Presentation on theme: "E-Learning w w w. f – a i r. c z. Crosscountry Navigation Ground preparation."— Presentation transcript:
E-Learning w w w. f – a i r. c z
Crosscountry Navigation Ground preparation
Preflight preparation procedure Gathering of information (AIP, NOTAM, AIC) Route planning (map, nav log) Weather assessment (METAR / TAF) Aerodrome departures/arrivals + RTF procedures Loss of orientation procedures Communication failure procedures Procedures for deteriorated meteo conditions VFR navigation FIC FIS VOLMET REG QNH XPDR Radionavigation Flight Plan A few useful tips for VFR flying
Information sources Official sources: FIS publications ICAO chart 1: AIP AIP SUP NOTAMs AIC PIB – Preflight information bulletin Nonofficial sources: Other charts Bottlang JEPPESEN AVION database Internet Before we start planning the route, we should obtain sufficient information regarding: Airports we intend to use (operational hours, services provided, type of fuel availiable, state of the aerodrome, FREQ, etc.) The route we intend to fly (FREQ, airspace, special equipment required, etc.)
Aeronautical information publication is a prime document containing permanent information of a long term validity essential for flight operations. It is published by each ICAO state for its territory. AIP consists of 3 parts: 1. GEN - General National rules and requirements (adresses of important organizations, entry/exit of crew, cargo and passengers into/from the country) Tables and codes (abbreviations, chart symbols, sunrise/sunset tables) Services (FIS, Charts, ATS, communication services, meteo, SAR) Charges (aerodrome, navigation, approach charges) 2. ENR - Enroute General rules and procedures ATS airspace (FIR, TMA, MTMA, MCTR) ATS routes (AWYs) Radionavigation aids Navigation alerts/ Prohibited, Restricted, Dangerous, TSA areas 3. AD - Aerodroms IFR airports Heliports VFR airports AIP AIP
Temporary changes of a long term character (three months and longer) and information of a shorter validity that contains extensive text or graphics, supplementing information in AIP. e.g. Temporary traffic restriction at an airport. AIC A notification containing information, that do not comply with the conditions for NOTAM issuance or publishing in AIP, but that are related to flight safety, flight operations or related to technical, administrative or juristical matters. AIC is published in two series A and C. AIC series A containing information related to international civil aviation. Information is sent out internationally. AIC series C containing information related to the national aviation. Information is sent out only within the state of issue. AIP - SUP Notam AIP
Announcement, transmitted by means of telecommunication, containing information concerning the establishment, condition, or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedures, or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. It is an information of temporary validity (usually up to 1 month). Series A and B are published in English. Series X and Y contain the same NOTAMs in Czech language. Series A (X): The most important series. Contains all information regarding operation at ATS routes and the main international airports in the Czech republic: BRNO/TUŘANY, KARLOVY VARY, OSTRAVA/MOŠNOV, PRAHA/RUZYNĚ. Series B (Y): Contains all information regarding operation at other airports in Czech republic (see AD 1.3) and other information not enlisted in series A (X). Series S (SNOWTAM): Notifies the presence of hazardous conditions due to snow, ice, slush or standing water associated with snow, slush and ice on the movement area. NOTAM
LKAA A0873/03 D) DAILY PJE IN AREA R 5KM CHRUDIM/AD (4956N01547E). ACT WITH PRIOR APV MTWR PARDUBICE F) GND G) FL 095. ___________________________________________________________________________________ EST LKPM Z0004/04 AD CLSD ___________________________________________________________________________________ LKAA N LK A0043/04 CIV TFC PROHIBITED IN AREA R 10KM STRAKONICE/AD (4915N1353E) F) GND G) FL 095 ___________________________________________________________________________________ LKPR S0188/04 C)06 F)62/62/62 G)02/02/02 H)65/66/61 SFH N)62-MEDIUM/GOOD C)13 F)62/62/62 G)03/03/03 H)70/73/70 SFH N)62-GOOD R)APN NORTH-52-MEDIUM APN SOUTH-53-MEDIUM/POOR T)RWYS CONTAM. 50 PCT. SLUSH. RWYS TREATED WITH LIQUID DEICING CHEMICALS. TWYS,APNS CONTAM. 100 PCT. TAXI CAREFULLY. NOTAM - examples You can find the abbreviations in AIP – part GEN 2.2
NOTAM/SNOWTAM for LKTB
Important sections of AIP AIP is one of the essential aviation documents, lets now take a closer look at some of its parts: GEN Equipment of aircraft by SSR transponder ENR Visual Flight Rules (VFR) ENR ATS Airspace classification (+ back side of ICAO chart) ENR altimeter setting procedures ENR flight planning procedures ENR interception of civil aircraft AD providing of aerodrome flight information service (AFIS) AD grouping of airports ICAO Annex2- Appendix 1, part 4 signals for aerodrome traffic Annex-2 Essential to study!!! AIP
Annex 2 – appendix 1
Questions: What are the dimensions of an ATZ? What is the minimum flight height for a VFR flight? What is the VMC minima for a class G airspace? What does it mean when a military aircraft on our left is rocking wings and flashing navigational lights in irregular intervals? What do these signals, when displayed on a signal area, mean?
