Presentation on theme: "ArcGIS Data Models: Marine Data Model"— Presentation transcript:
1 ArcGIS Data Models: Marine Data Model Dawn Wright - Oregon State UniversityPat Halpin - Duke UniversityMichael Blongewicz - DHIJoe Breman - ESRI
2 Polling Questions What is your name, organization, and email? (Add yourself to a data models user group list, and you will be sent notifications about webcasts, design studios, etc.)Which of the following ESRI data types do you most commonly use?a) Coverageb) Shapefilec) Geodatabase feature classAre you interested in seeing a data model webcast, participating in a design studio, and for which data model?Where on the web do you get data?Polling QuestionAnyway, our question is… “Which of the following ESRI data types do you most commonly use?”Read answers A, B, & C from slide and then click your answer in your browser control.I’ll review the answer and your responses in a few minutes.
3 Agenda Marine data model overview and tools Model elements The use of schema and templatesTools designed and tested with marine data model case studies.Multidimensional modeling.Model elementsFeature DatasetsObject classesRelationshipsHistorical IterationsSubclasses versus SubtypesCurrent StatusReady to be usedBook coming next yearPresentation of tools and uses of a Marine Geodatabase
4 Thematic Content - layer stack Thematic groupings of marine and oceanographic data sets Weather your working with Shapefiles, Coverages, or Feature classes in the Geodatabase, Identifying the thematic groupings of the GIS ‘layer stack’ is a useful initial step towards giving names to the common elements that will be most important in the database. The layer stack is often the result of collaboration with many different people and organizations to assess the most useful layers that will be a part of the GIS analysis.
5 The Data Modeling Cycle Conceptual, logical, and physical models Real WorldObjects and RelationshipsConceptual ModelSketches, Flow Diagrams, etc.The data modeling cycle can be divided into phases that have an iterative workflow. We will often move from the real world elements that are the subject of data capture, to a conceptual model, usually a diagram composed of the relevant features and objects. We identify the most useful relationships and refined elements to the UML diagram (Unified Modeling Language) format called the Logical Model, and then from that create a physical database using Computer-aided software engineering tools, or ‘Case Tools’. There is often a cyclical iterative process to create a physical Geodatabase, often once we test a prototype data base we see the things that we want to change in Logical model, leading to recreation of the database. It is OK if you aren’t familiar with all of these terms, we will be showing you the best ways to work with the data model templates later in the demo.Physical ModelDatabase SchemaBusiness RulesLogical ModelDiagram in CASE ToolArcCatalog Tools
6 What is a Data Model? A practical working template A starting point for creating a geodatabaseAn aid to simplify the integration of similar datasetsA way to facilitate the exchange of dataA support to existing standardsFeatureObjectIDGeometryLandObjectLandObjectIDTransactionIDSystemStartDateOfficialStartDateOfficialEndDateSurveyPointSurveyBoundaryPointMeasurementComputationCoordinateProjectGeodatabase*The data models that ESRI works to create are a practical template for implementing a GIS project. They serve as a good starting point to help you create a geodatabase, or to use as a reference in refining your data model. When multiple people or organizations use the same data model the resulting databases have similar feature names and attributes, providing for easier interoperability. A good datamodel design can be key to making better decisions based on available data or geographic information, While supporting existing standards.
7 What’s in a Data Model Template? A pre-designed schema of ObjectsFeature classesTablesRelationshipsDomainsSubtypesNot all elements of the template are needed for each individual project. You can think of schema as a skeleton of the database. It is the description of the feature classes, tables and their attributes, relationships, domains, and subtypes. For example,you may start with a schema that has 10 relationships defined and select the 2 that are relevant to your data, and delete the rest.
8 Using a Design Template Schema Wizard reads repository or template to create a geodatabase The ‘Schema wizard’ is the CASE tool we demonstrated in ArcCatalog that is used to move the schema from an xml or a repository to a physical geodatabase. The first step before using this tool is to create an empty Geodatabase, or use an existing database as the starting point into which you will create or add new schema.
9 ArcGIS Data Models Web site http://support.esri.com/datamodels Over 25 industry-specific data modelsConceptual and logical diagramsCase studies, Tips and Tricks documentsThese data models are hosted at the support center website where you can find a description of the industry model, links to interest groups, forums, and key points of contact. In addition, at the website you will find available for download all of the case studies and design template documents that result from the collaborations that ESRI has with external groups to create these models.
