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The Expansion/Compression Factor in Translated Texts The Localisation Research Forum 27-28 September 2007, Dublin Luis R. Cerna

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna2 What is it all about? Study Article, Hardcopy etc. Expectations? others Localisation non linguistic linguistic source lang. target languages

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna3 The Study Specialty Fields - Animal nutrition, animal care, veterinary medicine, manufacturing processes and patents - Chemistry, process engineering, plant engineering and patents - Precision mechanics, automatic control systems and patents Patents are not considered as a specialty field per se. Language Combinations DE => ES DE => EN EN => DE EN => ES ES => DE ES => EN Each combination documents 50 Texts. Language abbreviations according to ISO 639-1.

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna4 The Study Present Research - Column with Number of words in source and target language crucial for the study. - Relationship between the number of words in source and target language as a practical guide for reliable cost/space estimation. Further Research - Column with Characters with spaces in source and target language reserved for further research. - Universities are welcome to continue the research.

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna5 The Tables A B C D Headers Registration Number (1) Text Specifications (1+2) Characters with Spaces (1+2) E Number of Words (1+2) % Number of Words (1) Footers

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna6 The Formula Number of words in the source language divided by 100 = A Number of words in the target language divided by A = B B minus 100 = percentage C contained in the number of words in the source language Important: observe plus or minus! Example 1: SL = 30,542 words, TL = 36,589 words -> 30,542 : 100 = 305.42 -> 36,589 : 305.42 = 119.79896 -> 119.79896 – 100 = +19.79896 ~ +19.80 Example 2: SL = 597 words, TL = 507 words -> 597 : 100 = 5.97 -> 507 : 5.97 = 84.924623 -> 84.924623 – 100 = -15.07538 ~ -15.07 Tolerance: ±0.2 Example 3: values from -14.80 to -15.20 can be rounded to -15.00%

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna7 Animal Nutrition, DE=>EN Total amount percentage: +1,000.52 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1,000.52 : 50 = +20.0104 Mean value: +20.01% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): +20.00% Maximal divergence values: +2.50% and +42.78% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna8 Animal Nutrition, DE=>ES Total amount percentage: +1,749.96 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1,749.96 : 50 = +34.9992 Mean value: +34.99% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): +35.00% Maximal divergence values: +3.98% and +104.09% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna9 Animal Nutrition, EN=>DE Total amount percentage: -998.54 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -998.54 : 50 = -19.9708 Mean value: -19.97% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): -20.00% Maximal divergence values: -4.67% and -30.35% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna10 Animal Nutrition, EN=>ES Total amount percentage: +750.12 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +750.12 : 50 = +15.0024 Mean value: +15.00% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): +15.00% Maximal divergence values: +3.03% and +45.68% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna11 Animal Nutrition, ES=>DE Total amount percentage: -1,750.12 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -1,750.12 : 50 = -35.0024 Mean value: -35.00% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): -35.00% Maximal divergence values: -16.76% and -56.19% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna12 Animal Nutrition, ES=>EN Total amount percentage: -751.33 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -751.33 : 50 = -15.0266 Mean value: -15.03% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): -15.00% Maximal divergence values: -4.56% and -25.53% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna13 Chemistry, DE=>EN Total amount percentage: +999.63 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +999.63 : 50 = +19.9926 Mean value: +19.99% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): +20.00% Maximal divergence values: +42.65% and +0.83% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna14 Chemistry, DE=>ES Total amount percentage: +1,750.20 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1,750.20 : 50 = +35.004 Mean value: +35.00% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): +35.00% Maximal divergence values: +57.14% and +16.36% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna15 Chemistry, EN=>DE Total amount percentage: -999.65 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -999.65 : 50 = -19.993 Mean value: -19.99% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): -20.00% Maximal divergence values: -3.36% and -40.00% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna16 Chemistry, EN=>ES Total amount percentage: +749.99 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +749.99 : 50 = +14.9998 Mean value: +14.99% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): +15.00% Maximal divergence values: +45.40% and +3.12% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna17 Chemistry, ES=>DE Total amount percentage: -1,750.30 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -1,750.30 : 50 = -35.006 Mean value: -35.00% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): -35.00% Maximal divergence values: -6.35% and -60.23% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna18 Chemistry, ES=>EN Total amount percentage: -750.03 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -750.03 : 50 = -15.0006 Mean value: -15.00% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): -15.00% Maximal divergence values: -4.39% and -25.22% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna19 Mechanics, DE=>EN Total amount percentage: +1,000.10 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1,000.10 : 50 = +20.002 Mean value: +20.00% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): +20.00% Maximal divergence values: +25.31% and +15.25% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna20 Mechanics, DE=>ES Total amount percentage: +1,750.08 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +1,750.08 : 50 = +35.0016 Mean value: +35.00% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): +35.00% Maximal divergence values: +6.45% and +57.14% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna21 Mechanics, EN=>DE Total amount percentage: -1,000.03 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -1,000.03 : 50 = -20.0006 Mean value: -20.00% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): -20.00% Maximal divergence values: -3.35% and -30.89% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna22 Mechanics, EN=>ES Total amount percentage: +751.69 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: +751.69 : 50 = +15.0338 Mean value: +15.03% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): +15.00% Maximal divergence values: +4.15% and +33.33% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna23 Mechanics, ES=>DE Total amount percentage: -1,750.19 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -1,750.19 : 50 = -35.0038 Mean value: -35.00% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): -35.00% Maximal divergence values: -9.02% and -60.26% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna24 Mechanics, ES=>EN Total amount percentage: -749.98 Total amount mean value of percentage for 50 documents: -749.98 : 50 = -14.9996 Mean value: -14.99% Rounded mean value according to the tolerance (±0.2): -15.00% Maximal divergence values: -4.57% and -24.50% More details in the Tables!

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna25 Overview for DE, EN, ES =>DE=>EN=>ES DE=>+20.00%+35.00% EN=>-20.00%+15.00% ES=>-35.00%-15.00%

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna26 Example 1 Source language EN: Fig. 5 Oil pipe as seen from the oil pipe (from the operators side) Target language ES: Fig. 5 Línea de lubricación vista desde el fin de la misma línea de lubricación (desde la prespectiva del operador)

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna27 Example 2 Source language DE: Alleinfutter – Gefärbt mit EWG-Zusatzstoffen. X enthält alle speziell auf die Ernährungsbedürfnisse fleischfressender Cichliden und anderer größerer Aquarienfische abgestimmten Bestandteile in ausgewogener Mischung: Fisch und Fischnebenerzeugnisse, Getreide, Algen, Hefen und tierische Nebenerzeugnisse. Target language ES: Alimento completo – Coloreado con aditivos autorizados por la CEE. X contiene todos los ingredientes adaptados especialmente a las necesidades nutritivas de los cíclidos carnívoros y otros grandes peces ornamentales en cantidades equilibradas: Pescado y productos secundarios de pescado, cereales, algas, levaduras, y productos secundarios de animal.

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© 2007 Luis R. Cerna28 Thank you very much for your attention! If you have any questions, dont hesitate to ask them! Contact address: Luis R. Cerna Lrcerna AT aol.com

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