LKBE Lets now take a look at the available information in AIP, section AD 4. For our first crosscountry flight we will study these airports: LKBE Benešov LKPM Příbram We should always take A ADC (Aerodrome chart) and VOC (Visual operations chart) of important airports on board the aircraft. Questions: What are these data at LKPM: RWYs (direction and length)? Circuits? Altitude on the circuit? Noise abatement procedures? FREQ ?
Remember!!!! For a flight to an unfamiliar airport always call the operator and check these items : RWY state availability of required services (fuel, hangar space, customs, etc.) specific local procedures weather
ROUTE PLANNING Consists of these steps: Plotting the route on the chart Filling out the nav log Fuel calculation Always check for: Airspace areas Flight altitude/ flight height above the terrain Turning points Always keep in mind!! Preparation for a crosscountry flight should start at least 2 hours before the actual flight. (this time may differ according to the difficulty of the route flown or pilot experience)
Getting to know the chart
Questions: What kind of airspace is on the picture and what are its vertical boundaries? What information can we read from the airport description? What is the meaning of these symbols? What is the date of issue of your chart? 1623 Příbram 123, H 15 LK P5 FL 75 GND 2368
Chart preparation LKBE – Benešov – Slapy – Dobříš – Příbram – Orlík – Sedlčany – Votice - LKBE When a bigger town is considered as a TP, we plot the line on the edge of the town, rather than its center If a turning point is a smaller object, it is better to make a circle around it to keep it visible The line should be clearly visible, but not too strong, so it doesnt cover up any important information Note the expected time from a TP to other significant navigation points The legs should not be longer than 10 minutes ATZ symbol, it is important to realize what are its dimensions
How to measure the track ? Meridian – an indicator of a true north Here you can read the required track. Make sure, that you don´t mistake it for a 180° opposite track. Align the longest side of the triangle with the track so its center intersects the meridan. To calculate the magnetic track, we should deduct magnetic variation - 2°30´E We can neglect this calculation in VFR flying due to the fact that mag. variation in Czech is approximately 3°.
Navigation log New nav log for each flight!! (form takeoff to landing) ALTITUDE for each leg Information about airports along the route We can note the radio-communication for our first crosscountry flight True track Distance in NM (speed indicator in knots) Time for each leg and corresponding speed (for Tecnam P92JS calculate 90 KIAS) Actual time noted during flight endurance according to the fuel on board (min. reserve 45 min. for all VFR training flights) Free space for noting information from AFIS/ATC Circuit and landing circuit and departure
Fuel calculation It is essential to properly calculate the fuel required for each flight. According to the F AIR operations handbook the minimum reserve fuel should be 45 minutes. flight time fuel + reserve fuel = total required fuel i.e.: 60´ + 45´ = 1°45´ Tecnam P92 JS 100 fuel consumption …… 18 l/hod (depending on power setting) 1°45´ x 18 l/hod = approx. 32 liters i.e.:we should have atleast 32 liters of fuel on board Then we fill in the actual endurance corresponding to the actual fuel on board, e.g.: 70 liters 18 l/hod = 3°50´ Question: What is the endurance of a Tecnam P92JS with the fuel tanks full?
