3 Preflight preparation procedure 1.Gathering of information (AIP, NOTAM, AIC)Route planning (map, nav log)Weather assessment (METAR / TAF)2.3.Aerodrome departures/arrivals + RTF proceduresLoss of orientation proceduresCommunication failure proceduresProcedures for deteriorated meteo conditionsVFR navigationFIC FIS VOLMET REG QNH XPDRRadionavigationFlight PlanA few useful tips for VFR flying
4 Information sources Official sources: Nonofficial sources: Before we start planning the route, we should obtain sufficient information regarding:Airports we intend to use (operational hours, services provided, type of fuel availiable, state of the aerodrome, FREQ, etc.)The route we intend to fly (FREQ, airspace, special equipment required, etc.)Official sources:FIS publicationsICAO chart 1:AIPAIP SUPNOTAMsAICPIB – Preflight information bulletinNonofficial sources:Other chartsBottlang JEPPESENAVION databaseInternet
5 AIPAeronautical information publication is a prime document containing permanent information of a long term validity essential for flight operations. It is published by each ICAO state for its territory. AIP consists of 3 parts:GEN - GeneralNational rules and requirements (adresses of important organizations, entry/exit of crew, cargo and passengers into/from the country)Tables and codes (abbreviations, chart symbols, sunrise/sunset tables)Services (FIS, Charts, ATS, communication services, meteo, SAR)Charges (aerodrome, navigation, approach charges)ENR - EnrouteGeneral rules and proceduresATS airspace (FIR, TMA, MTMA, MCTR)ATS routes (AWYs)Radionavigation aidsNavigation alerts/ Prohibited, Restricted, Dangerous, TSA areasAD - AerodromsIFR airportsHeliportsVFR airportsAIP
6 AIP - SUPTemporary changes of a long term character (three months and longer) and information of a shorter validity that contains extensive text or graphics, supplementing information in AIP. e.g. Temporary traffic restriction at an airport.AIPAICA notification containing information, that do not comply with the conditions for NOTAM issuance or publishing in AIP, but that are related to flight safety, flight operations or related to technical, administrative or juristical matters.AIC is published in two series A and C.AIC series A containing information related to international civil aviation. Information is sent out internationally.AIC series C containing information related to the national aviation. Information is sent out only within the state of issue .Notam
10 NOTAMAnnouncement, transmitted by means of telecommunication, containing information concerning the establishment, condition, or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedures, or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. It is an information of temporary validity (usually up to 1 month).Series A and B are published in English.Series X and Y contain the same NOTAMs in Czech language.Series A (X): The most important series. Contains all information regarding operation at ATS routes and the main international airports in the Czech republic: BRNO/TUŘANY, KARLOVY VARY, OSTRAVA/MOŠNOV, PRAHA/RUZYNĚ.Series B (Y): Contains all information regarding operation at other airports in Czech republic (see AD 1.3) and other information not enlisted in series A (X).Series S (SNOWTAM): Notifies the presence of hazardous conditions due to snow, ice, slush or standing water associated with snow, slush and ice on the movement area.
