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A Brief Tour of The History of Computers Presented by Kevin Nichols KA7OFR

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The History of Computers About me About me What Ill be talking about What Ill be talking about Primarily information on selected computers from the 1930s s Primarily information on selected computers from the 1930s s A few details of how specific computers worked A few details of how specific computers worked Such a vast field, I can do no more than touch briefly on whats out there Such a vast field, I can do no more than touch briefly on whats out there

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Preliminaries What is a computer? What is a computer? A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions – Wikipedia A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions – Wikipedia A program historically distinguished computers from calculators, but not always A program historically distinguished computers from calculators, but not always Distinction is also made between devices that have conditional instructions and those that do not Distinction is also made between devices that have conditional instructions and those that do not Early computers came in two flavors: Analog & Digital, And three methods of implementation: Mechanical, Electric & Electronic Early computers came in two flavors: Analog & Digital, And three methods of implementation: Mechanical, Electric & Electronic

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Early Calculating Devices Many examples of early calculating devices Many examples of early calculating devices Abacus / Soroban Abacus / Soroban Astrolabe Astrolabe Napiers Bones Napiers Bones Slide Rules Slide Rules

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Early Calculating Devices But none of these are computers if we adopt the definition that a computer is a device that contains a program, a list of instructions to carry out automatically But none of these are computers if we adopt the definition that a computer is a device that contains a program, a list of instructions to carry out automatically What I will discuss today are early mechanical and electronic computers that have the ability to be programmed What I will discuss today are early mechanical and electronic computers that have the ability to be programmed

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Computer Side Note: The term computer, a term in use from the mid 17 th century, meant a person who performed mathematical calculations (computors) Side Note: The term computer, a term in use from the mid 17 th century, meant a person who performed mathematical calculations (computors)

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First Computer Which was the first computer? Which was the first computer? Highly controversial Highly controversial Depends on specific terms and precise qualifications Depends on specific terms and precise qualifications First electronic computer with stored program memory vs First stored program computer vs First electronic computer First electronic computer with stored program memory vs First stored program computer vs First electronic computer Not my intent to try to pin it down here Not my intent to try to pin it down here Ill just present several of the more interesting and historical computers, and leave it to you to research which you think was the first Ill just present several of the more interesting and historical computers, and leave it to you to research which you think was the first

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Computer Categories Categorizing computers Categorizing computers Initially computers were human, then mechanical, then electric, and finally electronic Initially computers were human, then mechanical, then electric, and finally electronic Differentiated by the calculating medium used Differentiated by the calculating medium used Mechanical Mechanical Gears, shafts, pulleys Gears, shafts, pulleys Electrically operated Electrically operated Relays Relays Electronic Electronic Vacuum tubes, Transistors, ICs Vacuum tubes, Transistors, ICs Differentiated by the method of computing Differentiated by the method of computing Analog was initially faster, but less accurate Analog was initially faster, but less accurate Digital was initially slower but more precise Digital was initially slower but more precise

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Computer Categories MechanicalElectrical Electronic (tube) Electronic (transistor/IC) Analog Digital Vannevar Bushs Differential AnalyzerVannevar Bushs Differential Analyzer Instructional computers (GE EF-140)Instructional computers (GE EF-140) Babbages Difference & Analytical EnginesBabbages Difference & Analytical Engines Zuse Z1Zuse Z1 Bell Labs Relay Computers (Complex Number Calculator)Bell Labs Relay Computers (Complex Number Calculator) Zuse Z3Zuse Z3 Op-Amp Based Computers (Heathkit ES Serias)Op-Amp Based Computers (Heathkit ES Serias) EniacEniac EdvacEdvac Manchester BabyManchester Baby EdsacEdsac Op-Amp based plugboard computersOp-Amp based plugboard computers Modern ComputersModern Computers

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Digital / Mechanical Computers 1800s & 1930s