Airspace areas along the route It is important to carefully study the airspace along the planned route and its vertical boundaries: FL 145 TMA III Prague ft AMSL FL 145 TMA I Prague ft AGL FL 145 TMA V Prague FL 65 FL 410 LKR GND FL 240 LKTRA ft AGL FL 175 LKP GND We can find the airspace planned activaction times in : AUP message (issued daily) via telephone (Prague INFO) during flight – Prague INFO 126,1/136,175
Airspace Area Restricted Area – LKR An airspace of defined dimensions within which the flight of aircraft may be carried out only under certain specified conditions. Prohibited Area – LKP An airspace of defined dimensions within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited. This term is used when the flight of civil aircraft within the designated airspace is not permitted at any time under any circumstances. Danger Area – LKD An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times. The purpose of the creation of a danger area is to caution operators or pilots of aircraft about the existing danger, having in view their responsibility for the safety of their aircraft. Temporary Reserved Area - TRA A defined volume of airspace normally under the jurisdiction of one aviation authority and temporarily reserved, by common agreement, for the specific use by military or another traffic and through which other traffic may be allowed to transit, under ATC clearance. Temporary Segregated Area - TSA A defined volume of airspace normally under the jurisdiction of one aviation authority and temporarily segregated, by common agreement, for the exclusive use by military or another traffic and through which other traffic will not be allowed to transit. ADIZ – Air Defence Identification Zone (no longer used in Czech Republic) Is airspace over land or water in which the identification, location, and control of civil aircraft is required in the interest of national security. Question: What are the conditions for a flight to LKR8 and where can we find this information? AIP
AUP AUP Airspace Use Plan Abbreaviations used in AUP: FRN - firing INACTIVE – Airspace is no longer active OAT - Operational Air Traffic (not in compliance with ICAO rules – usually military traffic) WRNG – Warning (in AUP – only NAV warning) The list of planned Areas Do not forget to check the validity (date and time ) of AUP
Assesment of METEO conditions METAR / SPECI TAF SIGMET WARNING Aviation forecasts Global meteorological situation knowledge (Synoptic maps, TV,...) Satelite and radar pictures Consulting a meteorologist BRIEFING BRIEFING You can find all information in the online BRIEFING.BRIEFING
METAR Meteorological Terminal Air Report. Coded and regularly issued each 30 – 60 minutes. If a report is issued outside the scheduled interval due to a sudden change of meteo conditions, it is called SPECI. A TREND message is attached at the end of METAR. It is a local forecast for the next 2 hours. Examples: METAR LKPR Z VRB03KT 9999 CAVOK 06/M00 Q1015 NOSIG RMK REG QNH 1011= SPECI LKPR Z 31010KT 270V SHSN SCT013 OVC023 M03/M05 Q // TEMPO 31015G25KT FZRASN RMK REG QNH 1011= ID of the airport for which the METAR has been issued Time of issue DDHHMM Surface wind Significant wether Cloud coverage VisibilityTemperature / Dew point QNH TREND message RWY state message – shortened SNOWTAM TREND reportNote e.g. regional QNH Remark
METAR – questions… What do these abbreviations mean? CAVOK SKC NSC NOSIG FEW SCT BKN OVC TCU CB VRB
TAF Regularly issued and internationally coded Terminal Aerodrome Forecast: short TAF - issued every 3 hours, forecast for 9 hours long TAF - issued every 6 hours, forecast for 30 hours Examples: TAF LKPR Z KT 9999 SCT020 BKN040 TEMPO SN SCT010 BKN020 PROB SHSN SCT007 BKN010= TAF LKPR Z KT 9999 SCT025 TEMPO RASN BKN013 PROB G34KT 3000 SHRASN SCT013CB BECMG G26KT= TEMPO – TEMPOrary fluctuations to forecast meteorological conditions which last for one hour or less in each instance and, in the aggregate, cover less than half of the period. BECMG – BECoMing indicates that in the period given, the weather will start to change from the previous line to the next line
SIGMET Information concerning the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified en-route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations. Examples : LKAA SIGMET 1 VALID / LKPR- PRAHA FIR SEV ICE OBS MAINLY CENTRAL PART BTN FL100/FL180 MOV S-SE NC= LKAA SIGMET 1 VALID / LKPR- PRAHA FIR SEV TURB OBS SW PART OF LKAA BTN FL220/FL270 MOV E NC=
WARNING Examples: WARNING N.1 FOR LKAA VALIDITY / QNH PRESSURE VALUE WILL IN CZECH TEMPORARILY DROP BELOW 993 HPA DUE TO THE COLD FRONT MOVING FROM WEST. WARNING N.2 FOR LKAA VALIDITY / WIND VELOCITY IN THE WESTERN PART OF LKAA WILL ABOVE FL050 EXCEED 50KT FROM SW DIRECTION. WARNING N.3 FOR AIRPORTS LKTB,LKMT,LKKV,LKKU,LKHO VALIDITY / SNOW SHOWERS EXPECTED AT AIRPORTS LKTB,LKMT,LKKV,LKKU,LKHO. Warnings of a specific meteorological phenomena (in plain language)
LKAA Area Forecast FIR forecast in plain language
Satellite pictures, synoptic situation
Weather radar pictures
Division of airports 1)International – Airports intended for domestic and international traffic, which provide customs and immigration facilities and services. 2)Domestic – Airports intended solely for domestic traffic. Private – Airports where an operators permission is required prior the flight to the airport. Public – All other airports, permission does not have to be obtained. Controlled – ATC, FIS (information) and ALR (alerting) services are provided AFIS – FIS and ALR services are provided Uncontrolled – no services provided (AFIS airports outside operational hours) Warning!!! We are obliged to avoid uncontrolled airports along the route by 3NM or 5,5km!