11 NOTAM - examples You can find the abbreviations in AIP – part GEN 2.2 LKAA A0873/03D) DAILYPJE IN AREA R 5KM CHRUDIM/AD (4956N01547E). ACT WITHPRIOR APV MTWR PARDUBICEF) GND G) FL 095.___________________________________________________________________________________EST LKPM Z0004/04AD CLSDLKAA N LK A0043/04CIV TFC PROHIBITED IN AREA R 10KM STRAKONICE/AD (4915N1353E)F) GND G) FL 095LKPR S0188/04C)06 F)62/62/62 G)02/02/02 H)65/66/61 SFH N)62-MEDIUM/GOODC)13 F)62/62/62 G)03/03/03 H)70/73/70 SFH N)62-GOODR)APN NORTH-52-MEDIUM APN SOUTH-53-MEDIUM/POORT)RWYS CONTAM. 50 PCT. SLUSH. RWYS TREATED WITH LIQUID DEICING CHEMICALS. TWYS,APNS CONTAM. 100 PCT. TAXI CAREFULLY.You can find the abbreviations in AIP – part GEN 2.2
13 Important sections of AIP AIP is one of the essential aviation documents, let’s now take a closer look at some of its parts:GEN Equipment of aircraft by SSR transponderENR Visual Flight Rules (VFR)ENR ATS Airspace classification (+ back side of ICAO chart)ENR altimeter setting proceduresENR flight planning proceduresENR interception of civil aircraftAD providing of aerodrome flight information service (AFIS)AD grouping of airportsICAO Annex2 - Appendix 1, part 4 signals for aerodrome trafficEssential to study!!!AIPAnnex-2
15 Questions: • What are the dimensions of an ATZ? • What is the minimum flight height for a VFR flight?• What is the VMC minima for a class G airspace?• What does it mean when a military aircraft on our left is rocking wings and flashing navigational lights in irregular intervals?• What do these signals, when displayed on a signal area, mean?
16 LKBELets now take a look at the available information in AIP, section AD 4.For our first crosscountry flight we will study these airports:• LKBE Benešov• LKPM PříbramWe should always take AADC (Aerodrome chart) and VOC (Visual operations chart) of important airports on board the aircraft.Questions:What are these data at LKPM:RWYs (direction and length)?Circuits?Altitude on the circuit?Noise abatement procedures?FREQ ?
17 Remember!!!!For a flight to an unfamiliar airport always call the operator and check these items :• RWY state• availability of required services(fuel, hangar space, customs, etc.)• specific local procedures• weather
18 ROUTE PLANNING Consists of these steps: Always keep in mind!! Plotting the route on the chartFilling out the nav logFuel calculationAlways check for:Airspace areasFlight altitude/ flight height above the terrainTurning pointsAlways keep in mind!!Preparation for a crosscountry flight should start at least 2 hours before the actual flight.(this time may differ according to the difficulty of the route flown or pilot experience)
19 Getting to know the chart A thorough familiarization with the chart is necessary before we start plotting a route. It is important to be able to read the chart correctly. These are some important things to notice:Chart symbols (top and lower right corner of the chart)Altitudes are measure in feetScale – 1: i.e. 1cm on the chart=5km Earth distanceContour line interval 328 ft / 100 mChart information currency (lower left corner, you can find the list of updates in AIP, part GEN 3.2.8)
20 Questions: LK P5 Příbram 123,5 1529 - H 15 FL 75GNDLK P5What kind of airspace is on the picture and what are its vertical boundaries?What information can we read from the airport description?What is the meaning of these symbols?What is the date of issue of your chart?Příbram 123,5H 1516232368
21 Chart preparationLKBE – Benešov – Slapy – Dobříš – Příbram – Orlík – Sedlčany – Votice - LKBEIf a turning point is a smaller object, it is better to make a circle around it to keep it visibleWhen a bigger town is considered as a TP, we plot the line on the edge of the town, rather than its centerATZ symbol, it is important to realize what are its dimensionsThe line should be clearly visible, but not too strong, so it doesn’t cover up any important informationThe legs should not be longer than 10 minutesNote the expected time from a TP to other significant navigation points
22 How to measure the track ? Meridian – an indicator of a true northAlign the longest side of the triangle with the track so its center intersects the meridan.Here you can read the required track.Make sure, that you don´t mistake it for a 180° opposite track.To calculate the magnetic track, we should deduct magnetic variation - 2°30´EWe can neglect this calculation in VFR flying due to the fact that mag. variation in Czech is approximately 3°.
