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The Expansion/Compression Factor in Translated Texts The Localisation Research Forum September 2007, Dublin Luis R. Cerna

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna2 What is it all about? Study Article, Hardcopy etc. Expectations? others Localisation non linguistic linguistic source lang. target languages

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna3 The Study Specialty Fields - Animal nutrition, animal care, veterinary medicine, manufacturing processes and patents - Chemistry, process engineering, plant engineering and patents - Precision mechanics, automatic control systems and patents Patents are not considered as a specialty field per se. Language Combinations DE => ES DE => EN EN => DE EN => ES ES => DE ES => EN Each combination documents 50 Texts. Language abbreviations according to ISO

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna4 The Study Present Research - Column with Number of words in source and target language crucial for the study. - Relationship between the number of words in source and target language as a practical guide for reliable cost/space estimation. Further Research - Column with Characters with spaces in source and target language reserved for further research. - Universities are welcome to continue the research.

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna5 The Tables A B C D Headers Registration Number (1) Text Specifications (1+2) Characters with Spaces (1+2) E Number of Words (1+2) % Number of Words (1) Footers

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna6 The Formula Number of words in the source language divided by 100 = A Number of words in the target language divided by A = B B minus 100 = percentage C contained in the number of words in the source language Important: observe plus or minus! Example 1: SL = 30,542 words, TL = 36,589 words -> 30,542 : 100 = > 36,589 : = > – 100 = ~ Example 2: SL = 597 words, TL = 507 words -> 597 : 100 = > 507 : 5.97 = > – 100 = ~ Tolerance: ±0.2 Example 3: values from to can be rounded to %

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna7 Animal Nutrition, DE=>EN Total amount percentage: +1, Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1, : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: +2.50% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna8 Animal Nutrition, DE=>ES Total amount percentage: +1, Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1, : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: +3.98% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna9 Animal Nutrition, EN=>DE Total amount percentage: Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: -4.67% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna10 Animal Nutrition, EN=>ES Total amount percentage: Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: +3.03% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna11 Animal Nutrition, ES=>DE Total amount percentage: -1, Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -1, : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: % and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna12 Animal Nutrition, ES=>EN Total amount percentage: Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: -4.56% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna13 Chemistry, DE=>EN Total amount percentage: Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: % and +0.83% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna14 Chemistry, DE=>ES Total amount percentage: +1, Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1, : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: % and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna15 Chemistry, EN=>DE Total amount percentage: Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: -3.36% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna16 Chemistry, EN=>ES Total amount percentage: Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: % and +3.12% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna17 Chemistry, ES=>DE Total amount percentage: -1, Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -1, : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: -6.35% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna18 Chemistry, ES=>EN Total amount percentage: Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: -4.39% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna19 Mechanics, DE=>EN Total amount percentage: +1, Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1, : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: % and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna20 Mechanics, DE=>ES Total amount percentage: +1, Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1, : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: +6.45% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna21 Mechanics, EN=>DE Total amount percentage: -1, Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -1, : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: -3.35% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna22 Mechanics, EN=>ES Total amount percentage: Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: +4.15% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna23 Mechanics, ES=>DE Total amount percentage: -1, Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -1, : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: -9.02% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna24 Mechanics, ES=>EN Total amount percentage: Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: : 50 = Mean value: % Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): % Maximal divergence values: -4.57% and % More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna25 Overview for DE, EN, ES =>DE=>EN=>ES DE=>+20.00%+35.00% EN=>-20.00%+15.00% ES=>-35.00%-15.00%

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna26 Example 1 Source language EN: Fig. 5 Oil pipe as seen from the oil pipe (from the operators side) Target language ES: Fig. 5 Línea de lubricación vista desde el fin de la misma línea de lubricación (desde la prespectiva del operador)

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna27 Example 2 Source language DE: Alleinfutter – Gefärbt mit EWG-Zusatzstoffen. X enthält alle speziell auf die Ernährungsbedürfnisse fleischfressender Cichliden und anderer größerer Aquarienfische abgestimmten Bestandteile in ausgewogener Mischung: Fisch und Fischnebenerzeugnisse, Getreide, Algen, Hefen und tierische Nebenerzeugnisse. Target language ES: Alimento completo – Coloreado con aditivos autorizados por la CEE. X contiene todos los ingredientes adaptados especialmente a las necesidades nutritivas de los cíclidos carnívoros y otros grandes peces ornamentales en cantidades equilibradas: Pescado y productos secundarios de pescado, cereales, algas, levaduras, y productos secundarios de animal.

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna28 Thank you very much for your attention! If you have any questions, dont hesitate to ask them! Contact address: Luis R. Cerna Lrcerna AT aol.com

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