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Periodic Table of the Elements Lr 103 No 102 Md 101 Fm 100 Es 99 Cf 98 Bk 97 Cm 96 Am 95 Pu 94 Np 93 U 92 Pa 91 Th 90 Lu 71 Tm 69 Yb 70 Er 68 Ho 67 Dy.

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Presentation on theme: "Periodic Table of the Elements Lr 103 No 102 Md 101 Fm 100 Es 99 Cf 98 Bk 97 Cm 96 Am 95 Pu 94 Np 93 U 92 Pa 91 Th 90 Lu 71 Tm 69 Yb 70 Er 68 Ho 67 Dy."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Periodic Table of the Elements

3 Lr 103 No 102 Md 101 Fm 100 Es 99 Cf 98 Bk 97 Cm 96 Am 95 Pu 94 Np 93 U 92 Pa 91 Th 90 Lu 71 Tm 69 Yb 70 Er 68 Ho 67 Dy 66 Tb 65 Gd 64 Eu 63 Sm 62 Pm 61 Nd 60 Pr 59 Ce 58 He 2 Ne 10 Ar 18 Kr 36 Xe 54 Rn 86 At 85 I 53 Br 35 Cl 17 F 9 Po 84 Te 52 Se 34 O 8 Bi 83 Sb 51 As 33 N 7 Pb 82 Tc 43 Ta 73 Hg 80 Mt 109 Hs 108 Bh 107 Sg 106 Db 105 Rf 104 Ac 89 La 57 Hf 72 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Rh 45 Ru 44 Mo 42 Nb 41 V 23 Li 3 Fr 87 Cs 55 H 1 Na 11 K 19 Rb 37 Mn 25 Co 27 Pd 46 Au 79 Cd 48 Zn 30 Cu 29 C 6 B 5 Al 13 S 16 P 15 Si 14 Ge 32 Sn 50 Ag 47 Pt 78 = Internet link () Fe 26 Ni 28 Cr 24 Ti 22 Sc 21 Zr 41 Y 39 Ga 31 In 49 Tl 81 Mg 12 Ca 20 Sr 38 Ba 56 Ra 88 Be 4 Select an element Other Physical DATA

4 Printable Periodic Tables All of the following tables are in Acrobat PDF format. To view and print these files, you will need to install the free Adobe Acrobat Reader program on your computer. The program can be downloaded from the Adobe Website. Click on the element symbol to download the PDF file. Click Here

5 Groups of Elements Li 3 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac A 2A 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Transition metals Inner transition metals Boron group Carbon group Nitrogen group Oxygen group Halogens Noble gases Hydrogen 3B 5B6B7B 8B 1B2B 3A4A5A6A7A 8A 4B

6 Rn 86 Xe 54 Kr 36 Ar 18 Ne 10 He 2 Mt 109 Hs 108 Bh 107 Sg 106 Rf 104 Db 105 Hg 80 Au 79 Pt 78 Ir 77 Os 76 Re 75 W 74 Ta 73 Hf 72 Cd 48 Ag 47 Pd 46 Rh 45 Ru 44 Tc 43 Mo 42 Nb 41 B5B5 Zr 40 Y 39 Zn 30 Cu 29 Co 27 Ni 28 Fe 26 Mn 25 Cr 24 V 23 Ti 22 Sc 21 Ac 89 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 O8O8 S 16 Se 34 Te 52 As 33 P 15 N7N7 Sb 51 Bi 83 Po 84 Groups of Elements Li 3 C6C6 F9F9 Na 11 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 Cl 17 K 19 Ca 20 Ga 31 Ge 32 Br 35 Rb 37 Sr 38 In 49 Sn 50 I 53 Cs 55 Ba 56 Tl 81 Pb 82 At 85 Fr 87 Ra 88 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 La Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Transition metals Other metals Lanthanides Halogens Other non-metals Noble gases Actinides IAIIAIIIBIVBVBVIBVIIBVIIIBIBIIBIIIAIVAVAVIAVIIAVIIIA 18

7 Wikipedia Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Cesium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Curium Darmstadtium Dysprosium Dubnium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Roentgenium Rubidium Rutherfordium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Unnilhexium Unniloctium Unnilpentium Unnilquadium Unnilseptium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Elements listed Alphabetically Printable Periodic Table

8 Periodic Table Li 3 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac A 2A Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Transition metals Boron group Nonmetals Noble gases 3B 5B6B7B 8B 1B2B 3A4A5A6A7A 8A 4B Lanthanoid Series 6 7 Actinoid Series C Solid Br Liquid H Gas

9 Dutch Periodic Table Strong, Journal of Chemical Education, Sept. 1989, page 743

10 Chinese Periodic Table

11 Stowes Periodic Table

12 Benfreys Periodic Table

13 developed by Mohd Abubakr, Hyderabad, India

14 How to Organize Elements… Periodic Table Designs

15 P ZnAs Sb PtBi Midd CrMn Li K NOF Na BBe H AlSiCl CaTiVCoNiSeBr SrYZrNbMoRhPdCdTeI BaTaWOsIr Mg CeTbEr ThU Discovering the Periodic Table C S FeCu AgSn AuHgPb Ancient Times He ScGaGe RbRuIn CsTl PrNdSmGdDyHoTmYb La Ne Ar Kr Xe PoRn Ra EuLu Pa Ac Tc HfReAt Fr Pm NpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLr Rf Db SgBhHsMt Journal of Chemical Education, Sept. 1989

16 Metals and Nonmetals Li 3 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac METALS Nonmetals Metalloids

17 Diatomic Elements H2H2 N2N2 O2O2 F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2 Tl At S Li Na K Fr Be Mg Ca Ra Sc Ac He Ne Ar Kr Rn Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu ZnGa Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Xe Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Pb Bi Po Al Si P B C Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er TmYb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm MdNo Lr S Tl

18 alkaline earths halogens Elements with similar chemical behavior are in the same group. Elements of Group 1 are. Elements of Group 2 are the. Elements of Group 17 are the. Elements of Group 18 are the. noble gases alkali metals Chemistry of the Groups Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

19 Alkali Metals, Group 1 H N OF Cl Br I Li Na K Fr Be Mg Ca Ra Sc Ac He Ne Ar Kr Rn Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu ZnGa Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Xe Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au HgTl Pb Bi PoAt Al Si P S B C Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er TmYb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm MdNo Lr

20 The alkali metals (Group 1) - The alkali metals are lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). - Hydrogen is placed in Group 1 but is not a metal. - The alkali metals react readily with nonmetals to give ions with a +1 charge. - Compounds of alkali metals are common in nature and daily life. Chemistry of the Groups Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. H1H1 Li 3 Na 11 K 19 Rb 37 Cs 55 Fr 87 1

21 Alkaline Earth Metals, Group 2 H N OF Cl Br I Li Na K Fr Be Mg Ca Ra Sc Ac He Ne Ar Kr Rn Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu ZnGa Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Xe Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au HgTl Pb Bi PoAt Al Si P S B C Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er TmYb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm MdNo Lr

22 The alkaline earths (Group 2) - The alkaline earths are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). - All are metals that react readily with nonmetals to give ions with a 2 charge. Chemistry of the Groups Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. Be 4 Ca 20 Sr 38 Ba 56 Ra 88 Mg 12 2

23 Halogens, Group 17 H N OF Cl Br I Li Na K Fr Be Mg Ca Ra Sc Ac He Ne Ar Kr Rn Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu ZnGa Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Xe Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au HgTl Pb Bi PoAt Al Si P S B C Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er TmYb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm MdNo Lr