23 New nav log for each flight!! (form takeoff to landing) Navigation logNew nav log for each flight!!(form takeoff to landing)circuit and departureendurance according to the fuel on board(min. reserve 45 min. for all VFR training flights)Actual time noted during flightTime for each leg and corresponding speed(for Tecnam P92JS calculate 90 KIAS)Distance in NM(speed indicator in knots)Circuit and landingTrue trackFree space for noting information from AFIS/ATCALTITUDE for each legInformation about airports along the routeWe can note the radio-communication for our first crosscountry flight
24 Fuel calculation Question: It is essential to properly calculate the fuel required for each flight.According to the F AIR operations handbook the minimum reserve fuel should be 45 minutes.flight time fuel + reserve fuel = total required fueli.e.: ´ ´ = 1°45´Tecnam P92 JS 100 fuel consumption …… 18 l/hod (depending on power setting)1°45´ x 18 l/hod = approx. 32 litersi.e.: we should have atleast 32 liters of fuel on boardThen we fill in the actual endurance corresponding to the actual fuel on board, e.g.:70 liters 18 l/hod = 3°50´Question:What is the endurance of a Tecnam P92JS with the fuel tanks full?
25 Airspace areas along the route It is important to carefully study the airspace along the planned route and its vertical boundaries:FL 145TMA I Prague1000 ft AGLFL 145TMA III Prague4000 ft AMSLFL 145TMA V PragueFL 65FL 410LKRGNDFL 240LKTRA1000 ft AGLFL 175LKPGNDWe can find the airspace planned activaction times in :• AUP message (issued daily)• via telephone (Prague INFO)• during flight – Prague INFO 126,1/136,175
26 Airspace Area Question: AIP Restricted Area – LKR An airspace of defined dimensions within which the flight of aircraft may be carried out only under certain specified conditions.Prohibited Area – LKP An airspace of defined dimensions within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited. This term is used when the flight of civil aircraft within the designated airspace is not permitted at any time under any circumstances.Danger Area – LKD An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times. The purpose of the creation of a danger area is to caution operators or pilots of aircraft about the existing danger, having in view their responsibility for the safety of their aircraft.Temporary Reserved Area - TRA A defined volume of airspace normally under the jurisdiction of one aviation authority and temporarily reserved, by common agreement, for the specific use by military or another traffic and through which other traffic may be allowed to transit, under ATC clearance.Temporary Segregated Area - TSA A defined volume of airspace normally under the jurisdiction of one aviation authority and temporarily segregated, by common agreement, for the exclusive use by military or another traffic and through which other traffic will not be allowed to transit.ADIZ – Air Defence Identification Zone (no longer used in Czech Republic)Is airspace over land or water in which the identification, location, and control of civil aircraft is required in the interest of national security.Question:What are the conditions for a flight to LKR8 and where can we find this information?AIP
27 AUP Airspace Use PlanDo not forget to check the validity (date and time ) of AUPThe list of planned AreasAbbreaviations used in AUP:FRN - firingINACTIVE – Airspace is no longer activeOAT - Operational Air Traffic (not in compliance with ICAO rules – usually military traffic)WRNG – Warning (in AUP – only NAV warning)
28 Assesment of METEO conditions METAR / SPECITAFSIGMETWARNINGAviation forecastsGlobal meteorological situation knowledge (Synoptic maps, TV, ...)Satelite and radar picturesConsulting a meteorologistYou can find all information in the online BRIEFING.