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Digital / Mechanical Babbage Difference & Analytical Engines Charles Babbage, Charles Babbage, Work included design of two classes of machines Work included design of two classes of machines Difference Engines Difference Engines Used method of finite differences Used method of finite differences Uses only addition & subtraction Uses only addition & subtraction Analytical Engines Analytical Engines Mechanized true computer Mechanized true computer Would have allowed decisions to be made based on previous results Would have allowed decisions to be made based on previous results Decimal based machines Decimal based machines None of his machines were ever completed in his lifetime None of his machines were ever completed in his lifetime Image courtesy Computer History museum, Mountain View CA

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Digital / Mechanical Babbage Difference & Analytical Engines In 1800s, mathematical tables were used extensively for Astronomy, Engineering, Finance, insurance In 1800s, mathematical tables were used extensively for Astronomy, Engineering, Finance, insurance Tables were generated by hand and prone to errors Tables were generated by hand and prone to errors These are what prompted Babbage to work on his mechanical devices These are what prompted Babbage to work on his mechanical devices Image courtesy Computer History museum, Mountain View CA

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Digital / Mechanical Babbage Difference & Analytical Engines Babbage utilized the method of finite differences to create the mathematical tables Babbage utilized the method of finite differences to create the mathematical tables Eliminated the need for more complicated operations (multiplication, division) Eliminated the need for more complicated operations (multiplication, division) Easier to implement using mechanical devices Easier to implement using mechanical devices

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Digital / Mechanical Babbage Difference & Analytical Engines Say we want to calculate the function F(x) = X^2 + 4 Say we want to calculate the function F(x) = X^2 + 4 The first several values of the function are calculated (by hand) The first several values of the function are calculated (by hand) Columns of differences are calculated until they are constant Columns of differences are calculated until they are constant The rest of the values of the function can then be calculated (without multiplication!) The rest of the values of the function can then be calculated (without multiplication!) Any n th degree polynomial can be calculated starting with the n th difference Any n th degree polynomial can be calculated starting with the n th difference That is what Babbage was trying to mechanize That is what Babbage was trying to mechanize Image courtesy Computer History museum, Mountain View CA

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Digital / Mechanical Babbage Difference & Analytical Engines Difference Engine #1, 1821 Difference Engine #1, ,000 parts 25,000 parts Est. 15 tons Est. 15 tons 8 ft high 8 ft high Designed to calculate polynomial tables using method of finite differences Designed to calculate polynomial tables using method of finite differences Work was halted in 1832 due to dispute with a co-worker Work was halted in 1832 due to dispute with a co-worker Portion of Difference Engine #1, 1832 Image courtesy Computer History museum, Mountain View CA

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Digital / Mechanical Babbage Difference & Analytical Engines Difference Engine #2, Difference Engine #2, ,000 parts (3x less than #1) 8,000 parts (3x less than #1) 5 tons 5 tons 7ft high, 11 ft long, 18 deep 7ft high, 11 ft long, 18 deep Could compute 31 digit results Could compute 31 digit results Up to 7 th order polynomial (could hold 7 differences) Up to 7 th order polynomial (could hold 7 differences) Included a paper printing press with mold for type Included a paper printing press with mold for type Working reproduction of Difference Engine #2 Built from , using Babbages original designs Image courtesy Computer History museum, Mountain View CA Video…

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Digital / Mechanical Babbage Difference & Analytical Engines Video courtesy: Computer History Museum, Mountain View CA

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Digital / Mechanical Babbage Difference & Analytical Engines Babbage also designed a much more ambitious calculating device: The Analytical Engine Babbage also designed a much more ambitious calculating device: The Analytical Engine Contained a memory (the store) and an arithmetical unit (the mill) Contained a memory (the store) and an arithmetical unit (the mill) Could add, subtract, multiply & divide Could add, subtract, multiply & divide Was programmable using punched cards Was programmable using punched cards Capable of conditional branches and loops Capable of conditional branches and loops Portion of the mill of the Analytical Engine, 1871 Image courtesy Science Museum, London England