10 Path forward for multiD modeling Extend existing functionality to support time and other variables of multidimensional data.Animation manager used to control variables such as time to set the animation sequence.Improve quality and interaction of charting and include as an animation object.Added support for the NetCDF data format building on existing layer capabilities.3D interpolationAlthough many 3D interpolation methods are available, one of the major problems is searching for the neighboring points before applying the 3D interpolation algorithm. One of the approaches that can help speeding up the searching of neighboring points is performing the 3D tessellation and building up relationships between neighboring points to be used for interpolation. Voronoi tessellation is an algorithm that divides space based on the influence zone of each point in space. In 2D, Voronoi neighbors help forming a triangulation network, while in 3D they help forming a tetrahedral network. Both triangulation network and tetrahedral network are networks of simplest geometric primitives in 2D and 3D respectively. A triangle or a tetrahedral can be used as an interpolation unit. Each vertex of these geometric shapes carry coordinates of the measurement location and one or more measurement values. Given a location without the measurement value anywhere within the interpolation unit (a triangle or a tetrahedral), one can calculate the new attribute value (in the same domain of the measurements) using various algorithms, e.g. linear interpolation, inverse distance weight (IDW), etc. Depending on the distribution and format of the output, the results may yield, e.g. a point set or regular grid. Given an attribute value, one can also calculate the location associate with the given value (e.g. isolines, isosurfaces).The 3D interpolation engine performs a fast 3D Voronoi tessellation using a raster approach. A (Delauney) tetrahedral network (TetNet) is formed to maintain relationships between neighboring points in 3D space to cut down time for searching for neighboring points. The TetNet facilitates quick interpolation into 3D point set, raster stack (Voxels), and isosurfaces. Currently only linear interpolation algorithm is used for simplicity.
12 NetCDF in ArcGISCan be accessed as:RasterFeatureTableDirect read and writeGIS data to netCDF
13 Make netCDF Raster, Feature (point), and table layers
14 Behaves the same as any layer or table in: Using NetCDF as a feature, raster or table in the GIS (network common data format)Behaves the same as any layer or table in:DisplaySame display tools for raster and feature layers will work on netCDF raster and netCDF feature layers.ChartingDriven by the table just like any other chart.AnimationMultidimensional data can be animated through a variable (e.g. time, pressure, elevation)Geoprocessing ToolA netCDF raster layer will work just like any other raster layer, same for feature layers and tables.
15 Geoprocessing Models Model Builder diagrams for workflow Raster inWGS84extract_westShifted_westOutputgrid nameExtract_eastExtract byRectangle (2)ExtentShiftRectangle (3)RectangleMosaicGeoprocessing models can be used to create schema, and are most commonly used to store work flow processes. Once you have a data model design that you are happy with, the work flow, or GIS functionality that you employ on the data, it can be preserved in this environment, and more easily shared with others. Notice the toolbox storing the Geoprocessing model can be represented and appended to the Geodatabase itself.
22 Marine Data Model Overview -Model elements Historical Iterations Feature Datasets and feature classesObject classesRelationshipsHistorical IterationsSubclasses versus SubtypesCurrent StatusReady to be usedBook coming next yearPresentation of tools and uses of a Marine Geodatabase
23 Feature Data Sets and Feature Classes The Feature data setStores the spatial reference for all feature classes it contains, including the extents of their m and z valuesFeature ClassesMarine FeaturesTimeSeries PointsInstantaneousPointsInstant, Survey, Sounding,LocationSeriesProfileLineShorelineTrackTimeDurationAreaMesh FeaturesMeshPointsGridPoint, NodePointMeshElementsindicates classes covered in detail
24 Object Classes (Tables) SurveyInfo - stores parameters of a surveySeries - stores the parameters of a series of locationsMeasuringDevice - stores the parameters of a measuring deviceVehicle - stores information about the vehicle being usedCruise - stores information associated to a cruiseParameter - stores the properties of a given parametersScalarQuantity - stores magnitude data valuesVectorQuantity - stores directional data valuesMeasurement - storing depths related to a specific MeasurementsMeasuredData - storing data values associated to locationsindicates classes covered in detail
25 Relationships in the model (You may only need to use one or two of these for your individual project)RelationshipsOne Survey can have many PointsOne ProfileLine can have many SurveysOne Cruise can have many TracksOne MeshPoint can have many VectorQuantitiesOne MeshPoint can have many ScalarQuantitiesMany VectorQuantities can have one ParameterMany ScalarQuantities can have one Parameterindicates classes covered in detail