24 The halogens (Group 17) - The halogens are fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) iodine ( ), and astatine (At). - They react readily with metals to form ions with a 1 charge. Chemistry of the Groups Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. F9F9 Cl 17 Br 35 I 53 At Fluorine F 19.0 F 2 pale-yellow gas Chlorine Cl 35.5 Cl 2 greenish-yellow gas Bromine Br 79.9 Br 2 red-brown liquid 58.0 Iodine I I 2 black solid (m.p.113 o C) Element At. Mass Normal Form at STP b.p., o C Astatine At (210)

25 Noble Gases, Group 18 H N OF Cl Br I Li Na K Fr Be Mg Ca Ra Sc Ac He Ne Ar Kr Rn Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu ZnGa Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Xe Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au HgTl Pb Bi PoAt Al Si P S B C Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er TmYb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm MdNo Lr

26 The noble gases (Group 18) - are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon, (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn); - are monatomic; - are unreactive gases at room temperature and pressure; - are called inert gases. Chemistry of the Groups Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. He 2 Ne 10 Ar 18 Kr 36 Xe 54 Rn 86 18

27 Chalcogens, Group 16 H N OF Cl Br I Li Na K Fr Be Mg Ca Ra Sc Ac He Ne Ar Kr Rn Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu ZnGa Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Xe Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au HgTl Pb Bi PoAt Al Si P S B C Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er TmYb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm MdNo Lr

28 Group 16, the Chalcogens – The chalcogens are oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. All of the chalcogens have ns 2 np 4 valence-electron configurations. Their chemistry is dominated by three oxidation states: 1. –2, in which two electrons are added to achieve the closed-shell electron of the next noble gas , in which all six valence electrons are lost to give the closed-shell electron configuration of the preceding noble gas , in which only the four np electrons are lost to give a filled ns 2 subshell. Chemistry of the Groups Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. O8O8 S 16 Se 34 Te 52 Po 84 16

29 Pnicogens, Group 15 H N OF Cl Br I Li Na K Fr Be Mg Ca Ra Sc Ac He Ne Ar Kr Rn Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu ZnGa Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Xe Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au HgTl Pb Bi PoAt Al Si P S B C Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er TmYb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm MdNo Lr

30 Chemistry of the Groups Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. Group 15, the Pnicogens – The pnicogens are nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. – All the pnicogens have ns 2 np 3 valence-electron configurations, leading to three common oxidation states: 1. –3, in which three electrons are added to give the closed-shell electron configuration of the next noble gas 2. +5, in which all five valence electrons are lost to give the closed-shell electron configuration of the preceding noble gas 3. +3, in which only the three np electrons are lost to give a filled ns 2 subshell N7N7 P 15 As 33 Sb 51 Bi 83 15

31 Group 14 – Group 14 elements straddle the diagonal line that divides nonmetals from metals. – Carbon is a nonmetal, silicon and germanium are semimetals, and tin and lead are metals. – Group-14 elements have the ns 2 np 2 valence-electron configuration. – Group-14 elements have three oxidation states: 1. –4, in which four electrons are added to achieve the closed-shell electron configuration of the next noble gas 2. +4, in which all four valence electrons are lost to give the closed- shell electron configuration of the preceding noble gas 3. +2, in which the loss of two np 2 electrons gives a filled ns 2 subshell Chemistry of the Groups Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

32 Group 13 – Of the Group-13 elements, only the lightest, boron, lies on the diagonal line that separates nonmetals and metals, it is a semimetal and possesses an unusual structure. – The rest of Group 13 are metals (aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium) and are typical metallic solids. – Elements of Group 13 are highly reactive and form stable compounds with oxygen. – Elements of Group 13 have ns 2 np 1 valence-electron configurations. Chemistry of the Groups Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

33 Lanthanide Series H N OF Cl Br I Li Na K Fr Be Mg Ca Ra Sc Ac He Ne Ar Kr Rn Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu ZnGa Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Xe Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au HgTl Pb Bi PoAt Al Si P S B C Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er TmYb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm MdNo Lr La

34 Actinide Series H N OF Cl Br I Li Na K Fr Be Mg Ca Ra Sc Ac He Ne Ar Kr Rn Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu ZnGa Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Xe Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au HgTl Pb Bi PoAt Al Si P S B C Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er TmYb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm MdNo Lr La

35 Li 3 H1H1 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac hydrogen alkali metals alkaline earth metals transition metals poor metals nonmetals noble gases rare earth metals

36 The Periodic Table Li 3 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac Lanthanides Actinides Noble gases Halogens Transition metals Alkaline earth metals Alkali metals Uun 110 Uuu 111 Uub 112 Uuq 113 Uuh 116 Uuo 118

37 Orbitals Being Filled 1s1s 2s2s 3s3s 4s4s 5s5s 6s6s 7s7s 3d3d 4d4d 5d5d 6d6d 2p2p 3p3p 4p4p 5p5p 6p6p 1s1s La Ac f4f 5f5f Lanthanide series Actinide series Groups 8 Periods Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 345

38 Electron Filling in Periodic Table s d p s f

39 Metallic Characteristic metallic character increases nonmetallic character increases metallic character increases nonmetallic character increases

40 s d p s f Li 3 H1H1 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac Periodic Table

41 Li He C 4100 N O F Ne Na 98 B 2027 Be 1283 H Al 660 Si 1423 P 44.2 S 119 Cl -101 Ar K 63.2 Ca 850 Sc 1423 Ti 1677 V 1917 Cr 1900 Mn 1244 Fe 1539 Co 1495 Ni 1455 Cu 1083 Zn 420 Ga Ge 960 As 817 Se Br -7.2 Kr Rb 38.8 Sr 770 Y 1500 Zr 1852 Nb 2487 Mo 2610 Tc 2127 Ru 2427 Rh 1966 Pd 1550 Ag 961 Cd 321 In Sn Sb Te 450 I Xe Cs 28.6 Ba 710 Hf 2222 Ta 2997 W 3380 Re 3180 Os 2727 Ir 2454 Pt 1769 Au 1063 Hg Tl Pb Bi Po 254 At Rn -71 Mg 650 Mg Melting Points Symbol Melting point o C > 3000 o C o C La 920 Ralph A. Burns, Fundamentals of Chemistry, 1999, page 1999

42 Li 0.53 He C 2.26 N 0.81 O 1.14 F 1.11 Ne Na 0.97 B 2.5 Be 1.8 H Al 2.70 Si 2.4 P 1.82w S 2.07 Cl Ar K 0.86 Ca 1.55 Sc (2.5) Ti 4.5 V 5.96 Cr 7.1 Mn 7.4 Fe 7.86 Co 8.9 Ni 8.90 Cu 8.92 Zn 7.14 Ga 5.91 Ge 5.36 As 5,7 Se 4.7 Br Kr 2.6 Rb 1.53 Sr 2.6 Y 5.51 Zr 6.4 Nb 8.4 Mo 10.2 Tc 11.5 Ru 12.5 Rh 12.5 Pd 12.0 Ag 10.5 Cd 8.6 In 7.3 Sn 7.3 Sb 6.7 Te 6.1 I 4.93 Xe 3.06 Cs 1.90 Ba 3.5 Hf 13.1 Ta 16.6 W 19.3 Re 21.4 Os Ir 22.4 Pt Au 19.3 Hg Tl Pb Bi 9.8 Po 9.4 At --- Rn 4.4 Mg Densities of Elements Mg 1.74 Symbol Density in g/cm 3 C, for gases, in g/L 8.0 – 11.9 g/cm – 17.9 g/cm 3 > 18.0 g/cm 3 La 6.7