29 METARMeteorological Terminal Air Report. Coded and regularly issued each 30 – 60 minutes. If a report is issued outside the scheduled interval due to a sudden change of meteo conditions, it is called SPECI. A TREND message is attached at the end of METAR. It is a local forecast for the next 2 hours.Examples:METAR LKPR Z VRB03KT 9999 CAVOK 06/M00 Q1015 NOSIG RMK REG QNH 1011=ID of the airport for which the METAR has been issuedTime of issue DDHHMMSurface windSignificant wetherCloud coverageVisibilityTemperature / Dew pointQNHTREND messageRWY state message – shortened SNOWTAMTREND reportNote e.g. regional QNHRemarkSPECI LKPR Z 31010KT 270V SHSN SCT013 OVC023 M03/M05 Q // TEMPO 31015G25KT FZRASN RMK REG QNH 1011=
30 METAR – questions… What do these abbreviations mean? CAVOK SKC NSC NOSIGFEWSCTBKNOVCTCUCBVRB
31 TAFRegularly issued and internationally coded Terminal Aerodrome Forecast:• „short“ TAF - issued every 3 hours, forecast for 9 hours• „long“ TAF - issued every 6 hours, forecast for 30 hoursExamples:TAF LKPR Z KT 9999 SCT020 BKN040 TEMPO SN SCT010 BKN020 PROB SHSN SCT007 BKN010=TAF LKPR Z KT 9999 SCT025 TEMPO RASN BKN013 PROB G34KT 3000 SHRASN SCT013CB BECMG G26KT=TEMPO – TEMPOrary fluctuations to forecast meteorological conditions which last for one hour or less in each instance and, in the aggregate, cover less than half of the period.BECMG – BECoMing indicates that in the period given, the weather will start to change from the previous line to the next line
32 SIGMETInformation concerning the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified en-route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations.Examples:LKAA SIGMET 1 VALID / LKPR-PRAHA FIR SEV ICE OBS MAINLY CENTRAL PART BTN FL100/FL180 MOV S-SE NC=LKAA SIGMET 1 VALID / LKPR-PRAHA FIR SEV TURB OBS SW PART OF LKAA BTN FL220/FL270 MOV E NC=
33 Warnings of a specific meteorological phenomena (in plain language) Examples:WARNING N.1 FOR LKAA VALIDITY /150400QNH PRESSURE VALUE WILL IN CZECH TEMPORARILY DROP BELOW 993 HPA DUE TO THE COLD FRONT MOVING FROM WEST.WARNING N.2 FOR LKAA VALIDITY /162000WIND VELOCITY IN THE WESTERN PART OF LKAA WILL ABOVE FL050 EXCEED 50KT FROM SW DIRECTION.WARNING N.3 FOR AIRPORTS LKTB,LKMT,LKKV,LKKU,LKHO VALIDITY /211500SNOW SHOWERS EXPECTED AT AIRPORTS LKTB,LKMT,LKKV,LKKU,LKHO.
34 FIR forecast in plain language LKAA Area ForecastFIR forecast in plain language
37 Division of airports Warning!!! International – Airports intended for domestic and international traffic, which provide customs and immigration facilities and services.Domestic – Airports intended solely for domestic traffic.Private – Airports where an operator‘s permission is required prior the flight to the airport.Public – All other airports, permission does not have to be obtained.Controlled – ATC, FIS (information) and ALR (alerting) services are providedAFIS – FIS and ALR services are providedUncontrolled – no services provided (AFIS airports outside operational hours)Warning!!!We are obliged to avoid uncontrolled airports along the route by 3NM or 5,5km!
38 Arrivals / Departures to/from controlled airports According to the procedures published in AIP and specific for each airport.
39 Arrivals / Departures to/fm AFIS aerodromes According to the information provided by AFIS officer, who should comply with the procedures published in AIPOn a departure from an AFIS AD we usually report:Commencing of taxi, and intentions after takeoffIntention to cross RWY or taxi back via RWY (backtrack)RWY line upTakeoffLeaving the traffic circuitLeaving the ATZOn an arrival to an AFIS AD we report:WHO I AM • registration• aircraft typeWHERE I AM • altitude• where do I enter the ATZWHAT I INTEND TO DO• intention (low-pass, landing or other activity)• where do I leave the ATZ (if flying through the ATZ)Benešov RADIO, OK-RWY, good morning, after startup at F AIR apron, crosscountry flight Benešov-Příbram-Orlík returning in 1 hourBenešov RADIO, OK-RWY, on right downwind 24, leaving the traffic circuit NWBenešov RADIO, OK-RWY, leaving the ATZ NW, proceeding to PříbramPříbram RADIO, OK-RWY, good morningTecnam P92, (from Benešov to Benešov) position Dobříš, 2500 ft ALTITUDE, flight through ATZ west of airport to Příbram city, OK-RWYBenešov RADIO, OK-RWY, good morningTecnam P92, back to Benešov, posotion Olbramovice (or joining the ATZ from the south), 2500 ft ALTITUDE, (request information for landing), OK-RWYRTF procedures