26 ClassificationHistorical IterationsSubclasses versus Subtypes
27 and uses of the data model Presentation of toolsand uses of the data modelVarying uses and means of adapting the data model
28 Instantaneous PointsX:00:00a subclass of MeasurementPoint for representing features that are a single observation in time and spacethe X, Y coordinates plus a time-stamp create the unique point featurecan have multiple Z locationsan InstantaneousPoint has 4 SubtypesInstant - default valueSoundingSurveyLocationSeriesExample: Bathymetric Survey, CTD Drops,YZ
29 InstantaneousPoints.Survey XSurveyID -foreignkey relating to SurveyInfoSurveyInfo -stores properties about the surveyStartDateEndDateDescriptionDeviceIDTrackID:00:00ZY
30 Demo of the Marine Data Model Survey Point Example
31 ProfileLinea feature class designated for deriving additional along a line.Properties HasM and HasZ are set to TRUEhas a many-to-many relationship with SurveyInfo via SurveyKeyone ProfileLine can be associated to many Surveysmany Survey can be associated to many ProfileLinesExample: Transects, Coastline Evolution
32 The Design and Intent of ProfileLine Inheritance
36 Design and Intent of Mesh Features includes feature classes:MeshElement (polygon)MeshPoint (points)includes object classes:Mesh - identifies the features making up a MeshVectorQuantity - vector values for each point for each time stepScalarQuantity - scalar values for each point for each time stepParameter - information about a given parameterExample: 2D Model results
39 Geodatabase Diagrammer Create graphical representation of geodatabase once complete The Geodatabase Diagrammer can be used to document the Geodatabase once it is complete.The resulting output is a set of graphic elements representing the content of the database. These can be used to diagram the database or create a poster. It is important to note the difference between this model diagram that can not be used to automatically create a data model, only to represent one.
40 Framework and Publication of: ArcMarine Marine data model book
41 ArcMarine Purpose Your Geodatabase Template Data collection at sea/shore … to final geoprocessing, analysisControl of required data fields, common data structureSimplify enterprise GIS project implementationE.g., cruises, MPA networks, habitat mappingProgram Coding/Application DevelopmentCommon/shared tool developmentRapid prototypingLinkage to processing modelsCommon data structureData Sharing/Networking“Schooling” in the Gdb
42 ArcMarine Design Strategy As generic as possible… As exhaustive as possible… As temporally dynamic as possible…Image modified from original by P. Halpin, Duke
43 Implementation Process Design EngineeringDatabase EngineeringDeployment/RolloutSince Oct 2001: 3 workshops, 3 ESRI UC sessionsArcMarine Interest List: over 350 people, 32 countriesApproaching final UML: feature classes, attributes, rules/behaviorsCase studies/tool development in 2005ESRI Press Book in 2006More info at dusk.geo.orst.edu/djl/arcgis/about.htmlAgency “buy-in” - Tie in with other model efforts
44 ArcMarine: A Geospatial Framework for Ocean and Coastal Analysis ESRI Press, 2006By Wright, Blongewicz, Halpin, BremanFull background documentation with ~10 case studiesChapter 1 - Introduction (Why ArcMarine?)Chapter 2 - Conceptual Framework and Common Marine Data Types
48 ArcMarine …Chapters 3-6MarineMarineMarineMarine Data Model. Shows the spatial relationships between the feature classes and the tables. After a user’s GIS layers are placed in the model, the associated relationship and tables are created and populated using either the data loader or ArcCatalog data loader utility.
49 Ch. 3 - Marine Surveys e. g. , Inst Ch. 3 - Marine Surveys e.g., Inst. Points, Time Duration Line, Survey & Cruise object tablesEssex MG&G Survey Brian Andrews, USGS-Woods Hole, MALouisiana Subsidence Heather Mounts, PhotoScience, FLWe start with this because of the initial and critical role of the collection of data in a survey.All case studies have idea of characterizing regional geological framework. Geological data collection and interpretation are primary goals to aid in subsequent sampling (usually biological).
50 Ch. 4 - Marine Animal Tracking e. g Ch. 4 - Marine Animal Tracking e.g., Location Series Points, Time Duration Lines and Areas, object tables and rastersOBIS, Pat Halpin et al., Duke U.Sea Turtle Tracks (Caretta caretta)Sea Surface Temperature (WCR)Source:Source: (Read & McClellan2004)
51 Ch. 5 - Time Series & Measurements e. g Ch. 5 - Time Series & Measurements e.g., Time Series Points, Profile Line, Time Series/Meas object tablesNorth Atlantic, Irish Sea Martina Hennesey et al., Marine Institute, Galway, IRELAND Eamonn Doyle, Rob Morrison, ESRI-IRELANDMarine Institute is Ireland’s national marine agency - “90% of Ireland is undeveloped, undiscovered, and underwater.”