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Digital / Mechanical Zuse Z1 Konrad Zuse, Germany, Konrad Zuse, Germany, Z1 built 1936 – 1938 in apartment of his parents Z1 built 1936 – 1938 in apartment of his parents Binary computer using metal plates as logic elements Binary computer using metal plates as logic elements Programmed via punched tape Programmed via punched tape 2 registers of 22 bits each 2 registers of 22 bits each Floating point numbers(!) Floating point numbers(!) Clock frequency of 1 Hz Clock frequency of 1 Hz Destroyed in Dec during WW II Berlin bombardment Destroyed in Dec during WW II Berlin bombardment Reconstructed Z1,

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Digital / Mechanical Zuse Z1 Metal sheets function as logic gates Metal sheets function as logic gates AND AND OR OR NOT NOT NOT OR Part of original metal plates, Z1

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Digital / Mechanical Zuse Z1 ClockOutput Input

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Digital / Mechanical Zuse Z1 ClockOutput Input

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Digital / Mechanical Zuse Z1 ClockOutput Input

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Digital / Mechanical Zuse Z1 ClockOutput Input

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Digital / Mechanical Zuse Z1 ClockOutput Input

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Digital / Mechanical Zuse Z1 ClockOutput Input

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Analog / Mechanical Computers Early 1900s

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Analog / Mechanical Bush Differential Analyzer Vannevar Bush, 1890 – 1974 Vannevar Bush, 1890 – 1974 Engineering professor at MIT Engineering professor at MIT Built the Differential Analyzer, 1928 – 1931 to solve electric power transmission problems Built the Differential Analyzer, 1928 – 1931 to solve electric power transmission problems Used metal rods, gears, wheels Used metal rods, gears, wheels Designed to solve up to 6 th order differential equations & calculate up to 18 independent variables Designed to solve up to 6 th order differential equations & calculate up to 18 independent variables Solves differential equations by integration, 2% accuracy Solves differential equations by integration, 2% accuracy 150 motors 150 motors

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Analog / Mechanical Bush Differential Analyzer The Differential Analyzer consists of several interconnected parts The Differential Analyzer consists of several interconnected parts Disk & Plate Integrators Disk & Plate Integrators Torque Amplifiers Torque Amplifiers Input/Output tables Input/Output tables All the connecting gearing, rods, etc. All the connecting gearing, rods, etc. Great effort required to set up the computer for different problems Great effort required to set up the computer for different problems

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Analog / Mechanical Bush Differential Analyzer

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Integration performed with glass disk integrators Integration performed with glass disk integrators Uses knife edge wheel rolling on glass disk Uses knife edge wheel rolling on glass disk Rotation of output shaft depends on rotation of input glass disk, and distance of wheel from center of disk Rotation of output shaft depends on rotation of input glass disk, and distance of wheel from center of disk

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Analog / Mechanical Bush Differential Analyzer Torq Amplifier Torq Amplifier Required due to the very low torque output available from the integrator wheel Required due to the very low torque output available from the integrator wheel Wheel must not be allowed to slip on glass disk Wheel must not be allowed to slip on glass disk Output rotates at same velocity as input, but with greatly increased torque Output rotates at same velocity as input, but with greatly increased torque

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Analog / Mechanical Bush Differential Analyzer Input/Output Tables Input/Output Tables Input table Input table Provide arbitrary input as computer runs Provide arbitrary input as computer runs Computer drives X direction, human turns knob to make pen follow curve Computer drives X direction, human turns knob to make pen follow curve Output table Output table Computer drives pen in X and Y coordinates to draw curve on paper Computer drives pen in X and Y coordinates to draw curve on paper