40 Methods of joining the departure route Climbing overheadDirect departure – if the if the RWY and dep. HDG are similarDeparture to a significant waypoing near the AD = to the first TPFrom the traffic circuit – for advanced
41 Arrivals / Departures to/fm uncontrolled aerodromes According to the information published in AIPRTF communication same as at the AFIS ADs, with the phrase „transmitting blind“On a departure from an uncontrolled AD we usually report:Commencing of taxi, and intentions after takeoffIntention to cross RWY or taxi back via RWY (backtrack)RWY line upTakeoffLeaving the traffic circuitLeaving the ATZOn an arrival to an uncontrolled AD we report:WHO I AM • registration• aircraft typeWHERE I AM • altitude• where do I enter the ATZWHAT I INTEND TO DO• intention (low-pass, landing or other activity)• where do I leave the ATZ (if flying through the ATZ)Benešov RADIO, OK-RWY, transmitting blind, after startup at F AIR apron, crosscountry flight Benešov-Příbram-Orlík returning in 1 hourBenešov RADIO, OK-RWY, transmitting blind, on right downwind 24, leaving the traffic circuit NWBenešov RADIO, OK-RWY, transmitting blind, leaving the ATZ NW, proceeding to PříbramPříbram RADIO, OK-RWY, good morningTecnam P92, transmitting blind,(from Benešov to Benešov) position Dobříš, 2500 ft ALTITUDE, flight through ATZ west of airport to Příbram city, OK-RWYBenešov RADIO, transmitting blind ,Tecnam P92, back to Benešov, posotion Olbramovice, 2500 ft ALTITUDE, proceeding overhead , OK-RWYAfter checking the signal areaBenešov RADIO, transmitting blind, proceeding to right downwind RWY 24RTF procedures
42 Procedure for arrival to an uncontrolled AD Turn overheadAltitude same as on the circuit or ft higherIf the airspace above the airport allows itEvaluate wind conditionsWind direction indicatorAccording to the signal area (be cautious – may be old)According to other indications (waves on the water, smoke, trees, etc.)Join the traffic circuit for the selected RWYPossibility to use the precautionary landing procedureTransmit blind your position on the circuit
43 Loss of orientation Stay calm Evaluate, if you really had lost orientation.If we cannot determine our present position precisely , but we had known our position a few minutes ago and the next significant point is ahead, it is not a loss of orientationAllign the GYRO with magnetic compassIf we are flying near CTR, LKR, LKP, ADIZ airspaceTurn away from these airspace areasFirst steps to regain orientationClimb to get a better view (beware of airspace vertical boundaries and possible limitations)Calculate expected position, using the time and heading from the last known WPTTry to find a significant point (town, hill, mast) around you or in the mapReturn to the last known position (beware of the wind drift)Only if you are sure that you knew where you were a while agoIf you had flown over significant nav. pointsJoin a significant orientation line (river, highway, mountainrange)Use of radionavigationVOR, ADF, DME, GPS – if the aircraft is equipped and you know how to use the equipmentCall the ATC (XPDR SSR, primary radar if close to controlled airports, VDF)Request position informationRequest recommended headingIf orientation cannot be ragained and you cannot contact ATCPrecautionary landingDo not wait for fuel exhaustionDo not wait till sunset
44 Loss of communicationFor VFR flight loss of communication can occur only in airspace where radio-communication is required – i.e. in controlled airspaceFirst you should check :RadioCorrectly tuned FREQVolumeHeadsetSQUELCHRadio check (e.g. previous FREQ)Try another FREQIf unsuccessful:XPDR mode A 7600maintain VMCLand at the nearest suitable ADNotify the ATC ASAP about a successful landing
45 Loss of communication in an uncontrolled airspace Proceed to the destinationUnless it lies in a controlled airspaceIf I can avoid controlled airspaceIn other case, land at the neares suitable airport or at the airport of departureBe careful when flying around ATZApply the same procedures as for an arrival to an uncontrolled airport