43 Electronegativities 7 Be 1.5 Al 1.5 Si 1.8 Ti 1.5 V 1.6 Cr 1.6 Mn 1.5 Fe 1.8 Co 1.8 Ni 1.8 Cu 1.9 Zn 1.7 Ga 1.6 Ge 1.8 Nb 1.6 Mo 1.8 Tc 1.9 Ag 1.9 Cd 1.7 In 1.7 Sn 1.8 Sb 1.9 Ta 1.5 W 1.7 Re 1.9 Hg 1.9 Tl 1.8 Pb 1.8 Bi N 3.0 O 3.5 F 4.0 Cl C 2.5 S 2.5 Br 2.8 I Na 0.9 K 0.8 Rb 0.8 Cs 0.7 Ba 0.9 Fr 0.7 Ra 0.9 Below 1.0 H 2.1 B 2.0 P 2.1 As 2.0 Se 2.4 Ru 2.2 Rh 2.2 Pd 2.2 Te 2.1 Os 2.2 Ir 2.2 Pt 2.2 Au 2.4 Po 2.0 At Period Actinides: Li 1.0 Ca 1.0 Sc 1.3 Sr 1.0 Y 1.2 Zr 1.4 Hf 1.3 Mg 1.2 La 1.1 Ac Lanthanides: A 2A 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 1B 2B 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A Hill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach 2 nd Edition, page 373 8B

44 s d p s f Electron Filling in Periodic Table Li 2s 1 H 1s 1 He 1s 2 C 2p 2 N 2p 3 O 2p 4 F 2p 5 Ne 2p 6 Na 3s 1 B 2p 1 Be 2s 2 H 1s 1 Al 3p 1 Si 3p 2 P 3p 3 S 3p 4 Cl 3p 5 Ar 3p 6 K 4s 1 Ca 4s 2 Sc 3d 1 Ti 3d 2 V 3d 3 Cr 3d 5 Mn 3d 5 Fe 3d 6 Co 3d 7 Ni 3d 8 Cu 3d 10 Zn 3d 10 Ga 4p 1 Ge 4p 2 As 4p 3 Se 4p 4 Br 4p 5 Kr 4p 6 Rb 5s 1 Sr 5s 2 Y 4d 1 Zr 4d 2 Nb 4d 4 Mo 4d 5 Tc 4d 6 Ru 4d 7 Rh 4d 8 Pd 4d 10 Ag 4d 10 Cd 4p 1 In 5p 1 Sn 5p 2 Sb 5p 3 Te 5p 4 I 5p 5 Xe 5p 6 Cs 6s 1 Ba 6s 2 Hf 5d 2 Ta 5d 3 W 5d 4 Re 5d 5 Os 5d 6 Ir 5d 7 Pt 5d 9 Au 5d 10 Hg 5d 10 Tl 6p 1 Pb 6p 2 Bi 6p 3 Po 6p 4 At 6p 5 Rn 6p 6 Fr 7s 1 Ra 7s 2 Rf 6d 2 Db 6d 3 Sg 6d 4 Bh 6d 5 Hs 6d 6 Mt 6d 7 Mg 3s 2 Ce 4f 2 Pr 4f 3 Nd 4f 4 Pm 4f 5 Sm 4f 6 Eu 4f 7 Gd 4f 7 Tb 4f 9 Dy 4f 10 Ho 4f 11 Er 4f 12 Tm 4f 13 Yb 4f 14 Lu 4f 114 Th 6d 2 Pa 5f 2 U 5f 3 Np 5f 4 Pu 5f 6 Am 5f 7 Cm 5f 7 Bk 5f 8 Cf 5f 10 Es 5f 11 Fm 5f 14 Md 5f 13 No 5f 14 Lr 5f 14 La 5d 1 Ac 6d s d p s f

45 Atomic Radii Li Na K Rb Cs Cl S P Si Al Br Se As Ge Ga I Te SbSn In Tl Pb Bi Mg Ca Sr Ba Be F O N C B IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA = 1 Angstrom

46 Atomic Radii of Representative Elements (nm) LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World, 1996, page 175 Li Na K Rb Cs Cl S P Si Al Br Se As Ge Ga I Te SbSn In Tl Pb Bi Mg Ca Sr Ba Be F O N C B A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A At Po

47 Atomic Radii Li Na K Rb Cs Cl S P Si Al Br Se As Ge Ga I Te SbSn In Tl Pb Bi Mg Ca Sr Ba Be F O N C B IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA = 1 Angstrom IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA = 1 Angstrom Li 1+ Be 2+ Na 1+ Mg 2+ Ba 2+ Sr 2+ Ca 2+ K 1+ Rb 1+ Cs 1+ Cl 1- N 3- O 2- F 1- S 2- Se 2- Br 1- Te 2- I 1- Al 3+ Ga 3+ In 3+ Tl 3+ Ionic Radii

48 Ionization Energies 7 Be 900 Al 578 Si 787 Ti 659 V 651 Cr 653 Mn 717 Fe 762 Co 760 Ni 737 Cu 746 Zn 906 Ga 579 Ge 762 Nb 652 Mo 684 Tc 702 Ag 731 Cd 868 In 558 Sn 709 Sb 834 Ta 761 W 770 Re 760 Hg 1007 Tl 589 Pb 716 Bi 703 N 1402 O 1314 F 1681 Cl 1251 C 1086 S 1000 Br 1140 I 1008 Na 496 K 419 Rb 403 Cs 376 Ba 503 Fr -- Ra 509 H 1312 B 801 P 1012 As 947 Se 941 Ru 710 Rh 720 Pd 804 Te 869 Os 839 Ir 878 Pt 868 Au 890 Po 812 At -- Period Actinide series Li 520 Ca 590 Sc 633 Sr 550 Y 600 Zr 640 Hf 659 Mg 738 La 538 Ac 490 Lanthanide series Group Ne 2081 Ar 1521 Kr 1351 Xe 1170 Rn 1038 He 2372 Rf -- Db -- Sg -- Bh -- Hs -- Mt -- Ce 534 Pr 527 Nd 533 Pm 536 Sm 545 Eu 547 Gd 592 Tb 566 Dy 573 Ho 581 Er 589 Tm 597 Yb 603 Lu 523 Th 587 Pa 570 U 598 Np 600 Pu 585 Am 578 Cm 581 Bk 601 Cf 608 Es 619 Fm 627 Md 635 No 642 Lr -- Ds -- Uub -- Uut -- Uuq -- Uup -- Uuu -- Uuo -- Mg 738 Symbol First Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 810

49 First Ionization Energies (in kilojoules per mole) H Li Na K Be Mg Ca B Al Ga C Si Ge N P As O S Se F Cl Br Ne Ar Kr He Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I Xe Smoot, Price, Smith, Chemistry A Modern Course 1987, page 188

50 First Ionization Energies (kJ/mol) H Li Na K Be Mg Ca B Al Ga C Si Ge N P As O S Se F Cl Br Ne Ar Kr He Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I Xe Smoot, Price, Smith, Chemistry A Modern Course 1987, page 188 s p

51 Ionization Energies (kJ/mol) Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Herron, Frank, Sarquis, Sarquis, Cchrader, Kulka, Chemistry 1996, Heath, page 1 st nd rd th ,600 11, th 13,400 13,600 15,000 16, th 16,600 18,000 18,310 19,800 21, Shaded area on table denotes core electrons.

52 Ionization Energies (kJ/mol) Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Herron, Frank, Sarquis, Sarquis, Cchrader, Kulka, Chemistry 1996, Heath, page 1 st nd rd th ,600 11, th 13,400 13,600 15,000 16, th 16,600 18,000 18,310 19,800 21, Shaded area on table denotes core electrons.