52 Ch. 6 - Nearshore & Coastal Analysis e. g Ch. 6 - Nearshore & Coastal Analysis e.g., Shorelines, ProfileLines, Marine Areas, object tablesMartin County, FL Artificial Reefs, Hurricane Tracking Rob Hudson, PhotoScience; Kathy Fitzpatrick et al., Martin County Govt.
53 Hawaiian Reef Fish and MPAs Alyssa Aaby, UH; Dawn Wright, OSU Ch. 6 - Nearshore & Coastal Analysis e.g., Shorelines, ProfileLines, Marine Areas, object tablesHawaiian Reef Fish and MPAs Alyssa Aaby, UH; Dawn Wright, OSU
54 Ch. 7 - Model Meshes e.g., finite element Mesh Points, Mesh Elements, Scientific Mesh Juergen Schulz-Olberg, BSH (Federal Maritime & Hydrographic Agency of Germany) Michael Blongewicz, DHI Ch. 8 - Multidimensional GIS e.g., linking ArcMarine with ArcHydro and other DMs Joe Breman, ESRI; Michael Blongewicz, DHI; Pat Halpin, Duke Ch. 9 - Customizing ArcMarine especially tools for data import, filter, extraction, synching, modeling ArcMarine Poster, UML/XMI, Tool Suite on accompanying web site
55 dusk.geo.orst.edu/djl/arcgis includes downloads, new tutorial More informationdusk.geo.orst.edu/djl/arcgisincludes downloads, new tutorialsupport.esri.com/datamodels
56 Marine Modeling Applications Implications: ArcMarine Data ModelMarine Modeling ApplicationsImplications:Allows explicit spatial & temporal relationships to be used in geoprocessing and analysisAllows for advanced tool developmentP.N. Halpin 2005
58 Turtles: Cayman Islands Geospatial tools for marine apps will need to model multiple dimensions with variable data quality…Turtles: Cayman IslandsDive Profiles:~4D Data (X,Y,Z,T m…m)ZXYTmP.N. Halpin 2005
59 temperature gradients Geospatial tools for marine apps will need to model time lags…Spatio-Temporal ModelsMarine animaldistributionAt large spatial scales:Temporal lagsOceanography(winds,currents)PrimaryproductivityAt finer spatial scales:Bathymetric and watertemperature gradientsPreyavailabilityMarine mammaldistributionP.N. Halpin 2005
60 “Persistent” SST Event Geospatial tools for marine apps will need to model events…Spatio-Temporal ModelsMarine mammaldistributionSST in Mid-AtlanticTime“Persistent” SST EventStatistical modeling approach will allow for “antecedent” oceanographic conditions to be used to more accurately predict potential habitat.SpaceP.N. Halpin 2005
61 Geospatial tools for marine apps will need to forecast… The emerging management applications are at these finer temporal scales…P.N. Halpin 2005
62 Integrating statistical models Geospatial tools for marine apps will need to integrate multivarite statistical models…Integrating statistical modelsArcRstatsMultivariate Modeling Script for ArcGISThis script can be used with ArcGIS to produce predictive maps based on different techniques using the free and robust R statistical package:Generalized Linear Model (GLM)Generalized Additive Model (GAM)Classification and Regression Tree (CART)Best, B. D., S. Loarie, S. Qian, P. Halpin, D. Urban, ArcRstats - multivariate habitat modeling with ArcGIS and R statistical software. Available at .
63 Benthic habitat affinity models Geospatial tools for marine apps will need to integrate multivarite statistical models…Benthic habitat affinity modelsPredicted Blue Rockfish habitat areaP.N. Halpin 2005
64 Sampling through time and data layers… Geospatial tools for marine apps will need to automate time series data acquisition & processing…Sampling through time and data layers…Observation dataPython scriptNetCDF or HDF imagerySSTChlDepthtimeP.N. Halpin 2005
65 ArcMarine Data model and tool development Geodatabase model structure will help with…Multivariate statistical modelsTemporally dynamic data acquistion & samplingTime sensitive predictionsData model standardization will promote usability of common tools and extensions…P.N. Halpin 2005