46 Deteriorated meteorological conditions It is possible to avoid this situation by:Proper preflight preparationGood knowledge of meteorologyGood estimation and assesmentGood decisionsHaving a good idea of a global meteo situation (TV, synoptic maps, …)Flight planning against the general movement of weather fronts Usually deterioration of:VisibilityMostly mist, fog (usually does not change fast)Mist + sunsetPrecipitation (local)Cloud coverageFrontal or in the area of a low pressureLocal (precipitation and storms)Can also includeTurbulenceIcingIncreasing winds – problematic especially for landing
47 In general, it is possible to continue the flight, if: Poor visibility – mistIf we can sufficiently recognize terrain and significant objectsIf we can see hills and obstaclesIf at the same time a low cloud coverage is not presentLow cloud coverageOnly if the visibility is goodIt is possible to fly around precipitation if:It is isolatedIt is not in a valleyWe know the surrounding area:Mountains and hillsRestricted airspaceWe have a sufficient mapIt is possible to fly through the precipitation if:There is a „hole“ – we can safely see through and recognize a horizon behind
48 When it is not safe to proceed: Fly towards the good weather:Change the direction, fly to an alternate airportReturn the airport of departure (if the weather is still good)If you have to change the route, follow significant navigation linesEmergency solution – if you get surrounded by bad weatherPrecautionary landing into terrainUnintentional flight into IMC:If the cloud is isolatedMaintain altitudeTurn 180°In a solid cloud coverageClimb to a safe altitudeA good knowledge of the terrain is essentialSafe ALT in CR is about ftExcept for the boundary areas (mountains)Call ATCRadar vectoring
49 Landing into the setting sun Evaluate if really necessaryLanding in the opposite direction with a light tailwind (consult POH)Flight to an alternate airportConsider waiting and land after sunset (PPL students should plan their solo flights to land at least 60 minutes prior sunset!!!)Procedure for landing into the sun – if unavoidableDo not reduce power untill flareFlare a bit higher than for a normal landing (1-1,5 meters above ground)Reduce power to idleStart pulling back on the stick to lose speed, look to the side, not directly ahead to monitor height above groundWait for the touch-down (positive landing)Beware of a bouncy landing, do not push forward on the stick
50 Preflight preparation F-AIR activate the flight (briefing)AIRCRAFT AirworthyCREW OKA/C + CREW LICENCES On boardWEATHER SatisfactoryBAGGAGE Weighted + securedFUEL + CG…. Calculated + withing limitsFLIGHT PLAN Prepared + filed + acceptedMAPS + NAV EQUIPMENT On boardPERFORMANCE + ENDURANCE Calculated, safeOTHER EQUIPMENT Headphones, oxygen, tie downs...
51 Comparative navigation Verify the WPTtimehighwayending railwayTurn to the new headingWrite down the time (navlog)calculate ATA + ▲ + ETA for the next WPTRTF the flight through the ATZTry to fly the route as precisely as possibleTurn to the new headingWrite down the timeCalculate ATA + ▲ + ETA for the next WPTRTF announce leaving the ATZAfter turning to the new headingFind a significant point ahead, make corrections for wind driftUse comparative navigationVerify the WPT using at least 3 sourcesTimeWater damRiver shape/bendTurn to the new headingWrite down the time (navlog)calculate ATA + ▲ + ETA for the next WPTVerify positionTune LKPM FREQNote the takeoff time into navlogswitch XPDR to ALT modeDepart via the traffic circuit towards the first significant point (in our case the 1st WPT)RTF leaving the ATZ5 minutes from the WPT we should be in the southern part of a town - NetvořiceAvoid the traffic circuit
52 Comparative navigation Be very careful about maintaining altitude when flying below active airspace areasOn a crosscountry flight outside ATZ you should have Prague information 126,1 tuned inTune in LKBE FREQ in timeDo not overfly the center of large citiesMaintain safe distance from prohibited areasRTF announce entering the ATZ
53 Suggestions……. Overflying large forests or lakes: Maintain sufficient altitudeFly aroundFlight around hills/mountains:Gain sufficient altitude in timeBeware of the leeward side of the hills (turbulence, downdrafts)During flight always monitor the weather behind you !!