53 Essential Elements Li 3 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 72 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Mg 12 La 57 Elements in organic matter Major minerals Trace elements Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 748

54 Oxidation State of Elements Se 2- Te Al 3+ Zn 2+ Ag 1+ N 3- O 2- F 1- Cl 1- S 2- Br 1- I 1- Period Be 2+ Na + K+K+ Rb + Cs + Ba 2+ H+H+ Li + Ca 2+ Sr 2+ Mg 2+ Group NOBLEGASESNOBLEGASES Transition metals

55 Orbitals Being Filled Groups 8 2 F 1- Br 1- I 1- Cl 1- Transition metals form cations with various charges. O 2- S 2- Se 2- Te 2- Be 2+ Te 2- Li 1+ Na 1+ K 1+ Rb 1+ Cs 1+ Al 3+ Ga 3+ In 3+ Zn 2+ Ag 1+

56 Summary of Periodic Trends Ionic size (cations) Ionic size (anions) decreases Shielding is constant Atomic radius decreases Ionization energy increases Electronegativity increases Nuclear charge increases Shielding increases Atomic radius increases Ionic size increases Ionization energy decreases Electronegativity decreases 1A 2A3A4A 5A 6A7A 0

57 Li 3 H1H1 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac

58 1 H Hydrogen Name: Hydrogen Symbol: H Atomic Number: 1 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration N H = 1s 1 Hydrogen What is Hydrogen? Colorless, odorless gaseous chemical element. Lightest and most abundant element in the universe. Present in water and in all organic compounds. Chemically reacts with most elements. Discovered by Henry Cavendish in 1776.

59 pslawinski, metal-halide.net Name: Helium Symbol: He Atomic Number: 2 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C (1.15 °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Helium Electron Configuration He = 1s 2 2 He Helium What is Helium? Colorless, odorless gaseous nonmetallic element. Belongs to group 18 of the periodic table. Lowest boiling point of all elements and can only be solidified under pressure. Chemically inert, no known compounds. Discovered in the solar spectrum in 1868 by Lockyer.

60 3 Li Lithium Name: Lithium Symbol: Li Atomic Number: 3 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Lithium Electron Configuration Li = 1s 2 2s 1 What is Lithium? Socket silvery metal. First member of group 1 of the periodic table. Lithium salts are used in psychomedicine.

61 4 Be Beryllium Name: Beryllium Symbol: Be Atomic Number: 4 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Beryllium Electron Configuration Be = 1s 2 2s 2 What is Beryllium? Grey metallic element of group 2 of the periodic table. Is toxic and can cause severe lung diseases and dermatitis. Shows high covalent character. It was isolated independently by F. Wohler and A.A. Bussy in 1828.

62 5 B Boron Name: Boron Symbol: B Atomic Number: 5 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Boron Electron Configuration B = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 What is Boron? An element of group 13 of the periodic table. There are two allotropes, amorphous boron is a brown power, but metallic boron is black. The metallic form is hard (9.3 on Mohs' scale) and a bad conductor in room temperatures. It is never found free in nature. Boron-10 is used in nuclear reactor control rods and shields. It was discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and by J.L. Gay-Lussac and L.J. Thenard.

63 6 C Carbon Name: Carbon Symbol: C Atomic Number: 6 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Carbon Electron Configuration C = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 What is Carbon? Carbon is a member of group 14 of the periodic table. It has three allotropic forms of it, diamonds, graphite and fullerite. Carbon-14 is commonly used in radioactive dating. Carbon occurs in all organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry. Carbon has the interesting chemical property of being able to bond with itself, and a wide variety of other elements.

64 7 N Nitrogen Name: Nitrogen Symbol: N Atomic Number: 7 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C (77.35 °K, °F) N Nitrogen Electron Configuration N = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Link What is Nitrogen? Colorless, gaseous element which belongs to group 15 of the periodic table. Constitutes ~78% of the atmosphere and is an essential part of the ecosystem. Nitrogen for industrial purposes is acquired by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Chemically inactive, reactive generally only at high temperatures or in electrical discharges. It was discovered in 1772 by D. Rutherford.

65 8 O Oxygen Name: Oxygen Symbol: O Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C (54.75 °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C (90.15 °K, °F) N Oxygen Electron Configuration O = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 What is Oxygen? A colorless, odorless gaseous element belonging to group 16 of the periodic table. It is the most abundant element present in the earth's crust. It also makes up 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. For industrial purposes, it is separated from liquid air by fractional distillation. It is used in high temperature welding, and in breathing. It commonly comes in the form of Oxygen, but is found as Ozone in the upper atmosphere. It was discovered by Priestley in 1774.

66 9 F Fluorine Name: Fluorine Symbol: F Atomic Number: 9 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C (53.53 °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C (85.01 °K, °F) N Fluorine Electron Configuration F = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 What is Fluorine? A poisonous pale yellow gaseous element belonging to group 17 of the periodic table (The halogens). It is the most chemically reactive and electronegative element. It is highly dangerous, causing severe chemical burns on contact with flesh. Fluorine was identified by Scheele in 1771 and first isolated by Moissan in 1886.

67 pslawinski, wikipedia.org Name: Neon Symbol: Ne Atomic Number: 10 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Neon Electron Configuration Ne = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 10 Ne Neon What is Neon? Colorless gaseous element of group 18 on the periodic table (noble gases). Neon occurs in the atmosphere, and comprises % of the volume of the atmosphere. It has a distinct reddish glow when used in discharge tubes and neon based lamps. It forms almost no chemical compounds. Neon was discovered in 1898 by Sir William Ramsey and M.W. Travers.

68 Name: Sodium Symbol: Na Atomic Number: 11 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: 97.8 °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Sodium Electron Configuration Na = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 11 Na Sodium What is Sodium? Soft silvery reactive element belonging to group 1 of the periodic table (alkali metals). It is highly reactive, oxidizing in air and reacting violently with water, forcing it to be kept under oil. It was first isolated by Humphrey Davy in 1807.

69 Name: Magnesium Symbol: Mg Atomic Number: 12 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Magnesium Electron Configuration Mg = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Link 12 Mg Magnesium What is Magnesium? Silvery metallic element belonging to group 2 of the periodic table (alkaline-earth metals). It is essential for living organisms, and is used in a number of light alloys. Chemically very reactive, it forms a protective oxide coating when exposed to air and burns with an intense white flame. It also reacts with sulphur, nitrogen and the halogens. First isolated by Bussy in 1828.

70 Name: Aluminum Symbol: Al Atomic Number: 13 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Aluminum Electron Configuration Al = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 13 Al Aluminum What is Aluminum? Silvery-white lustrous metallic element of group 3 of the periodic table. Highly reactive but protected by a thin transparent layer of the oxide which quickly forms in air. There are many alloys of aluminum, as well as a good number of industrial uses. Makes up 8.1% of the Earth's crust, by weight. Isolated in 1825 by H.C. Oersted.

71 Name: Silicon Symbol: Si Atomic Number: 14 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Silicon Electron Configuration Si = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2 Link 14 Si Silicon What is Silicon? Metalloid element belonging to group 14 of the periodic table. It is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust, making up 25.7% of it by weight. Chemically less reactive than carbon. First identified by Lavoisier in 1787 and first isolated in 1823 by Berzelius.

72 Name: Phosphorus Symbol: P Atomic Number: 15 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: 44.1 °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Phosphorus Electron Configuration P = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 15 P Phosphorus What is Phosphorus? Non-metallic element belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Has a multiple allotropic forms. Essential element for living organisms. It was discovered by Brandt in 1669.