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Analog / Mechanical Bush Differential Analyzer Examples of use Examples of use Calculation of firing tables for artillery used in WWII Calculation of firing tables for artillery used in WWII Bouncing Bomb by Barnes Wallis for attack on Ruhr Valley Hydro dams in WWII Bouncing Bomb by Barnes Wallis for attack on Ruhr Valley Hydro dams in WWII Height, length, number of bounces calculated based on changing parameters of: Height, length, number of bounces calculated based on changing parameters of: Bomb initial spin, Speed & height of aircraft, Weight of bomb Bomb initial spin, Speed & height of aircraft, Weight of bomb Bomb shape influencing ballistic characteristics, Buoyancy in water Bomb shape influencing ballistic characteristics, Buoyancy in water River control studies River control studies Calculation of soil erosion based in changing parameters of Calculation of soil erosion based in changing parameters of Rate at which water falls on surfaces, resistance to flow by surface Rate at which water falls on surfaces, resistance to flow by surface Speed of flow of water, Volume of water Speed of flow of water, Volume of water

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Analog / Mechanical Bush Differential Analyzer A home made differential analyzer was built in 1934 by Hartree & Porter A home made differential analyzer was built in 1934 by Hartree & Porter Built at the University of Manchester Built at the University of Manchester Made primarily of Meccano parts Made primarily of Meccano parts Was actually used for military purposes Was actually used for military purposes Cost 20 pounds Cost 20 pounds Said to have Achieved 2% accuracy Said to have Achieved 2% accuracy

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Analog / Mechanical Bush Differential Analyzer

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A modern version of the Meccano Differential Analyzer was recently built A modern version of the Meccano Differential Analyzer was recently built Designed, assembled and operated by Tim Robinson Designed, assembled and operated by Tim Robinson Shown at the Vintage Computer Festival in California Shown at the Vintage Computer Festival in California Contains 4 wheel & disk integrators Contains 4 wheel & disk integrators Video… Video…

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Digital / Electric (Relay) Computers 1930s s

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Digital / Electric - Relay Bell Relay Computers Bell Labs / George Stibitz Bell Labs / George Stibitz 1937 – Demonstrate relays used as a binary adder 1937 – Demonstrate relays used as a binary adder Complex Number Calculator (Model 1 Relay Computer) Demonstrated Complex Number Calculator (Model 1 Relay Computer) Demonstrated Cost $20,000 Cost $20, telephone relays 450 telephone relays Calculated quotient of two 8- place complex numbers in 30 seconds Calculated quotient of two 8- place complex numbers in 30 seconds A calculator Not truly a computer A calculator Not truly a computer First demonstration of remote access First demonstration of remote access

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Digital / Electric - Relay Zuse Z3 Konrad Zuse created many other relay-based Z machines beyond the Z1, Z3 probably the most famous Konrad Zuse created many other relay-based Z machines beyond the Z1, Z3 probably the most famous Operational May 12, 1941 Operational May 12, numbers of 22 bits each 64 numbers of 22 bits each Floating point math Floating point math +, -, *, / and square root +, -, *, / and square root 5.3 Hz, Addition 0.8 seconds, multiplication 3 seconds 5.3 Hz, Addition 0.8 seconds, multiplication 3 seconds 2600 relays, 4kW, 1 ton 2600 relays, 4kW, 1 ton I/O using punched tape I/O using punched tape No conditional jump No conditional jump Reconstructed Z3, 1960

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Digital / Electric - Relay Zuse Z3 Reconstructed Z3, 1960

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Digital / Electric - Relay IBM Relay Computers IBM / Harvard Mark I (Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator) IBM / Harvard Mark I (Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator) Development lead by Howard Aiken Development lead by Howard Aiken 1944 – Installed at Harvard University 1944 – Installed at Harvard University 51 ft long, weighed 5 tons 51 ft long, weighed 5 tons 750,000 parts 750,000 parts 72 accumulators, 60 sets of rotary switches 72 accumulators, 60 sets of rotary switches Addition: 1/3 second, multiplication 1 second Addition: 1/3 second, multiplication 1 second