54 Suggestions……. Chart: Always take some money along!!! Fold so that the whole route is visible and on an area of one A4 (max 2 for longer flights)Align the track line with the direction of flight when navigatingDo not write in anything unnecessary so that you do not cover up any improtant information depicted in the chartAlways take some money along!!!You never know where you might end up...Do not forget to go to the toilet before each flight!!!This problem is difficult to solve when airborne...
55 Suggestions……. Plan the flight with a safe reserve before sunset!!! You might get delayed.While flying do not look into the map for too long!!!Neither you would when driving a car.You should study the route in advance, when you are still on the ground.Use your head when you are flying.But not to make holes in the ground, graveyards are full of heroes.Analyze, debrief and learn from each flight.
56 Suggestions…….When planning a flight, try to prepare everything already on the ground.You will then have more time to solve possible non-standard situations in the air.When in a difficult situation, use this procedure:FLY - FLY THE AIRCRAFTNAVIGATECOMMUNICATE
57 Other information…….Student pilot – pauses in training and other limitations:Student pilot can not fly as a PIC if he has not flown for more than 14 days !!!Maximium flight time for a student pilot per day - 4 hrs !!!NORDO (No Radio) Arrival/departure to an AFIS AD is possible!After a previous coordination with the AD operator (AFIS officer)After an arrival to an unfamiliar airportMake a larger circuit and a longer final approach.If anything does not seem right, it is no shame to go around.
58 FIC – Prague Information 126.1/136.175 Provides services in LKAA (FIR Prague):FIS (Flight information service) – provides advice and information useful to perform a safe flight (airspace activation, activation/cancelling of flight plans,...)ALS (alerting service) – notifies the SAR institutions and facilities about aircraft that are to be searched for.FIC is not a part of the ATC service.
59 FIS – Flight Information Service Flight information service must provide information regarding:SIGMET and AIRMET information;Volcanic activity (eruption, ash, ...),Releasing of radioactive or toxic chemicals in the atmosphere,Changes in availability of radionavigation facilities;Changes regarding airfields (changes in services provided and information about the state of movement areas if affected by slush, snow or standing water)Releasing of free baloons and any other information that may affect safetyReported or forecasted meteorological conditions at the departure, destination or alternate airportsDanger of collision of aircraft flying in airspace class C, D, E, F and G.Flight information service provided to VFR flights must in addition include information regarding operation or meteorological conditions which might not allow to perform a flight in VMC on the route flown.Remark – Flight information service does not relieve the pilot from any responsibility. The pilot is definitively responsible for the safe execution of flight.
60 Communication with FIC Try to be precise, use correct RTF procedures and minimize the communication. It is very unpleasant when you are trying to communicate but the frequency is congested with unnecessary inquiries or innacurate and prolonged communication.Prague INFORMATION, OK-RWY, good morning.OK-RWY, Prague INFORMATION , go ahead.Tecnam P92 after departure from Benešov, crosscountry flight to LKJH, 2500 ft ALT, squawk 7000, OK-RWYPrague INFORMATION, roger, regional QNH 1012.Regional QNH 1012, OK-RWY.Prague INFORMATION, OK-RWY, approaching LKJH, changing frequency to Hradec INFOPrague INFORMATION.Tecnam P92 position Vlasim, request information about activation of LKR 73 airspace, OK-RWYLKR 73 is not activated, Prague INFORMATION.OK-RWY
61 VOLMETBroadcasting for each FIR containing current METEO information about controlled airports.FREQ:VOLMET MHz only CZ ADsVOLMET MHz CZ + some ADs abroad
62 Regional QNHLowest QNH in the whole FIR to ensure safe separation from the terrain.Altimeter setting when measuring ALTITUDE:set REG QNH outside CTR, TMA, ATZ and when not below TMAFor flights in CTR, TMA and ATZ set aeordrome QNH, as instructed by ATC/AFISELEVWhere can we get the currentREG QNH?In METAR of civil airports (only in CR)FIC Prague Information or any other ATC FREQCZ VOLMETTrue ALTindicated ALTRegional QNHAerodrome QNH
63 Wind drift Determination: graphically calculation Nav. computer Question:How strong would be the crosswind if the drift angle was 45°?80 kt??GS45°If a significant wind is forecasted, we can depict the direction in the chart.
