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Writing for International Publications Christine Piggee, Ph.D. Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing for International Publications Christine Piggee, Ph.D. Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing for International Publications Christine Piggee, Ph.D. Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society

2 Slide 2 of 23 Writing a Scientific Paper by Margaret Foster; Writing a Scientific Paper by Margaret Foster; Writing and Presenting Scientific Papers; Birgitta Malmfors, Phil Garnsworthy and Michael Grossman; Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, Nottingham, Guidelines for Scientific and Technical Publishing by Celia M. Elliott, June 2001; References Cited

3 Slide 3 of 23 Part 2 – The Structural Elements of a Manuscript* TITLE should be < or = 15 words should be < or = 15 words avoid abbreviations avoid abbreviations key words should be at beginning key words should be at beginning sometimes need shorter running title for journal page headings sometimes need shorter running title for journal page headings *adapted from Foster

4 Slide 4 of 23 Structural Elements of a Manuscript TITLE (cont.) two different types of titles two different types of titles o topic - tells about experiments but not results o full story - tells about the research, the results and the conclusions

5 Slide 5 of 23 EXERCISE Your small group has 10 minutes to create both a topic title and a full-story title for the following: The authors are performing a series of studies on the effects of various drugs on learning. In this study, rats were given various doses of alcohol. The rates were then trained to solve one of a series of mazes of increasing complexity. It was observed that the more complex the maze, the lower the dose of alcohol needed to impair learning. They also observed that the older rats were more sensitive to the effects of complexity than were younger rats. Structural Elements of a Manuscript

6 Slide 6 of 23 Structural Elements of a Manuscript ABSTRACT* second best chance to explain and sell your paper to the reader second best chance to explain and sell your paper to the reader do not cite references or figures do not cite references or figures < or = 250 words < or = 250 words include objective, approach, main results and conclusions include objective, approach, main results and conclusions give a list of key words at the end of the abstract give a list of key words at the end of the abstract *adapted from Malmfors, Garnsworthy and Grossman

7 Slide 7 of 23 Structural Elements of a Manuscript EXERCISE In your small groups, choose one person to explain their research results and the group will write together an abstract for these results. Then the groups will trade results and critique another groups titles.

8 Slide 8 of 23 INTRODUCTION background information background information topic of study topic of study importance of topic importance of topic Structural Elements of a Manuscript

9 Slide 9 of 23 MATERIALS AND METHODS details for the reader to evaluate and reproduce your results details for the reader to evaluate and reproduce your results cite references for previously published methods cite references for previously published methods Structural Elements of a Manuscript

10 Slide 10 of 23 MATERIALS AND METHODS (cont.) do not include results in this section do not include results in this section can present different samples, solutions, etc. more clearly in a table can present different samples, solutions, etc. more clearly in a table Structural Elements of a Manuscript

11 Slide 11 of 23 RESULTS presented in accurate, clear and logical way presented in accurate, clear and logical way numerical data is best viewed in tables or graphs numerical data is best viewed in tables or graphs o bar graphs - discrete measurement o line graphs - changes or trends Structural Elements of a Manuscript

12 Slide 12 of 23 RESULTS (cont.) only certain negative results only certain negative results keep your data for at least 2-3 years keep your data for at least 2-3 years Structural Elements of a Manuscript

13 Slide 13 of 23 DISCUSSION observations and their relationships observations and their relationships exceptions/limitations exceptions/limitations relations to previous work relations to previous work Structural Elements of a Manuscript

14 Slide 14 of 23 DISCUSSION (cont.) theoretical or practical implications theoretical or practical implications summary and conclusions summary and conclusions Structural Elements of a Manuscript

15 Slide 15 of 23 DISCUSSION (cont.) start with specific observations/implications and move to general start with specific observations/implications and move to general do not over-generalize, and avoid speculation do not over-generalize, and avoid speculation Structural Elements of a Manuscript

16 Slide 16 of 23 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS thank or give credit to people who helped but did not qualify for authorshipthank or give credit to people who helped but did not qualify for authorship technical assistance technical assistance advice in research or manuscript advice in research or manuscript Structural Elements of a Manuscript

17 Slide 17 of 23 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (cont.) gifts of materials gifts of materials assistance in preparing manuscript assistance in preparing manuscript thank the institutions that funded the work thank the institutions that funded the work Structural Elements of a Manuscript

18 Slide 18 of 23 REFERENCES follow the journals required format for references follow the journals required format for references the references cited section is not the same thing as a bibliography the references cited section is not the same thing as a bibliography o references cited - this manuscript o bibliography - this topic Structural Elements of a Manuscript

19 Slide 19 of 23 TABLES AND FIGURES printed separately, one per page printed separately, one per page caption caption present data set either in tables/figures or in the text present data set either in tables/figures or in the text minimal number of digits minimal number of digits Structural Elements of a Manuscript

20 Slide 20 of 23 TABLES AND FIGURES only include tables and figures which are referenced in the text only include tables and figures which are referenced in the text label your axes and include units of measurement label your axes and include units of measurement do not use color unless completely necessary do not use color unless completely necessary Structural Elements of a Manuscript

21 Slide 21 of 23 TABLES AND FIGURES make the symbols and letters large enough* make the symbols and letters large enough* o letters >= 18 pt. o lines >= 2 pt. o symbols >= 16 pt. *from Elliott Structural Elements of a Manuscript

22 Slide 22 of 23 TITLE PAGE manuscript title manuscript title authors authors affiliated institutions of the authors affiliated institutions of the authors submitted to Journal Name submitted to Journal Name date date contact information for the corresponding author contact information for the corresponding author Structural Elements of a Manuscript

23 Slide 23 of 23 COVER LETTER summarize the main point of the manuscript summarize the main point of the manuscript why they should be interested why they should be interested list possible reviewers list possible reviewers those you do not want to be reviewers those you do not want to be reviewers Structural Elements of a Manuscript


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