73 Name: Sulfur Symbol: S Atomic Number: 16 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Sulfur Electron Configuration S = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4 16 S Sulfur What is Sulfur? Yellow, nonmetallic element belonging to group 16 of the periodic table. It is an essential element in living organisms, needed in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, and hence in many proteins. Absorbed by plants from the soil as sulfate ion.

74 Name: Chlorine Symbol: Cl Atomic Number: 17 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Chlorine Electron Configuration Cl = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 17 Cl Chlorine What is Chlorine? Halogen element. Poisonous greenish-yellow gas. Occurs widely in nature as sodium chloride in seawater. Reacts directly with many elements and compounds, strong oxidizing agent. Discovered by Karl Scheele in Humphrey David confirmed it as an element in 1810.

75 Name: Argon Symbol: Ar Atomic Number: 18 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C (83.85 °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C (87.15 °K, °F) N Argon Electron Configuration Ar = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 18 Ar Argon What is Argon? Monatomic noble gas. Makes up 0.93% of the air. Colorless, odorless. Is inert and has no true compounds. Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsey identified argon in pslawinski, wikipedia.org

76 Name: Potassium Symbol: K Atomic Number: 19 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C (336.8 °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Potassium Electron Configuration K = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 Link 19 K Potassium What is Potassium? Soft silvery metallic element belonging to group 1 of the periodic table (alkali metals). Occurs naturally in seawater and a many minerals. Highly reactive, chemically, it resembles sodium in its behavior and compounds. Discovered by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807.

77 Name: Calcium Symbol: Ca Atomic Number: 20 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Calcium Electron Configuration Ca = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 20 Ca Calcium What is Calcium? Soft grey metallic element belonging to group 2 of the periodic table. Used a reducing agent in the extraction of thorium, zirconium and uranium. Essential element for living organisms.

78 21 Sc Scandium Name: Scandium Symbol: Sc Atomic Number: 21 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Scandium Electron Configuration Sc = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 1 What is Scandium? Rare soft silvery metallic element belonging to group 3 of the periodic table. There are ten isotopes, nine of which are radioactive and have short half-lives. Predicted in 1869 by Mendeleev, isolated by Nilson in 1879.

79 Name: Titanium Symbol: Ti Atomic Number: 22 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Titanium Electron Configuration Ti = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 2 22 Ti Titanium What is Titanium? White metallic transition element. Occurs in numerous minerals. Used in strong, light corrosion-resistant alloys. Forms a passive oxide coating when exposed to air. First discovered by Gregor in 1789.

80 Name: Vanadium Symbol: V Atomic Number: 23 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Vanadium Electron Configuration V = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 3 23 V Vanadium What is Vanadium? Soft and ductile, bright white metal. Good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily about 933K. There are two naturally occurring isotopes of vanadium, and 5 radioisotopes, V-49 having the longest half-life at 337 days. Vanadium has nuclear applications, the foil is used in cladding titanium to steel, and vanadium-gallium tape is used to produce a superconductive magnet. Originally discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio of Mexico City in His discovery went unheeded, however, and in 1820, Nils Gabriel Sefstron of Sweden rediscovered it. Metallic vanadium was isolated by Henry Enfield Roscoe in The name vanadium comes from Vanadis, a goddess of Scandinavian mythology. Silvery-white metallic transition element. Vanadium is essential to ascidians. Rats and chickens are also known to require it. Metal powder is a fire hazard, and vanadium compounds should be considered highly toxic. May cause lung cancer if inhaled.

81 Name: Chromium Symbol: Cr Atomic Number: 24 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Cr = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 5 N 24 Cr Chromium Link What is Chromium? Hard silvery transition element. Used in decorative electroplating. Discovered in 1797 by Vauquelin. Chromium

82 Name: Manganese Symbol: Mn Atomic Number: 25 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Mn = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 N 25 Mn Manganese What is Manganese? Grey brittle metallic transition element. Rather electropositive, combines with some non-metals when heated. Discovered in 1774 by Scheele. Manganese

83 Name: Iron Symbol: Fe Atomic Number: 26 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Fe = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 N 26 Fe Iron What is Iron? Silvery malleable and ductile metallic transition element. Has nine isotopes and is the fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust. Required by living organisms as a trace element (used in hemoglobin in humans.) Quite reactive, oxidizes in moist air, displaces hydrogen from dilute acids and combines with nonmetallic elements. Iron

84 Name: Cobalt Symbol: Co Atomic Number: 27 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Co = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 7 N 27 Co Cobalt What is Cobalt? Light grey transition element. Some meteorites contain small amounts of metallic cobalt. Generally alloyed for use. Mammals require small amounts of cobalt salts. Cobalt-60, an artificially produced radioactive isotope of Cobalt is an important radioactive tracer and cancer-treatment agent. Discovered by G. Brandt in Cobalt

85 Name: Nickel Symbol: Ni Atomic Number: 28 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Ni = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 8 N 28 Ni Nickel Link What is Nickel? Malleable ductile silvery metallic transition element. Discovered by A.F. Cronstedt in Nickel

86 Name: Copper Symbol: Cu Atomic Number: 29 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Cu = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 3d 10 N 29 Cu Copper Link What is Copper? Red-brown transition element. Known by the Romans as 'cuprum.' Extracted and used for thousands of years. Malleable, ductile and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. When in moist conditions, a greenish layer forms on the outside. Copper

87 Name: Zinc Symbol: Zn Atomic Number: 30 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Zn = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 N 30 Zn Zinc What is Zinc? Blue-white metallic element. Occurs in multiple compounds naturally. Five stable isotopes are six radioactive isotopes have been found. Chemically a reactive metal, combines with oxygen and other non- metals, reacts with dilute acids to release hydrogen. Zinc

88 Foobar, wikipedia.org Name: Gallium Symbol: Ga Atomic Number: 31 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Electron Configuration Ga = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 1 31 Ga Gallium What is Gallium? Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to group 13 of the periodic table. The two stable isotopes are Ga-69 and Ga-71. Eight radioactive isotopes are known, all having short half-lives. Gallium Arsenide is used as a semiconductor. Corrodes most other metals by diffusing into their lattice. First identified by Francois Lecoq de Boisbaudran in Gallium

89 Name: Germanium Symbol: Ge Atomic Number: 32 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N Electron Configuration Ge = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 32 Ge Germanium What is Germanium? Lustrous hard metalloid element, belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Forms a large number of organometallic compounds. Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871, it was actually found in 1886 by Winkler. Germanium

90 Name: Arsenic Symbol: As Atomic Number: 33 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration As = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3 N 33 As Arsenic What is Arsenic? Metalloid element of group 15. There are three allotropes, yellow, black, and grey. Reacts with halogens, concentrated oxidizing acids and hot alkalis. Albertus Magnus is believed to have been the first to isolate the element in Arsenic

91 Name: Selenium Symbol: Se Atomic Number: 34 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Se = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 4 N 34 Se Selenium What is Selenium? Metalloid element, belongs to group 16 of the periodic table. Multiple allotropic forms exist. Chemically resembles sulfur. Discovered in 1817 by Jons J. Berzelius. Selenium

92 Name: Bromine Symbol: Br Atomic Number: 35 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: -7.2 °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Br = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 N 35 Br Bromine What is Bromine? Halogen element. Red volatile liquid at room temperature. Its reactivity is somewhere between chlorine and iodine. Harmful to human tissue in a liquid state, the vapor irritates eyes and throat. Discovered in 1826 by Antoine Balard. Bromine RTC, wikipedia.org