64 Secondary surveillence radar transponder XPDR SSR Aircraft equipped with XPDR should have the transponder turned on in the correct mode and with an appropriate code selected:7000 – uncontrolled VFR flights2000 – controlled VFR flights7500 – unlawful interference7600 – loss of communication7700 – emergency
65 Radionavigation aidsTo help us navigate we can use ground or satellite navigation aids:NDBVORILSOMEGA / LORAN / DECCAGPSWe should first know how these devices work to be able to use them correctly!
66 RNZAnd for a better demonstration you can use our simulator, not only during long winter nights SIMULATOR
67 FPL Filing a FPL Annex 2-3.3, AIP ENR 1.10.1: Guide to filling a FPL: ICAO DOC 4444 –appendix 2FPLFiling a FPL Annex 2-3.3, AIP ENR :for each IFR flightFor each international flight (some exceptions within the Shengen area)For each flight to a military AD (in CR)For VFR in airspace class C,D above 1000 ft GNDFor VFR, when we require ATC services (alerting service)Alerting service is then automatically provided to VFR flights with a filed flight plan.
68 Filing via ARO, ATS or internet (IBS) For a controlled flights 60 min in advanceFor uncontrolled flights 30 min in advanceFPL validity:Controlled flights - 30 min after estimated off-block time (commencing of taxi)Uncontrolled flights - 60 min after EOBTActivation, closing or cancelling AIP ENR 1.2.8Controlled Ads - automaticallyVia telephone with ATCIn flight – Prague informationWarning!!!If a flight plan is not cancelled or closed, then after the flight time + 30mins expiration the SAR forces commence a rescue mission.
69 ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ OKUTC V G C172 L VO S LKBE 1200 N0110 VFR RADOTINLKPR0030LKTCOPR/F-AIR RMK/TRNG FLT03 30002▬ ▬▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬ ▬▬WHITE▬JOHN DOE
70 Activation/cancelling of FPL via RTF Activation of a FPLAfter leaving the ATZ, tune PRAHA INFO or other ATC frequency and report the following information: • Aircraft identification • Destination AD• Departure AD • Takeoff timePilot: Prague INFORMATION, OK-RWY, good morningFIC: OK-RWY, Prague INFORMATION, good morning, pass your messagePilot: request flight plan activation from LKBE to LKPR, takeoff 12:45 (report in UTC), OK-RWYFlight plan will not be activated if the pilot does not report takeoff.FIC: flight plan activated at 12:45 set squawk 3331, Prague INFORMATION.Cancelling of a FPLFlight plan does not have to be closed after landing if a pilot cancels it when still airborne. It is possible in airspace class G and E or in class D and C up to 1000ft AGL. Pilot: Prague INFORMATION, OK-RWY, cancelling flight plan at 15:22 (UTC)FIC/ATC: OK-RWY, Prague INFORMATION, flight plan cancelled at 15:22 , set squawk 7000, goodbyePilot: squawk 7000, goodbye, OK-RWY.
71 A few wise words at the end…… It is always better to be on the ground and wish to fly, than to fly and wish to be on the ground.Each pilot starts with one bag full of luck and the other empty, for experience. The trick is to fill in the second bag with experince before we run out of luck.The three most useless things to a pilot are:Altitude above himRunway behind himFuel that he left on the groundNever allow your aircraft to get where your brain didn‘t want to be five minutes ago.Always look around you. Surely there is something that you have missed.
72 And at the very end……Flying is beautiful. May it bring you the same happines as it does to us...