Arrivals / Departures to/from controlled airports According to the procedures published in AIP and specific for each airport.
Arrivals / Departures to/fm AFIS aerodromes According to the information provided by AFIS officer, who should comply with the procedures published in AIP On a departure from an AFIS AD we usually report: Commencing of taxi, and intentions after takeoff Intention to cross RWY or taxi back via RWY (backtrack) RWY line up Takeoff Leaving the traffic circuit Leaving the ATZ On an arrival to an AFIS AD we report: WHO I AM registration aircraft type WHERE I AM altitude where do I enter the ATZ WHAT I INTEND TO DO intention (low-pass, landing or other activity) where do I leave the ATZ (if flying through the ATZ) Benešov RADIO, OK-RWY, good morning, after startup at F AIR apron, crosscountry flight Benešov-Příbram-Orlík returning in 1 hour Benešov RADIO, OK-RWY, on right downwind 24, leaving the traffic circuit NW Benešov RADIO, OK-RWY, leaving the ATZ NW, proceeding to Příbram Příbram RADIO, OK-RWY, good morning Tecnam P92, (from Benešov to Benešov) position Dobříš, 2500 ft ALTITUDE, flight through ATZ west of airport to Příbram city, OK-RWY Benešov RADIO, OK-RWY, good morning Tecnam P92, back to Benešov, posotion Olbramovice (or joining the ATZ from the south), 2500 ft ALTITUDE, (request information for landing), OK-RWY RTF procedures
Methods of joining the departure route Climbing overhead Direct departure – if the if the RWY and dep. HDG are similar Departure to a significant waypoing near the AD = to the first TP From the traffic circuit – for advanced
Arrivals / Departures to/fm uncontrolled aerodromes According to the information published in AIP RTF communication same as at the AFIS ADs, with the phrase transmitting blind On a departure from an uncontrolled AD we usually report: Commencing of taxi, and intentions after takeoff Intention to cross RWY or taxi back via RWY (backtrack) RWY line up Takeoff Leaving the traffic circuit Leaving the ATZ On an arrival to an uncontrolled AD we report: WHO I AM registration aircraft type WHERE I AM altitude where do I enter the ATZ WHAT I INTEND TO DO intention (low-pass, landing or other activity) where do I leave the ATZ (if flying through the ATZ) Benešov RADIO, OK-RWY, transmitting blind, after startup at F AIR apron, crosscountry flight Benešov-Příbram-Orlík returning in 1 hour Benešov RADIO, OK-RWY, transmitting blind, on right downwind 24, leaving the traffic circuit NW Benešov RADIO, OK-RWY, transmitting blind, leaving the ATZ NW, proceeding to Příbram Příbram RADIO, OK-RWY, good morning Tecnam P92, transmitting blind, (from Benešov to Benešov) position Dobříš, 2500 ft ALTITUDE, flight through ATZ west of airport to Příbram city, OK-RWY Benešov RADIO, transmitting blind, Tecnam P92, back to Benešov, posotion Olbramovice, 2500 ft ALTITUDE, proceeding overhead, OK-RWY After checking the signal area Benešov RADIO, transmitting blind, proceeding to right downwind RWY 24 RTF procedures
Procedure for arrival to an uncontrolled AD Turn overhead Altitude same as on the circuit or ft higher If the airspace above the airport allows it Evaluate wind conditions Wind direction indicator According to the signal area (be cautious – may be old) According to other indications (waves on the water, smoke, trees, etc.) Join the traffic circuit for the selected RWY Possibility to use the precautionary landing procedure Transmit blind your position on the circuit
Loss of orientation Stay calm Evaluate, if you really had lost orientation. If we cannot determine our present position precisely, but we had known our position a few minutes ago and the next significant point is ahead, it is not a loss of orientation Allign the GYRO with magnetic compass If we are flying near CTR, LKR, LKP, ADIZ airspace Turn away from these airspace areas First steps to regain orientation Climb to get a better view (beware of airspace vertical boundaries and possible limitations) Calculate expected position, using the time and heading from the last known WPT Try to find a significant point (town, hill, mast) around you or in the map Return to the last known position (beware of the wind drift) Only if you are sure that you knew where you were a while ago If you had flown over significant nav. points Join a significant orientation line (river, highway, mountainrange) Use of radionavigation VOR, ADF, DME, GPS – if the aircraft is equipped and you know how to use the equipment Call the ATC ( XPDR SSR, primary radar if close to controlled airports, VDF ) Request position information Request recommended heading If orientation cannot be ragained and you cannot contact ATC Precautionary landing Do not wait for fuel exhaustion Do not wait till sunset