93 Name: Krypton Symbol: Kr Atomic Number: 36 Atomic Mass: 83.8 amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Electron Configuration Kr = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 N 36 Kr Krypton What is Krypton? Colorless gaseous element, belongs to the noble gases. Occurs in the air, % by volume. It can be extracted from liquid air by fractional distillation. Generally not isolated, but used with other inert gases in fluorescent lamps. Five natural isotopes, and five radioactive isotopes. Kr-85, the most stable radioactive isotope, has a half-life of years and is produced in fission reactors. Practically inert, though known to form compounds with fluorine. Krypton

94 Name: Rubidium Symbol: Rb Atomic Number: 37 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 37 Rb Rubidium What is Rubidium? Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to group 1 of the periodic table. Rb-97, the naturally occurring isotope, is radioactive. It is highly reactive, with properties similar to other elements in group 1, like igniting spontaneously in air. Discovered spectroscopically in 1861 by W. Bunsen and G.R. Kirchoff. Rb = [Kr]5s 1 Rubidium

95 Name: Strontium Symbol: Sr Atomic Number: 38 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 38 Sr Strontium What is Strontium? Soft yellowish metallic element, belongs to group 2 of the periodic table. Highly reactive chemically. Sr-90 is present in radioactive fallout and has a half-life of 28 years. Discovered in 1798 by Klaproth and Hope, isolated in 1808 by Humphry Davy. Sr = [Kr]5s 2 Strontium

96 Name: Yttrium Symbol: Y Atomic Number: 39 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 39 Y Yttrium What is Yttrium? Silvery-grey metallic element of group 3 on the periodic table. Found in uranium ores. The only natural isotope is Y-89, there are 14 other artificial isotopes. Chemically resembles the lanthanoids. Stable in the air below 400 degrees, Celsius. Discovered in 1828 by Friedrich Wohler. Y = [Kr]5s 2 4d 1 Yttrium

97 Name: Zirconium Symbol: Zr Atomic Number: 40 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 40 Zr Zirconium What is Zirconium? Grey-white metallic transition element. Five natural isotopes and six radioactive isotopes are known. Used in nuclear reactors for a neutron absorber. Discovered in 1789 by Martin Klaproth, isolated in 1824 by Berzelius. Zr = [Kr]5s 2 4d 2 Zirconium

98 Name: Niobium Symbol: Nb Atomic Number: 41 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 41 Nb Niobium What is Niobium? Soft, ductile grey-blue metallic transition element. Used in special steels and in welded joints to increase strength. Combines with halogens and oxidizes in air at 200 degrees Celsius. Discovered by Charles Hatchett in 1801 and isolated by Blomstrand in Called columbium originally. Nb = [Kr]5s 1 4d 5 Niobium

99 Name: Molybdenum Symbol: Mo Atomic Number: 42 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 42 Mo Molybdenum What is Molybdenum? Silvery-white, hard metallic transition element. It is chemically unreactive and is not affected by most acids. It oxidizes at high temperatures. There are seven natural isotopes, and four radioisotopes, Mo-93 being the most stable with a half-life of 3500 years. Molybdenum is used in almost all high-strength steels, it has nuclear applications, and is a catalyst in petroleum refining. Discovered in 1778 by Carl Welhelm Scheele of Sweden. Impure metal was prepared in 1782 by Peter Jacob Hjelm. Mo = [Kr]5s 1 4d 5 Molybdenum

100 Name: Technetium Symbol: Tc Atomic Number: 43 Atomic Mass: (98.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 43 Tc Technetium What is Technetium? Radioactive metallic transition element. Can be detected in some stars and the fission products of uranium. First made by Perrier and Segre by bombarding molybdenum with deutrons, giving them Tc-97. Tc-99 is the most stable isotope with a half-life of 2.6x10 6 years. Sixteen isotopes are known. Organic technetium compounds are used in bone imaging. Chemical properties are intermediate between rhenium and manganese. Tc = [Kr]5s 2 4d 5 Technetium

101 Name: Ruthenium Symbol: Ru Atomic Number: 44 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 44 Ru Ruthenium What is Ruthenium? Hard white metallic transition element. Found with platinum, used as a catalyst in some platinum alloys. Dissolves in fused alkalis, and is not attacked by acids. Reacts with halogens and oxygen at high temperatures. Isolated in 1844 by K.K. Klaus. Ru = [Kr]5s 1 4d 7 Ruthenium

102 Name: Rhodium Symbol: Rh Atomic Number: 45 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 45 Rh Rhodium What is Rhodium? Silvery white metallic transition element. Found with platinum and used in some platinum alloys. Not attacked by acids, dissolves only in aqua regia. Discovered in 1803 by W.H. Wollaston. Rh = [Kr]5s 1 4d 8 Rhodium

103 Name: Palladium Symbol: Pd Atomic Number: 46 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 46 Pd Palladium What is Palladium? Soft white ductile transition element. Found with some copper and nickel ores. Does not react with oxygen at normal temperatures. Dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid. Discovered in 1803 by W.H. Wollaston. Pd = [Kr]4d 10 Palladium

104 Name: Silver Symbol: Ag Atomic Number: 47 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 47 Ag Silver What is Silver? White lustrous soft metallic transition element. Found in both its elemental form and in minerals. Used in jewelry, tableware and so on. Less reactive than silver, chemically. Ag = [Kr]5s 1 4d 10 Silver

105 Name: Cadmium Symbol: Cd Atomic Number: 48 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 48 Cd Cadmium What is Cadmium? Soft bluish metal belonging to group 12 of the periodic table. Extremely toxic even in low concentrations. Chemically similar to zinc, but lends itself to more complex compounds. Discovered in 1817 by F. Stromeyer. Cd = [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 Cadmium

106 Name: Indium Symbol: In Atomic Number: 49 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 49 In Indium What is Indium? Soft silvery element belonging to group 13 of the periodic table. The most common natural isotope is In-115, which has a half-life of 6x10 4 years. Five other radioisotopes exist. Discovered in 1863 by Reich and Richter. In = [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 1 Indium

107 Name: Tin Symbol: Sn Atomic Number: 50 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 50 Sn Tin What is Tin? Silvery malleable metallic element belonging to group 14 of the periodic table. Twenty-six isotopes are known, five of which are radioactive. Chemically reactive. Combines directly with chlorine and oxygen and displaces hydrogen from dilute acids. Sn = [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 2 Tin

108 Name: Antimony Symbol: Sb Atomic Number: 51 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 51 Sb Antimony What is Antimony? Element of group 15. Multiple allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metal. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, and rubber. Attacked by oxidizing acids and halogens. First reported by Tholden in Sb = [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 3 Antimony

109 Name: Tellurium Symbol: Te Atomic Number: 52 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 52 Te Tellurium What is Tellurium? Silvery metalloid element of group 16. Eight natural isotopes, nine radioactive isotopes. Used in semiconductors and to a degree in some steels. Chemistry is similar to sulfur. Discovered in 1782 by Franz Miller. Te = [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 4 Tellurium

110 Name: Iodine Symbol: I Atomic Number: 53 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 53 I Iodine What is Iodine? Dark violet nonmetallic element, belongs to group 17 of the periodic table. Insoluble in water. Required as a trace element for living organisms. One stable isotope, I-127 exists, in addition to fourteen radioactive isotopes. Chemically the least reactive of the halogens, and the most electropositive metallic halogen. Discovered in 1812 by Courtois. I = [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 5 Iodine

111 Name: Xenon Symbol: Xe Atomic Number: 54 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 54 Xe Xenon What is Xenon? Colorless, odorless gas belonging to group 18 on the periodic table (the noble gases.) Nine natural isotopes and seven radioactive isotopes are known. Xenon was part of the first noble-gas compound synthesized. Several others involving Xenon have been found since then. Xenon was discovered by Ramsey and Travers in Xe = [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 Xenon pslawinski, wikipedia.org