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Digital / Electric - Relay IBM Relay Computers Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator

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Digital / Electric - Relay IBM Relay Computers IBMs Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator IBMs Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator 1948 – – ,400 relays, 12,500 vacuum tubes 21,400 relays, 12,500 vacuum tubes digit x 14 digit multiplications / sec digit x 14 digit multiplications / sec Reportedly produced the moon position tables used for plotting the course of the 1969 Apollo moon flight Reportedly produced the moon position tables used for plotting the course of the 1969 Apollo moon flight

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Digital / Electric - Relay IBM Relay Computers Operator console Operator console Lots of blinking lights Lots of blinking lights Machines of this era responsible for Hollywoods early fascination with blinking lights on computers Machines of this era responsible for Hollywoods early fascination with blinking lights on computers

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) Computers 1940s s

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC At start of WWII, the Armys Ballistics Research Lab trained about 100 human computers to calculate ballistics tables At start of WWII, the Armys Ballistics Research Lab trained about 100 human computers to calculate ballistics tables

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC The Differential Analyzer & mechanical desktop calculators were used to solve the differential equations of motion The Differential Analyzer & mechanical desktop calculators were used to solve the differential equations of motion A skilled operator took about 3 days to calculate a single trajectory A skilled operator took about 3 days to calculate a single trajectory As the war progressed, the BRL couldnt keep up and fell way behind As the war progressed, the BRL couldnt keep up and fell way behind No firing table = useless guns! No firing table = useless guns! This crisis lead to the Army investing in two men with an idea of how to calculate much faster This crisis lead to the Army investing in two men with an idea of how to calculate much faster

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Digital / Electronic -Tube ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer Probably most well known of the early computers Probably most well known of the early computers Started in April 1943 finished Nov 1945 (after the war!) Started in April 1943 finished Nov 1945 (after the war!)

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC Developed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert Developed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert Built at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania Built at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC The complete computer consisted of several interconnected modules The complete computer consisted of several interconnected modules Initiating Unit Initiating Unit Master Programmer Master Programmer Cycling unit Cycling unit Multiplier Multiplier Divider/Square Rooter Divider/Square Rooter 20 accumulators 20 accumulators Input/Output Input/Output Constant transmitters Constant transmitters Function Tables Function Tables

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC Eniac used approx. 18,000 radio tubes Eniac used approx. 18,000 radio tubes Experts questioned reliability of tubes Experts questioned reliability of tubes Eckerts design for low power, modular design worked well Eckerts design for low power, modular design worked well

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC ENIAC Statistics ENIAC Statistics 17,468 tubes 17,468 tubes 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors 1,500 relays 1,500 relays 6,000 manual switches 6,000 manual switches 8 high x 80 long, weighed 30 tons 8 high x 80 long, weighed 30 tons Consumed 174,000 watts Consumed 174,000 watts Performance Performance Could do 5, digit additions / sec Could do 5, digit additions / sec 333 multiplications / sec 333 multiplications / sec Calculate trajectory in 20 seconds (D.A. took minutes) Calculate trajectory in 20 seconds (D.A. took minutes)

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC Computed by counting pulses using base-10 rather than base-2 Computed by counting pulses using base-10 rather than base-2 Eniacs primary calculating modules were the 20 Accumulators Eniacs primary calculating modules were the 20 Accumulators Each accumulator consisted of 10 ring counters of 10 digits each Each accumulator consisted of 10 ring counters of 10 digits each

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC Function tables were (laboriously) entered using rotary switches Function tables were (laboriously) entered using rotary switches

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC Programming consisted of connecting together the various units with cables Programming consisted of connecting together the various units with cables ENIAC could not store programs electronically ENIAC could not store programs electronically A program was defined by the state of patch cords and switches A program was defined by the state of patch cords and switches Reprogramming required days of configuring cables Reprogramming required days of configuring cables