Loss of communication For VFR flight loss of communication can occur only in airspace where radio- communication is required – i.e. in controlled airspace First you should check : Radio Correctly tuned FREQ Volume Headset SQUELCH Radio check (e.g. previous FREQ) Try another FREQ If unsuccessful: XPDR mode A 7600 maintain VMC Land at the nearest suitable AD Notify the ATC ASAP about a successful landing
Loss of communication in an uncontrolled airspace Proceed to the destination Unless it lies in a controlled airspace If I can avoid controlled airspace In other case, land at the neares suitable airport or at the airport of departure Be careful when flying around ATZ Apply the same procedures as for an arrival to an uncontrolled airport
Deteriorated meteorological conditions It is possible to avoid this situation by: Proper preflight preparation Good knowledge of meteorology Good estimation and assesment Good decisions Having a good idea of a global meteo situation (TV, synoptic maps, …) Flight planning against the general movement of weather fronts Usually deterioration of: Visibility Mostly mist, fog (usually does not change fast) Mist + sunset Precipitation (local) Cloud coverage Frontal or in the area of a low pressure Local (precipitation and storms) Can also include Turbulence Icing Increasing winds – problematic especially for landing
In general, it is possible to continue the flight, if: Poor visibility – mist If we can sufficiently recognize terrain and significant objects If we can see hills and obstacles If at the same time a low cloud coverage is not present Low cloud coverage Only if the visibility is good It is possible to fly around precipitation if: It is isolated It is not in a valley We know the surrounding area: Mountains and hills Restricted airspace We have a sufficient map It is possible to fly through the precipitation if: There is a hole – we can safely see through and recognize a horizon behind
When it is not safe to proceed: oFly towards the good weather: Change the direction, fly to an alternate airport Return the airport of departure (if the weather is still good) If you have to change the route, follow significant navigation lines oEmergency solution – if you get surrounded by bad weather Precautionary landing into terrain Unintentional flight into IMC: oIf the cloud is isolated Maintain altitude Turn 180° oIn a solid cloud coverage Climb to a safe altitude A good knowledge of the terrain is essential Safe ALT in CR is about ft Except for the boundary areas (mountains) oCall ATC Radar vectoring
Landing into the setting sun oEvaluate if really necessary Landing in the opposite direction with a light tailwind (consult POH) Flight to an alternate airport Consider waiting and land after sunset (PPL students should plan their solo flights to land at least 60 minutes prior sunset!!!) oProcedure for landing into the sun – if unavoidable Do not reduce power untill flare Flare a bit higher than for a normal landing (1-1,5 meters above ground) Reduce power to idle Start pulling back on the stick to lose speed, look to the side, not directly ahead to monitor height above ground Wait for the touch-down (positive landing) Beware of a bouncy landing, do not push forward on the stick