112 Name: Cesium Symbol: Cs Atomic Number: 55 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: 28.5 °C ( °K, 83.3 °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 55 Cs Cesium What is Cesium? Soft silvery-white metallic element belonging to group 1 of the periodic table. One of the three metals which are liquid at room temperature. Cs-133 is the natural, and only stable, isotope. Fifteen other radioisotopes exist. Cesium reacts explosively with cold water, and ice at temperatures above 15 K. Cesium hydroxide is the strongest base known. Cs = [Xe]6s 1 Cesium

113 Name: Barium Symbol: Ba Atomic Number: 56 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 56 Ba Barium What is Barium? Silvery-white reactive element, belonging to group 2 of the periodic table. Soluble barium compounds are extremely poisonous. Identified in 1774 by Karl Scheele and extracted in 1808 by Humphry Davy. Ba = [Xe]6s 2 Barium

114 57 La Lanthanum Name: Lanthanum Symbol: La Atomic Number: 57 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N What is Lanthanum? (From the Greek word lanthanein, to line hidden) Silvery metallic element belonging to group 3 of the periodic table and oft considered to be one of the lanthanoids. Found in some rare-earth minerals. Twenty-five natural isotopes exist. La-139 which is stable, and La-138 which has a half-life of to years. The other twenty-three isotopes are radioactive. It resembles the lanthanoids chemically. Lanthanum has a low to moderate level of toxicity, and should be handled with care. Discovered in 1839 by C.G. Mosander. La = [Xe]5d 1 6s 2 Lanthanum

115 Name: Cerium Symbol: Ce Atomic Number: 58 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 58 Ce Cerium What is Cerium? Silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Four natural isotopes exist, and fifteen radioactive isotopes have been identified. Used in some rare-earth alloys. The oxidized form is used in the glass industry. Discovered by Martin.H. Klaproth in Ce = [Xe] 6s 2 4f 1 5d 1 Cerium

116 Name: Praseodymium Symbol: Pr Atomic Number: 59 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 59 Pr Praseodymium What is Praseodymium? Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Only natural isotope is Pr-141 which is not radioactive. Fourteen radioactive isotopes have been artificially produced. Used in rare-earth alloys. Discovered in 1885 by C.A. von Welsbach. Pr = [Xe] 6s 2 4f 3 Praseodymium

117 Name: Neodymium Symbol: Nd Atomic Number: 60 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 60 Nd Neodymium What is Neodymium? Soft bright silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes, Nd-144 being the only radioactive one with a half-life of to years. Six artificial radioisotopes have been produced. The metal is used in glass works to color class a shade of violet-purple and make it dichroic. One of the more reactive rare-earth metals, quickly reacts with air. Used in some rare-earth alloys. Neodymium is used to color the glass used in welder's glasses. Neodymium is also used in very powerful, permanent magnets (Nd 2 Fe 14 B). Discovered by Carl F. Auer von Welsbach in Austria in 1885 by separating didymium into its elemental components praseodymium and neodymium. Nd = [Xe] 6s 2 4f 4 Neodymium

118 Name: Promethium Symbol: Pm Atomic Number: 61 Atomic Mass: (145.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown N 61 Pm Promethium What is Promethium? Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Pm- 147, the only natural isotope, is radioactive and has a half-life of 252 years. Eighteen radioisotopes have been produced, but all have very short half-lives. Found only in nuclear decay waste. Pm-147 is of interest as a beta-decay source, however Pm-146 and Pm-148 have to be removed from it first, as they generate gamma radiation. Discovered by J.A. Marinsky, L.E. Glendenin and C.D. Coryell in Pm = [Xe] 6s 2 4f 5 Promethium

119 Name: Samarium Symbol: Sm Atomic Number: 62 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 62 Sm Samarium What is Samarium? Soft silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes, Sm-147 is the only radioisotope, and has a half-life of 2.5x10 11 years. Used for making special alloys needed in the production of nuclear reactors. Also used as a neutron absorber. Small quantities of samarium oxide is used in special optical glasses. The largest use of the element is its ferromagnetic alloy which produces permanent magnets that are five times stronger than magnets produced by any other material. Discovered by Francois Lecoq de Boisbaudran in Sm = [Xe] 6s 2 4f 6 Samarium

120 Name: Europium Symbol: Eu Atomic Number: 63 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 63 Eu Europium What is Europium? Soft silvery metallic element belonging to the lanthanoids. Eu-151 and Eu-153 are the only two stable isotopes, both of which are neutron absorbers. Discovered in 1889 by Sir William Crookes. Eu = [Xe] 6s 2 4f 7 Europium

121 Name: Gadolinium Symbol: Gd Atomic Number: 64 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 64 Gd Gadolinium What is Gadolinium? Soft silvery metallic element belonging to the lanthanoids. Seven natural, stable isotopes are known in addition to eleven artificial isotopes. Gd-155 and Gd-157 and the best neutron absorbers of all elements. Gadolinium compounds are used in electronics. Discovered by J.C.G Marignac in Gd = [Xe] 6s 2 5d 1 4f 7 Gadolinium

122 Name: Terbium Symbol: Tb Atomic Number: 65 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 65 Tb Terbium What is Terbium? Silvery metallic element belonging to the lanthanoids. Tb-159 is the only stable isotope, there are seventeen artificial isotopes. Discovered by G.G. Mosander in Tb = [Xe] 6s 2 4f 9 Terbium

123 Name: Dysprosium Symbol: Dy Atomic Number: 66 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 66 Dy Dysprosium What is Dysprosium? Metallic with a bright silvery-white luster. Dysprosium belongs to the lanthanoids. It is relatively stable in air at room temperatures, it will however dissolve in mineral acids, evolving hydrogen. It is found in from rare-earth minerals. There are seven natural isotopes of dysprosium, and eight radioisotopes, Dy-154 being the most stable with a half-life of 3x10 6 years. Dysprosium is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear fission reactions, and in compact disks. It was discovered by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886 in France. Its name comes from the Greek word dysprositos, which means hard to obtain. Dy = [Xe] 6s 2 4f 10 N Dysprosium

124 Name: Holmium Symbol: Ho Atomic Number: 67 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) N 67 Ho Holmium What is Holmium? Relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metallic element, which is stable in dry air at room temperature. It oxidizes in moist air and at high temperatures. It belongs to the lanthanoids. A rare-earth metal, it is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite. It possesses unusual magnetic properties. One natural isotope, Ho- 165 exists, six radioisotopes exist, the most stable being Ho-163 with a half-life of 4570 years. Holmium is used in some metal alloys, it is also said to stimulate the metabolism. Discovered by Per Theodor Cleve and J.L. Soret in Switzerland in The name homium comes from the Greek word Holmia which means Sweden. While all holmium compounds should be considered highly toxic, initial evidence seems to indicate that they do not pose much danger. The metal's dust however, is a fire hazard. Holmium

125 Name: Erbium Symbol: Er Atomic Number: 68 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 68 Er Erbium What is Erbium? Soft silvery metallic element which belongs to the lanthanoids. Six natural isotopes that are stable. Twelve artificial isotopes are known. Used in nuclear technology as a neutron absorber. It is being investigated for other possible uses. Discovered by Carl G. Mosander in Erbium

126 Name: Thulium Symbol: Tm Atomic Number: 69 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 69 Tm Thulium What is Thulium? Soft grey metallic element that belongs to the lanthanoids. One natural isotope exists, Tm-169, and seventeen artificial isotopes have been produced. No known uses for the element. Discovered in 1879 by Per Theodor Cleve. Thulium

