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3 2 Using Graphics and Visuals Avoiding Information Stampedes …

4 3 The CAA Approach to Graphics and Visuals C LEAR A PPROPRIATE A DEQUATE

5 4 The Benefits of Graphics and Visuals Appeal to the eye Save space and words Make information easier to understand and easier to remember Help to interpret and emphasize ideas

6 5 The Purpose of Visuals Speed up a readers comprehension Add credibility to the document Serve as a method of quick reference Reveal differences at a glance Provide more detail than is actually discussed Allows for a fuller examination of the background Add to the attractiveness of the document

7 6 General Conventions 1. Design 2. Incorporation 3. Placement 4. Titles 5. Numbering 6. Continuations 7. Number Sequence 8. Periods and Capitals 9. Spacing 10. Referencing 11. Comment Line

8 7 Design Plan ahead Think graphics and visuals through Do not try to put too much information into one graphic Make sure all the necessary information is included Use straight edges and appropriate tools to create hand-drawn graphics

9 8 Incorporation Print graphics in the final draft Use a computer or a photocopier, tape, and glue to place the graphic in the document

10 9 Placement Graphics and visuals should immediately follow their initial reference Traditionally, graphics and visuals are presented in portrait avoid placing them sideways Use a computer or photocopier to resize graphics

11 10 Titles Use precise noun phrase and number to title a graphic Ex.: Product Sales for First Quarter (1999) Anticipate the possibility that the graphic will be taken out of the report and distributed

12 11 Numbering Formal graphics also require a number The number and title for a formal table always go above the data Capitalize the word TABLE All other graphics are FIGURE s and the number and title are placed beneath the graphic Numbers and titles can be either centred or placed flush left: Be Consistent

13 12 Continuations If the table requires more than one full page, begin the second page with the word TABLE, the table number, and the word Continued e.g. TABLE 1.1 ( Continued )

14 13 Number Sequence Number FIGUREs and TABLEs in order of appearance throughout the material e.g. FIGURE 2 follows FIGURE 1 Number TABLEs and FIGUREs separately e.g. The first table after FIGURE 3 is TABLE 1 Use Arabic numbers, not Roman numbers i.e. Use 1, 2, 3… and not I, II, III…, nor i, ii, iii… If a report contains chapters, then use a decimal number system that indicates both chapter and table or figure, or begin again in sequential order e.g. The first figure in Chapter 2 is either FIGURE 2.1 or FIGURE 1

15 14 Periods and Capitals A variety of uses are acceptable Periods at the end of each title Periods after the figure number or table number Each word in the title capitalized The first word of the title capitalized BE CONSISTENT

16 15 Spacing Single space titles that require more than one line Align consecutive lines under the first word of the noun phrase, not under the word TABLE or FIGURE e.g. FIGURE 1: Product Sales for First Quarter (1999)

17 16 Referencing Introduce the graphic by number, and explain the purpose of the graphic If the graphic immediately follows its sentence reference, then a colon could be used at the end on the sentence e.g.Evidence of the astounding rise in sales can be seen in FIGURE 1: Parenthetical notation can also be used to refer to graphics e.g. (See Table 1.) or (see Table 1)

18 17 Comment Line Try to follow a graphic with a sentence or two of comment or interpretation Ex.As FIGURE 1 demonstrates, there has been a dramatic rise in sales, but we have yet to determine the cause of the increase.

19 18 Types of Visuals TABLE Informal Random Table Informal Continuation Table Formal Table FIGURE Bar Charts Line Graphs Pie Charts Flow Chart Organization Charts Drawings Other Possibilities

20 19 Informal Random Table Conventions Use random tables only for brief data Introduce each with an explanatory sentence Indent the data 5-10 spaces from the left- and right-hand margins of the page Include column headings, numbered data, or bullets Do not include a table designation number or title

21 20 Informal Random Table: Example Regardless of the information being used, the template for an informal random table is always the same. In fact, these five points should always be kept in mind: -- Use random tables only for brief data -- Introduce each with an explanatory sentence -- Indent the data 5-10 spaces from the left- and right-hand margins of the page -- Include column headings, numbered data, or bullets -- Do not include a table designation number or title Given the consistency with which these points are used, it makes sense to prepare an informal random table model that could be inserted, when needed, into a document. Of course, if one is extremely adept with word processing applications, one could create a macro to do all the work.

