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CHAPTER 5 Data and Knowledge Management. CHAPTER OUTLINE 5.1 Managing Data 5.2 The Database Approach 5.3 Database Management Systems 5.4 Data Warehouses.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 5 Data and Knowledge Management. CHAPTER OUTLINE 5.1 Managing Data 5.2 The Database Approach 5.3 Database Management Systems 5.4 Data Warehouses."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 5 Data and Knowledge Management

2 CHAPTER OUTLINE 5.1 Managing Data 5.2 The Database Approach 5.3 Database Management Systems 5.4 Data Warehouses and Data Marts 5.5 Knowledge Management

3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Identify three common challenges in managing data, and describe one way organizations can address each challenge using data governance. 2. Name six problems that can be minimized by using the database approach. 3. Demonstrate how to interpret relationships depicted in an entity-relationship diagram. 4. Discuss at least one main advantage and one main disadvantage of relational databases.

4 Learning Objectives (continued) 5. Identify the six basic characteristics of data warehouses, and explain the advantages of data warehouses and marts to organizations. 6. Demonstrate the use of a multidimensional model to store and analyze data. 7. List two main advantages of using knowledge management, and describe the steps in the knowledge management system cycle.

5 Big Data Case – pages 112 & 113 Walmart processes over 1,000,000 transactions per hour From 2006 to 2010 IBM invested over $12,000,000,000 for setting up business intelligence centers Using big data to spot trends before your competitors spot them can be a strategic advantage (Best Buy success, Nestle failure)

6 Annual Flood of Data from….. Credit card swipes E-mails Digital video Online TV RFID tags Blogs Digital video surveillance Radiology scans Source: Media Bakery

7 Annual Flood of New Data! In the zettabyte range A zettabyte is a trillion gigabytes © Fanatic Studio/Age Fotostock America, Inc.

8 5.1 Managing Data The Difficulties of Managing Data Data Governance

9 Difficulties in Managing Data Source: Media Bakery

10 Data Governance See videovideo Data Governance – manage data across the entire organization Master Data Management – have all organization processes access a single version of the data Master Data – an enterprise system of core data Big data can have big data errors

11 Master Data Management John Stevens registers for Introduction to Management Information Systems (ISMN 3140) from 10 AM until 11 AM on Mondays and Wednesdays in Room 41 Smith Hall, taught by Professor Rainer. Transaction Data Master Data John StevensStudent Intro to Management Information SystemsCourse ISMN 3140Course No. 10 AM until 11 AMTime Mondays and WednesdaysWeekday Room 41 Smith HallLocation Professor RainerInstructor

12 5.2 The Database Approach Database management system (DBMS) minimize the following problems: Data redundancy Data isolation Data inconsistency

13 Database Approach (continued) DBMSs maximize the following issues: Data security Data integrity Data independence

14 Database Management Systems

15 Data Hierarchy Bit Byte Field Record File (or table) Database A zero or a one 8 bits, a single character or number A column in a spreadsheet like a name A row in a spreadsheet like name and address and phone # A collection of related records A collection of related files

16 Hierarchy of Data for a Computer-Based File

17 Data Hierarchy (continued) Bit (binary digit) Byte (eight bits)

18 Data Hierarchy (continued) Example of Field and Record

19 Data Hierarchy (continued) Example of Field and Record

20 Designing the Database Data model Entity Attribute Primary key Secondary keys The data model is a diagram that represents the entities in the database and their relationships. An entity is a person, place, thing, or event about which information is maintained. A record generally describes an entity. An attribute is a particular characteristic or quality of a particular entity. The primary key is a field that uniquely identifies a record. Secondary keys are other field that have some identifying information but may not identify the file with complete accuracy.

21 Entity-Relationship Modeling Database designers plan the database design in a process called entity-relationship (ER) modeling. ER diagrams consists of entities, attributes and relationships. Entity classes Instance Identifiers

22 Relationships Between Entities (see page 120) Maximum number of instances Minimum number of instances

23 Entity-relationship diagram model

24 5.3 Database Management Systems Database management system (DBMS) [defines both the data structure and the data relationships] Relational database model Structured Query Language (SQL) Query by Example (QBE) One table is a flat file, it is the relationship between tables that make a database

25 Student Database Example Can you determine an attribute? A primary key? A secondary key? An instance?

26 Normalization Minimum redundancy Maximum data integrity Best processing performance Normalized data occurs when attributes in the table depend only on the primary key.

27 Non-Normalized Relation

28 Normalizing the Database (part A)

29 Normalizing the Database (part B)

30 Normalization Produces Order

31 Non-Normalized Relation

32 5.4 Data Warehousing Data warehouses and Data Marts Organized by business dimension or subject Multidimensional Historical Use online analytical processing A data warehouse is a repository of historical data organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization. Historical data in data warehouses can be used for identifying trends, forecasting, and making comparisons over time. Online analytical processing (OLAP) involves the analysis of accumulated data by end users (usually in a data warehouse). In contrast to OLAP, online transaction processing (OLTP) typically involves a database, where data from business transactions are processed online as soon as they occur.

33 Data Warehouse Framework & Views

34 Relational Databases

35 Multidimensional Database

36 Equivalence Between Relational and Multidimensional Databases



39 Benefits of Data Warehousing End users can access data quickly and easily via Web browsers because they are located in one place. End users can conduct extensive analysis with data in ways that may not have been possible before. End users have a consolidated view of organizational data.

40 Data Concepts Metadata – data about data such as relationships between tables or table definitions Data quality – data is seldom 100% clean Data governance (link)link Users include information producers and consumers

41 5.5 Knowledge Management Knowledge management (KM) Knowledge (should be contextual, relevant, and actionable) Intellectual capital (a.k.a. knowledge or intellectual assets) © Peter Eggermann/Age Fotostock America, Inc.

42 Knowledge Management (continued) Tacit Knowledge (below the waterline, all the stuff you know but that you dont explicitly realize you know) Explicit Knowledge (above the waterline) © Ina Penning/Age Fotostock America, Inc.

43 Knowledge Management (continued) Knowledge management systems (KMSs) Best practices © Peter Eggermann/Age Fotostock America, Inc.

44 Knowledge Management System Cycle Create knowledge Capture knowledge Refine knowledge Store knowledge Manage knowledge Disseminate knowledge

45 Knowledge Management System Cycle

46 Chapter Closing Case The Problem The Solution The Results

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