2Using Graphics and Visuals Avoiding Information Stampedes …
3The CAA Approach to Graphics and Visuals C LEARA PPROPRIATEA DEQUATE
4The Benefits of Graphics and Visuals Appeal to the eyeSave space and wordsMake informationeasier to understand andeasier to rememberHelp to interpret and emphasize ideas
5The Purpose of Visuals Speed up a reader’s comprehension Add credibility to the documentServe as a method of quick referenceReveal differences at a glanceProvide more detail than is actually discussedAllows for a fuller examination of the backgroundAdd to the attractiveness of the document
6General Conventions 2. Incorporation 3. Placement 4. Titles 1. Design2. Incorporation3. Placement4. Titles5. Numbering6. Continuations7. Number Sequence8. Periods and Capitals9. Spacing10. Referencing11. Comment Line
7Design Plan ahead Think graphics and visuals through Do not try to put too much information into one graphicMake sure all the necessary information is includedUse straight edges and appropriate tools to create hand-drawn graphics
8Incorporation Print graphics in the final draft Use a computer or a photocopier, tape, and glue to place the graphic in the document
9PlacementGraphics and visuals should immediately follow their initial referenceTraditionally, graphics and visuals are presented in portraitavoid placing them sidewaysUse a computer or photocopier to resize graphics
10Titles Use precise noun phrase and number to title a graphic Ex.: Product Sales for First Quarter (1999)Anticipate the possibility that the graphic will be taken out of the report and distributed
11Numbering Formal graphics also require a number The number and title for a formal table always go above the dataCapitalize the word TABLEAll other graphics are FIGUREs and the number and title are placed beneath the graphicNumbers and titles can be either centred or placed flush left: Be Consistent
12ContinuationsIf the table requires more than one full page, begin the second page with the word TABLE, the table number, and the word Continuede.g. TABLE 1.1 (Continued)
13Number SequenceNumber FIGUREs and TABLEs in order of appearance throughout the materiale.g. FIGURE 2 follows FIGURE 1Number TABLEs and FIGUREs separatelye.g. The first table after FIGURE 3 is TABLE 1Use Arabic numbers, not Roman numbersi.e. Use 1, 2, 3… and not “I, II, III…”, nor “i, ii, iii…”If a report contains chapters, then use a decimal number system that indicates both chapter and table or figure, or begin again in sequential ordere.g. The first figure in Chapter 2 is either FIGURE 2.1 or FIGURE 1
14Periods and Capitals A variety of uses are acceptable BE CONSISTENT Periods at the end of each titlePeriods after the figure number or table numberEach word in the title capitalizedThe first word of the title capitalizedBE CONSISTENT
15Spacing Single space titles that require more than one line Align consecutive lines under the first word of the noun phrase, not under the word TABLE or FIGUREe.g. FIGURE 1: Product Sales for First Quarter (1999)
16ReferencingIntroduce the graphic by number, and explain the purpose of the graphicIf the graphic immediately follows its sentence reference, then a colon could be used at the end on the sentencee.g. Evidence of the astounding rise in sales can be seen in FIGURE 1:Parenthetical notation can also be used to refer to graphicse.g. (See Table 1.) or (see Table 1)
17Comment LineTry to follow a graphic with a sentence or two of comment or interpretationEx. As FIGURE 1 demonstrates, there has been a dramatic rise in sales, but we have yet to determine the cause of the increase.
18Types of Visuals TABLE FIGURE Informal Random Table Bar Charts Informal Continuation TableFormal TableFIGUREBar ChartsLine GraphsPie ChartsFlow ChartOrganization ChartsDrawingsOther Possibilities
19Informal Random Table Conventions Use random tables only for brief dataIntroduce each with an explanatory sentenceIndent the data 5-10 spaces from the left- and right-hand margins of the pageInclude column headings, numbered data, or bulletsDo not include a table designation number or title
20Informal Random Table: Example Regardless of the information being used, the template for an informal random table is always the same. In fact, these five points should always be kept in mind:-- Use random tables only for brief data-- Introduce each with an explanatory sentence-- Indent the data 5-10 spaces from the left- and right-handmargins of the page-- Include column headings, numbered data, or bullets-- Do not include a table designation number or titleGiven the consistency with which these points are used, it makes sense to prepare an informal random table model that could be inserted, when needed, into a document. Of course, if one is extremely adept with word processing applications, one could create a macro to do all the work.