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Digital / Electronic -Tube ENIAC Eniac was even used as a recruiting tool Eniac was even used as a recruiting tool Armys 1940s version of Be all you can be ad! Armys 1940s version of Be all you can be ad! Video…

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) ENIAC

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) EDVAC Mauchly & Eckert proposed & started before Eniac was fully complete Mauchly & Eckert proposed & started before Eniac was fully complete First designed computer for Stored Program concept First designed computer for Stored Program concept Built for US Army Ballistics Research Lab. Contract signed April 1946, completed 1953 Built for US Army Ballistics Research Lab. Contract signed April 1946, completed 1953 Contract for $100,000. Final cost $500,000 Contract for $100,000. Final cost $500,000 Capability Capability 16 instructions 16 instructions 1, bit binary words 1, bit binary words Add (864 us), Subtract, Multiply (2.9 ms) Divide Add (864 us), Subtract, Multiply (2.9 ms) Divide RAM was ultrasonic delay line RAM was ultrasonic delay line 6,000 tubes, 12,000 diodes 6,000 tubes, 12,000 diodes 56 kW power 56 kW power 8.5 tons 8.5 tons Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) EDVAC Mercury delay lines used as RAM memory Mercury delay lines used as RAM memory Leveraged research in RADAR during WWII Leveraged research in RADAR during WWII 2 sets of 64 delay lines of 8 words capacity each 2 sets of 64 delay lines of 8 words capacity each Each tube was 384 us long Each tube was 384 us long Representative Univac delay line memory

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) EDVAC One of the first machine to which the von Neumann Architecture applies One of the first machine to which the von Neumann Architecture applies

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) EDVAC The Manchester Baby computer (above) therefore was the first computer to operate with the stored-program concept in June 1948 The Manchester Baby computer (above) therefore was the first computer to operate with the stored-program concept in June 1948 Eckert & Mauchly left the EDVAC project prior to completion, so it was not the first computer to operate with a stored program Eckert & Mauchly left the EDVAC project prior to completion, so it was not the first computer to operate with a stored program

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) Manchester Baby Developed by Tom Kilburn at the University of Manchester Developed by Tom Kilburn at the University of Manchester Utilized a Williams Tube CRT for memory Utilized a Williams Tube CRT for memory Stored 2048 bits of RAM Stored 2048 bits of RAM 32 bit word length 32 bit word length 3 bits for instructions 3 bits for instructions Serial binary operation Serial binary operation Solved finding the largest factor of 2^18 in 52 minutes Solved finding the largest factor of 2^18 in 52 minutes

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) Manchester Baby RAM Memory was Williams Tube stores bits as charge on the face of the 6 CRT RAM Memory was Williams Tube stores bits as charge on the face of the 6 CRT

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) Manchester Baby 7 Instructions 7 Instructions A = -S (010) A = -S (010) A = A – S (101) A = A – S (101) S = A (110) S = A (110) If A < 0, CI = CI + 1 (011) If A < 0, CI = CI + 1 (011) CI = S (000) CI = S (000) CI = CI + S (100) CI = CI + S (100) Halt (111) Halt (111) Later added: A=S, A=A + S, A = A & S Later added: A=S, A=A + S, A = A & S Where A is the accumulator S address of a memory location CI is the address of the current instruction Tom Kilburns First Program, find the highest proper factor of any number

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) EDSAC EDSAC was developed by Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge University EDSAC was developed by Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge University Work started in 1947 after Wilkes attended the 1946 Moore School lectures Work started in 1947 after Wilkes attended the 1946 Moore School lectures Patterned after EDVAC Patterned after EDVAC Contained 3000 tubes, 600 operations / sec Contained 3000 tubes, 600 operations / sec First program executed May 1949 First program executed May 1949 Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) EDSAC EDSAC Memory EDSAC Memory EDSAC utilized ultrasonic mercury delay line tubes for its memory EDSAC utilized ultrasonic mercury delay line tubes for its memory 32 tanks, each of which contained 32 numbers of 17 bits each (1024 storage locations) 32 tanks, each of which contained 32 numbers of 17 bits each (1024 storage locations) Two can be combined to handle a number 35 bits long Two can be combined to handle a number 35 bits long