22 21 Informal Continuation Table Conventions Use a continuation table to present an alignment of figures, dates, or other data Introduce each with a sentence followed by a colon if the last introductory word is not a verb Indent the tabular data 5-10 spaces from the left and right margins Punctuate the data with standard commas, semicolons, and periods as if the material were presented in paragraph form

23 22 Informal Continuation Table: Example A students final grade in ENL 1813T (Section 511) will be based on a final total of 100%. This total includes 5% for Step #1 of the Progressive Assignment, 10% for Step #2 of the Progressive Assignment, 15% for the Final Product of the Progressive Assignment, 15% for the Summary Assignment, 25% for In-Class Assignments, 20% for three (3) Oral Presentations (not lasting longer than 5 minutes each), and 10% for one (1) Oral Presentation (lasting no less than 7 minutes, and no longer than 10 minutes).

24 23 Formal Table Conventions For formal tables use horizontal lines from margin to margin above the title Use a box head of vertical column headings and symbols in parentheses. Do not use periods in the abbreviations Do not close the sides of formal tables Always use vertical columns Do not use leaders

25 24 Formal Table: Example

26 25 Bar Chart Conventions If possible box in all of the bars, headings, legends, and other notation Use bars of equal width and design within one chart Use partial cutoff lines to separate headings from grid or tick notations Use vertical grid lines or tick marks for horizontal bar charts and horizontal grids or tick marks for vertical bar charts; never use both in a single chart

27 26 Bar Chart Conventions (contd.) Include a heading to indicate what the grids or tick marks show, for example hours, number of sales, amounts, or activities Centre grid notations on the grid lines, not just above or just below Centre bar notations on the bars When displaying multiple bars with various colors or texture, use legend boxes to distinguish the differences

28 27 Bar Chart: Good Example FIGURE 1:US per capita consumption of sucrose, dextrose, and corn syrup. (SOURCE: US Department of Agriculture)

29 28 Bar Chart: Bad Example FIGURE 1: US per capita consumption of sucrose, dextrose, and corn syrup.

30 29 Line Graph Conventions Always plot your curves from left to right Indicate the grids with tick marks; do not include grid lines because they become confused with the curves themselves Capitalize major headings; capitalize only the initial letters of subheadings and tick mark notations Use tick marks (not grid lines) on each line to indicate how many points have been used to plot the graph

31 30 Line Graph: Good Example FIGURE 2:Value of Rickey Henderson Baseball Cards. (SOURCE: Beckett Baseball Monthly, Nov. 1993)

32 31 Line Graph: Bad Example FIGURE 2:Value of Rickey Henderson Baseball Cards.

33 32 Pie Chart Conventions Normally, do not present a pie larger than 3 inches in diameter on an 81/2" x 11" page Place the largest segment in the upper right-hand quadrant with the segments in decreasing size clockwise Write headings along with the percentages outside of each wedge to avoid crowding Centre each label on the radius of each wedge or use a tag line to aid the eye Type labels on a horizontal plane Contain all labels within the left- and right-hand margins

34 33 Pie Chart: Good Example FIGURE 3:Sources of Sugar in the Diet. (SOURCE: Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington D.C.)

35 34 Pie Chart: Bad Example FIGURE 3:Sources of Sugar in the Diet.

36 35 Flow Chart Conventions Employ squares, boxes, triangles, circles, diamonds, and other shapes to enclose each step Lay out your flow chart in a horizontal, vertical, circular, or combination of directions Name major activities within the shapes Use lines or arrows of various dimension to connect the shapes and to indicate the flow

37 36 Flow Chart: Example

38 37 Organization Charts Used to show the relationship of an organizations staff positions, units or functions to one another Staff Organization Chart Shows the chain of command of the staff positions Unit Organization Chart Depicts the relationship among such units as Public Relations Department or Research Division Function Chart Shows the span of control of such functions as Planning and Engineering

39 38 Function Chart: Example

40 39 Drawing Conventions If you do not use a computer drawing program, use grid paper and a ruler for careful drawings Keep your drawings uncluttered, properly ruled, and carefully labeled Type, do not hand letter, all labels and symbols

41 40 Other Possibilities Maps Photographs and Line Art Text Art Clip Art Icons

42 41 Maps Large scale vs. small scale Legend required Horizontal labels or tag lines

43 42 Text Art Legibility

44 43 Clip Art Use sparingly

45 44 Icons Ensure that they are universal Recycle Help Corrosive Flammable Biohazard Poisonous

46 45 The End Questions?

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