21Informal Continuation Table Conventions Use a continuation table to present an alignment of figures, dates, or other dataIntroduce each with a sentence followed by a colon if the last introductory word is not a verbIndent the tabular data 5-10 spaces from the left and right marginsPunctuate the data with standard commas, semicolons, and periods as if the material were presented in paragraph form
22Informal Continuation Table: Example A student’s final grade in ENL 1813T (Section 511) will be based on a final total of 100%. This total includes5% for Step #1 of the Progressive Assignment,10% for Step #2 of the Progressive Assignment,15% for the Final Product of the ProgressiveAssignment,15% for the Summary Assignment,25% for In-Class Assignments,20% for three (3) Oral Presentations (not lastinglonger than 5 minutes each), and10% for one (1) Oral Presentation (lasting no lessthan 7 minutes, and no longer than 10 minutes).
23Formal Table Conventions For formal tables use horizontal lines from margin to margin above the titleUse a box head of vertical column headings and symbols in parentheses. Do not use periods in the abbreviationsDo not close the sides of formal tablesAlways use vertical columnsDo not use leaders
25Bar Chart ConventionsIf possible box in all of the bars, headings, legends, and other notationUse bars of equal width and design within one chartUse partial cutoff lines to separate headings from grid or tick notationsUse vertical grid lines or tick marks for horizontal bar charts and horizontal grids or tick marks for vertical bar charts; never use both in a single chart
26Bar Chart Conventions (cont’d.) Include a heading to indicate what the grids or tick marks show, for example hours, number of sales, amounts, or activitiesCentre grid notations on the grid lines, not just above or just belowCentre bar notations on the barsWhen displaying multiple bars with various colors or texture, use legend boxes to distinguish the differences
27Bar Chart: Good Example FIGURE 1: US per capita consumption of sucrose, dextrose, and corn syrup.(SOURCE: US Department of Agriculture)
28Bar Chart: Bad ExampleFIGURE 1: US per capita consumption of sucrose, dextrose, and corn syrup.
29Line Graph Conventions Always plot your curves from left to rightIndicate the grids with tick marks; do not include grid lines because they become confused with the curves themselvesCapitalize major headings; capitalize only the initial letters of subheadings and tick mark notationsUse tick marks (not grid lines) on each line to indicate how many points have been used to plot the graph
30Line Graph: Good Example FIGURE 2: Value of Rickey Henderson Baseball Cards.(SOURCE: Beckett Baseball Monthly, Nov. 1993)
31Line Graph: Bad Example FIGURE 2: Value of Rickey Henderson Baseball Cards.
32Pie Chart ConventionsNormally, do not present a pie larger than 3 inches in diameter on an 81/2" x 11" pagePlace the largest segment in the upper right-hand quadrant with the segments in decreasing size clockwiseWrite headings along with the percentages outside of each wedge to avoid crowdingCentre each label on the radius of each wedge or use a tag line to aid the eyeType labels on a horizontal planeContain all labels within the left- and right-hand margins
33Pie Chart: Good Example FIGURE 3: Sources of Sugar in the Diet.(SOURCE: Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington D.C.)
34Pie Chart: Bad ExampleFIGURE 3: Sources of Sugar in the Diet.
35Flow Chart Conventions Employ squares, boxes, triangles, circles, diamonds, and other shapes to enclose each stepLay out your flow chart in a horizontal, vertical, circular, or combination of directionsName major activities within the shapesUse lines or arrows of various dimension to connect the shapes and to indicate the flow
37Organization ChartsUsed to show the relationship of an organization’s staff positions, units or functions to one anotherStaff Organization ChartShows the chain of command of the staff positionsUnit Organization ChartDepicts the relationship among such units as Public Relations Department or Research DivisionFunction ChartShows the span of control of such functions as Planning and Engineering
39Drawing ConventionsIf you do not use a computer drawing program, use grid paper and a ruler for careful drawingsKeep your drawings uncluttered, properly ruled, and carefully labeledType, do not hand letter, all labels and symbols
40Other Possibilities Maps Photographs and Line Art Text Art Clip Art Icons
41Maps Large scale vs. small scale Legend required Horizontal labels or tag lines