done the same way do not always have the same results.To make sure that your results are valid, you need to conduct several trials of your experiment.Multiple trials mean that an unusual outcome of the experiment won’t be considered the true result.The more trials you do using the same methods, the more likely it is that your results will be reliable and repeatable.
46Doing Science2Analyze Your ResultsWhen you analyze your results, you can see if your data support your hypothesis.If the data do not support your original hypothesis, you can still learn from the experiment.Experiments that don’t work out as you had planned can still provide valuable information.Professional scientists rarely have results that support their hypothesis without completing numerous trials first.
47Doing Science2Analyze Your ResultsAfter your results are analyzed, you can communicate them to your teacher and your class.Sharing the results of experiments allows you to hear new ideas from other students that might improve your research.Your results might contain information that will be helpful to other students.
48Question 1 2 Which answers scientific questions through observation? Section Check2Question 1Which answers scientific questions through observation?A. descriptive researchB. experimental research designC. educated guessingD. hypothesizingFL: SC.H.1.3.2
49Section Check2AnswerThe answer is A. Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observations while experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through a series a carefully controlled steps.FL: SC.H.1.3.2
50Question 2 2 What is the first step in solving problems? Section Check2Question 2What is the first step in solving problems?A. analyze dataB. draw conclusionC. form a hypothesisD. identify the problem
51Section Check2AnswerThe answer is D. Having a clear understanding of the problem is the first step in problem solving.
52Section Check2Question 3A _______ is a prediction or statement that can be tested.AnswerThe answer is hypothesis. You use your prior knowledge, new information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
53Scientific Discoveries Science and Technology3Scientific DiscoveriesNew discoveries constantly lead to new products that influence your lifestyle or standard of living.In the last 100 years, technological advances have enabled environments to move from live stage shows to large movie screens.
54Scientific Discoveries Science and Technology3Scientific DiscoveriesNow, DVDs enable users to choose a variety of options while viewing a movie.
55Technological Advances Science and Technology3Technological AdvancesTechnology also makes your life more convenient.Foods can be prepared quickly in microwave ovens, and hydraulic tools make construction work easier and faster.New discoveries influence other areas of your life as well, including your health.A disease might be controlled by a skin patch that releases a constant dose of medicine into your body.
56Science—The Product of Many Science and Technology3Science—The Product of ManyNew scientific knowledge can mean that old ways of thinking or doing things are challenged.Aristotle, an ancient Greek philosopher, classified living organisms into plants and animals.Click image to view movie.
57Science—The Product of Many Science and Technology3Science—The Product of ManyThis system worked until new tools, such as the microscope, enabled scientists to study organisms in greater detail.The new information changed how scientists viewed the living world.The current classification system will be used only as long as it continues to answer questions scientists have or until a new discovery enables them to look at information in a different way.
58Science and Technology 3Who practices science?Scientific discoveries have never been limited to people of one race, sex, culture, or time period, or to professional scientists.In fact, students your age have made some important discoveries.
59Use of Scientific Information Science and Technology3Use of Scientific InformationScience provides new information every day that people use to make decisions.However, science cannot decide whether the new information is good or bad, moral or immoral.People decide whether the new information is used to help or harm the world and its inhabitants.
60Science and Technology 3Looking to the FutureToday’s scientists use cellular phones and computers to communicate with each other.This information technology has led to the globalization, or worldwide distribution, of information.
61Science and Technology 3Looking to the FutureThe Internet quickly spreads word of new discoveries.New knowledge and technology brought about by these discoveries are shared by people in all countries.Any information gathered from the Internet must be checked carefully for accuracy.
62Section Check3Question 1_______ technology has led to the globalization, or worldwide distribution, of information.AnswerThe answer is information. Computers and cell phones are common and convenient methods used to communicate worldwide.FL: SC.H.3.3.7
63Question 2 3 Which is NOT true of scientific discoveries? Section Check3Question 2Which is NOT true of scientific discoveries?A. they make life more convenientB. they make life more difficultC. they help people lead healthier livesD. they challenge old ways of thinking ordoing thingsFL: SC.H.3.3.5
64Section Check3AnswerThe answer is B. New discoveries constantly lead to new products that influence your lifestyle or standard of living.FL: SC.H.3.3.5
65Question 3 3 Scientific discoveries are limited by _______. A. culture Section Check3Question 3Scientific discoveries are limited by _______.A. cultureB. raceC. sexD. none of the aboveFL: SC.H.1.3.6, SC.H.3.3.5
66Section Check3AnswerThe answer is D. Scientific discoveries have never been limited to people of one race, sex, culture, or time period.FL: SC.H.1.3.6, SC.H.3.3.5