Comparative navigation Note the takeoff time into navlog switch XPDR to ALT mode Depart via the traffic circuit towards the first significant point (in our case the 1st WPT) Try to fly the route as precisely as possible Turn to the new heading Write down the time Calculate ATA + + ETA for the next WPT RTF announce leaving the ATZ 5 minutes from the WPT we should be in the southern part of a town - Netvořice Verify the WPT time highway ending railway Turn to the new heading Write down the time (navlog) calculate ATA + + ETA for the next WPT RTF the flight through the ATZ Avoid the traffic circuit RTF leaving the ATZVerify position Tune LKPM FREQ After turning to the new heading Find a significant point ahead, make corrections for wind drift Use comparative navigation Verify the WPT using at least 3 sources Time Water dam River shape/bend Turn to the new heading Write down the time (navlog) calculate ATA + + ETA for the next WPT
Comparative navigation Do not overfly the center of large cities Maintain safe distance from prohibited areas Be very careful about maintaining altitude when flying below active airspace areas On a crosscountry flight outside ATZ you should have Prague information 126,1 tuned in Tune in LKBE FREQ in timeRTF announce entering the ATZ
Suggestions……. Overflying large forests or lakes: Maintain sufficient altitude Fly around Flight around hills/mountains: Gain sufficient altitude in time Beware of the leeward side of the hills (turbulence, downdrafts) During flight always monitor the weather behind you !!
Suggestions……. Chart: Fold so that the whole route is visible and on an area of one A4 (max 2 for longer flights) Align the track line with the direction of flight when navigating Do not write in anything unnecessary so that you do not cover up any improtant information depicted in the chart Always take some money along!!! You never know where you might end up... Do not forget to go to the toilet before each flight!!! This problem is difficult to solve when airborne...
Suggestions……. Plan the flight with a safe reserve before sunset!!! You might get delayed. While flying do not look into the map for too long!!! Neither you would when driving a car. You should study the route in advance, when you are still on the ground. Use your head when you are flying. But not to make holes in the ground, graveyards are full of heroes. Analyze, debrief and learn from each flight.
Suggestions……. When planning a flight, try to prepare everything already on the ground. You will then have more time to solve possible non-standard situations in the air. When in a difficult situation, use this procedure: 1.FLY - FLY THE AIRCRAFT 2.NAVIGATE 3.COMMUNICATE
Other information……. Student pilot – pauses in training and other limitations: Student pilot can not fly as a PIC if he has not flown for more than 14 days !!! Maximium flight time for a student pilot per day - 4 hrs !!! NORDO (No Radio) Arrival/departure to an AFIS AD is possible! After a previous coordination with the AD operator (AFIS officer) After an arrival to an unfamiliar airport Make a larger circuit and a longer final approach. If anything does not seem right, it is no shame to go around.
FIC – Prague Information 126.1/ Provides services in LKAA (FIR Prague): FIS (Flight information service) – provides advice and information useful to perform a safe flight (airspace activation, activation/cancelling of flight plans,...) ALS (alerting service) – notifies the SAR institutions and facilities about aircraft that are to be searched for. FIC is not a part of the ATC service.
FIS – Flight Information Service Flight information service must provide information regarding: a)SIGMET and AIRMET information; b)Volcanic activity (eruption, ash,...), c)Releasing of radioactive or toxic chemicals in the atmosphere, d)Changes in availability of radionavigation facilities; e)Changes regarding airfields (changes in services provided and information about the state of movement areas if affected by slush, snow or standing water) f)Releasing of free baloons and any other information that may affect safety g)Reported or forecasted meteorological conditions at the departure, destination or alternate airports h)Danger of collision of aircraft flying in airspace class C, D, E, F and G. Flight information service provided to VFR flights must in addition include information regarding operation or meteorological conditions which might not allow to perform a flight in VMC on the route flown. Remark – Flight information service does not relieve the pilot from any responsibility. The pilot is definitively responsible for the safe execution of flight.