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) EDSAC Control Desk Control Desk Contained 6 CRTs used to monitor the contents of memory Contained 6 CRTs used to monitor the contents of memory 5-hole punched tape for input 5-hole punched tape for input Output was to a teleprinter Output was to a teleprinter Used a telephone- type dial to input single decimal digits Used a telephone- type dial to input single decimal digits

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Digital / Electronic (Tube) EDSAC A very good Windows simulator is available for the EDSAC A very good Windows simulator is available for the EDSAC Written at Warwick university Written at Warwick university Complete instructions on use and sample programs are included Complete instructions on use and sample programs are included Demonstration? Demonstration?

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Analog / Electronic (Transistor) Computers 1950s s

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Analog / Electronic (Transistor / IC) In the 50s and 60s (even 70s) electronic versions of the analog computer were available In the 50s and 60s (even 70s) electronic versions of the analog computer were available Generally consisted of Op Amps with the ability to connect them to add, subtract, multiply integrate, etc. Generally consisted of Op Amps with the ability to connect them to add, subtract, multiply integrate, etc.

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Hobby / Training Computers 1950s s

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Hobby / Training computers Heathkit produced several analog computer kits in the 50s Heathkit produced several analog computer kits in the 50s One shown is the ES series One shown is the ES series Tube operated, amplifier based Tube operated, amplifier based 15 amplifiers, 3 I.C. power supplies, 30 coefficient potentiometers 15 amplifiers, 3 I.C. power supplies, 30 coefficient potentiometers Full kit listed for $945 in 1956 (about $7,400 today) Full kit listed for $945 in 1956 (about $7,400 today)

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Hobby / Training computers GE produced a simple educational analog computer GE produced a simple educational analog computer Model EF-140 shown Model EF-140 shown Used potentiometers and cardboard dials with scale markings Used potentiometers and cardboard dials with scale markings Solved equations like Y = 3X, or Z = X / Y Solved equations like Y = 3X, or Z = X / Y $29.29, used 4 D batteries $29.29, used 4 D batteries Used transistors for amplifier / oscillator / null indicator Used transistors for amplifier / oscillator / null indicator

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Hobby / Training computers Digicomp 1 Digicomp 1 Produced in 1965 by ESR Inc. for $5.95 (about $40 today) Produced in 1965 by ESR Inc. for $5.95 (about $40 today) Taught basics of boolean algebra, writing programs, binary addition Taught basics of boolean algebra, writing programs, binary addition Possible to play game of nim Possible to play game of nim 50 page instruction manual included 50 page instruction manual included

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Hobby / Training computers Bell Labs Cardiac probably the least expensive of any computer Bell Labs Cardiac probably the least expensive of any computer Manually operated Manually operated Designed to teach the basics of digital computer operation Designed to teach the basics of digital computer operation

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The End Thanks!

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Resources Websites Websites Computer History Museum Computer History Museum Mountain View, CA Mountain View, CA London Science Museum London Science Museum Tim Robinsons Differential Analyzer - Meccano Tim Robinsons Differential Analyzer - Meccano /robinson_da/ /robinson_da/ /robinson_da/ /robinson_da/ Books Books Bit by Bit an Illustrated History of Computers by Stan Augarten Bit by Bit an Illustrated History of Computers by Stan Augarten The Moore School Lectures Vol 9, The MIT Press, © 1985 The Moore School Lectures Vol 9, The MIT Press, © 1985 The Origins of Digital Computers Selected Papers, Springer Verlag, 2 nd ed © 1970 The Origins of Digital Computers Selected Papers, Springer Verlag, 2 nd ed © 1970

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