Communication with FIC Try to be precise, use correct RTF procedures and minimize the communication. It is very unpleasant when you are trying to communicate but the frequency is congested with unnecessary inquiries or innacurate and prolonged communication. Prague INFORMATION, OK-RWY, good morning. OK-RWY, Prague INFORMATION, go ahead. Tecnam P92 after departure from Benešov, crosscountry flight to LKJH, 2500 ft ALT, squawk 7000, OK-RWY Prague INFORMATION, roger, regional QNH Regional QNH 1012, OK-RWY. Prague INFORMATION, OK-RWY, approaching LKJH, changing frequency to Hradec INFO Prague INFORMATION. Tecnam P92 position Vlasim, request information about activation of LKR 73 airspace, OK-RWY LKR 73 is not activated, Prague INFORMATION. OK-RWY
VOLMET Broadcasting for each FIR containing current METEO information about controlled airports. FREQ: VOLMET MHzonly CZ ADs VOLMET MHz CZ + some ADs abroad
Regional QNH Lowest QNH in the whole FIR to ensure safe separation from the terrain. Altimeter setting when measuring ALTITUDE: set REG QNH outside CTR, TMA, ATZ and when not below TMA For flights in CTR, TMA and ATZ set aeordrome QNH, as instructed by ATC/AFIS Aerodrome QNH Regional QNH ELEV True ALT indicated ALT Where can we get the current REG QNH? In METAR of civil airports (only in CR) FIC Prague Information or any other ATC FREQ CZ VOLMET
Wind drift Determination: graphically calculation Nav. computer If a significant wind is forecasted, we can depict the direction in the chart. Question: How strong would be the crosswind if the drift angle was 45°? 80 kt ?? GS 45°
Secondary surveillence radar transponder XPDR SSR Aircraft equipped with XPDR should have the transponder turned on in the correct mode and with an appropriate code selected: 7000 – uncontrolled VFR flights 2000 – controlled VFR flights 7500 – unlawful interference 7600 – loss of communication 7700 – emergency
Radionavigation aids To help us navigate we can use ground or satellite navigation aids: NDB VOR ILS OMEGA / LORAN / DECCA GPS We should first know how these devices work to be able to use them correctly!
RNZ And for a better demonstration you can use our simulator, not only during long winter nights SIMULATOR
FPL Guide to filling a FPL: ICAO DOC 4444 – appendix 2 FPL Filing a FPL Annex 2-3.3, AIP ENR : for each IFR flight For each international flight (some exceptions within the Shengen area) For each flight to a military AD (in CR) For VFR in airspace class C,D above 1000 ft GND For VFR, when we require ATC services (alerting service) Alerting service is then automatically provided to VFR flights with a filed flight plan.
Warning!!! If a flight plan is not cancelled or closed, then after the flight time + 30mins expiration the SAR forces commence a rescue mission.
OKUTC VG C172 LKBE 1200 N0110VFR RADOTIN LKPR 0030LKTC OPR/F-AIR RMK/TRNG FLT WHITE JOHN DOE VO S L
Pilot: Prague INFORMATION, OK-RWY, good morning FIC: OK-RWY, Prague INFORMATION, good morning, pass your message Pilot: request flight plan activation from LKBE to LKPR, takeoff 12:45 (report in UTC), OK-RWY Flight plan will not be activated if the pilot does not report takeoff. FIC:flight plan activated at 12:45 set squawk 3331, Prague INFORMATION. Activation of a FPL After leaving the ATZ, tune PRAHA INFO or other ATC frequency and report the following information: Aircraft identification Destination AD Departure AD Takeoff time Pilot:Prague INFORMATION, OK-RWY, cancelling flight plan at 15:22 (UTC) FIC/ATC: OK-RWY, Prague INFORMATION, flight plan cancelled at 15:22, set squawk 7000, goodbye Pilot: squawk 7000, goodbye, OK-RWY. Cancelling of a FPL Flight plan does not have to be closed after landing if a pilot cancels it when still airborne. It is possible in airspace class G and E or in class D and C up to 1000ft AGL. Activation/cancelling of FPL via RTF
A few wise words at the end…… It is always better to be on the ground and wish to fly, than to fly and wish to be on the ground. Each pilot starts with one bag full of luck and the other empty, for experience. The trick is to fill in the second bag with experince before we run out of luck. The three most useless things to a pilot are: Altitude above him Runway behind him Fuel that he left on the ground Never allow your aircraft to get where your brain didnt want to be five minutes ago. Always look around you. Surely there is something that you have missed.
And at the very end…… Flying is beautiful. May it bring you the same happines as it does to us...