127 Name: Ytterbium Symbol: Yb Atomic Number: 70 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 70 Yb Ytterbium What is Ytterbium? Silvery metallic element of the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes and ten artificial isotopes are known. Used in certain steels. Discovered by J.D.G. Marignac in Ytterbium

128 Name: Lutetium Symbol: Lu Atomic Number: 71 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 71 Lu Lutetium What is Lutetium? Silvery-white rare-earth metal which is relatively stable in air. It happens to be the most expensive rare-earth metal. Its found with almost all rare-earth metals, but is very difficult to separate from other elements. Least abundant of all natural elements. Used in metal alloys, and as a catalyst in various processes. There are two natural, stable isotopes, and seven radioisotopes, the most stable being Lu-174 with a half-life of 3.3 years. The separation of lutetium from ytterbium was described by Georges Urbain in It was discovered at approximately the same time by Carl Auer von Welsbach. The name comes from the Greek word lutetia which means Paris. Lutetium

129 Name: Hafnium Symbol: Hf Atomic Number: 72 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 72 Hf Hafnium What is Hafnium? Silvery lustrous metallic transition element. Used in tungsten alloys in filaments and electrodes, also acts as a neutron absorber. First reported by Urbain in 1911, existence was finally established in 1923 by D. Coster, G.C. de Hevesy in Hafnium

130 Name: Tantalum Symbol: Ta Atomic Number: 73 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 73 Ta Tantalum What is Tantalum? Heavy blue-grey metallic transition element. Ta-181 is a stable isotope, and Ta-180 is a radioactive isotope, with a half-life in excess of 10^7 years. Used in surgery as it is unreactive. Forms a passive oxide layer in air. Identified in 1802 by Ekeberg and isolated in 1820 by Jons J. Berzelius. Tantalum

131 Name: Tungsten Symbol: W Atomic Number: 74 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 74 W Tungsten What is Tungsten? White or grey metallic transition element, formerly called wolfram. Forms a protective oxide in air and can be oxidized at high temperature. First isolated by Jose and Fausto de Elhuyer in Tungsten

132 Name: Rhenium Symbol: Re Atomic Number: 75 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 75 Re Rhenium What is Rhenium? Silvery-white metallic transition element. Obtained as a by-product of molybdenum refinement. Rhenium- molybdenum alloys are superconducting. Rhenium

133 Name: Osmium Symbol: Os Atomic Number: 76 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 76 Os Osmium What is Osmium? Hard blue-white metallic transition element. Found with platinum and used in some alloys with platinum and iridium. Osmium

134 Name: Iridium Symbol: Ir Atomic Number: 77 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 77 Ir Iridium What is Iridium? Very hard and brittle, silvery metallic transition element. It has a yellowish cast to it. Salts of iridium are highly colored. It is the most corrosion resistant metal known, not attacked by any acid, but is attacked by molten salts. There are two natural isotopes of iridium, and 4 radioisotopes, the most stable being Ir-192 with a half-life of days. Ir-192 decays into platinum, while the other radioisotopes decay into osmium. Iridium is used in high temperature apparatus, electrical contacts, and as a hardening agent for platinum. Discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennant in England. The name comes from the Greek word iris, which means rainbow. Iridium metal is generally non-toxic due to its relative unreactivity, but iridium compounds should be considered highly toxic. Iridium

135 Name: Platinum Symbol: Pt Atomic Number: 78 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 78 Pt Platinum What is Platinum? Attractive greyish-white metal. When pure, it is malleable and ductile. Does not oxidize in air, insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid. Corroded by halogens, cyandies, sulphur and alkalis. Hydrogen and oxygen react explosively in the presence of platinum. There are six stable isotopes and three radioisotopes, the most stable being Pt-193 with a half-life of 60 years. Platinum is used in jewelry, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts, dentistry, and anti-pollution devices in cars. PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 is used to treat some forms of cancer. Platinum-cobalt alloys have magnetic properties. It is also used in the definition of the Standard Hydrogen Electrode. Discovered by Antonio de Ulloa in South America in The name comes from the Spanish word platina which means silver. Platinum metal is generally not a health concern due to its unreactivity, however platinum compounds should be considered highly toxic. Platinum

136 Name: Gold Symbol: Au Atomic Number: 79 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 79 Au Gold What is Gold? Gold is gold colored. It is the most malleable and ductile metal known. There is only one stable isotope of gold, and five radioisotopes of gold, Au-195 being the most stable with a half-life of 186 days. Gold is used as a monetary standard, in jewelry, dentistry, electronics. Au-198 is used in treating cancer and some other medical conditions. Gold has been known to exist as far back as 2600 BC. Gold comes from the Anglo-Saxon word gold. Its symbol, Au, comes from the Latin word aurum, which means gold. Gold is not particularly toxic, however it is known to cause damage to the liver and kidneys in some. Gold

137 Name: Mercury Symbol: Hg Atomic Number: 80 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 80 Hg Mercury What is Mercury? Heavy silvery liquid metallic element, belongs to the zinc group. Used in thermometers, barometers and other scientific apparatus. Less reactive than zinc and cadmium, does not displace hydrogen from acids. Forms a number of complexes and organomercury compounds. Mercury Germicidal UV discharge tube contains mercury.

138 Name: Thallium Symbol: Tl Atomic Number: 81 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 81 Tl Thallium What is Thallium? Pure, unreacted thallium appears silvery-white and exhibits a metallic lustre. Upon reacting with air, it begins to turn bluish-grey and looks like lead. It is very malleable, and can be cut with a knife. There are two stable isotopes, and four radioisotopes, Tl-204 being the most stable with a half-life of 3.78 years. Thallium sulfate was used as a rodenticide. Thallium sulphine's conductivity changes with exposure to infrared light, this gives it a use in infrared detectors. Discovered by Sir William Crookes via spectroscopy. Its name comes from the Greek word thallos, which means green twig. Thallium and its compounds are toxic and can cause cancer. Thallium

139 Name: Lead Symbol: Pb Atomic Number: 82 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 82 Pb Lead What is Lead? Heavy dull grey ductile metallic element, belongs to group 14. Used in building construction, lead-place accumulators, bullets and shot, and is part of solder, pewter, bearing metals, type metals and fusible alloys. Lead

140 Dschwen, wikipedia.org Name: Bismuth Symbol: Bi Atomic Number: 83 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 83 Bi Bismuth What is Bismuth? White crystalline metal with a pink tinge, belongs to group 15. Most diamagnetic of all metals and has the lowest thermal conductivity of all the elements except mercury. Lead-free bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics and medical procedures. Burns in the air and produces a blue flame. In 1753, C.G. Junine first demonstrated that it was different from lead. Bismuth

141 Name: Polonium Symbol: Po Atomic Number: 84 Atomic Mass: (209.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 84 Po Polonium What is Polonium? Rare radioactive metallic element, belongs to group 16 of the periodic table. Over 30 known isotopes exist, the most of all elements. Po-209 has a half-life of 103 years. Possible uses in heating spacecraft. Discovered by Marie Curie in 1898 in a sample of pitchblende. Polonium

142 Name: Astatine Symbol: At Atomic Number: 85 Atomic Mass: (210.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 85 At Astatine What is Astatine? Radioactive halogen element. Occurs naturally from uranium and thorium decay. At least 20 known isotopes. At-210, the most stable, has a half-life of 8.3 hours. Synthesized by nuclear bombardment in 1940 by D.R. Corson, K.R. MacKenzie and E. Segre at the University of California. Astatine

143 86 Rn Radon Name: Radon Symbol: Rn Atomic Number: 86 Atomic Mass: (222.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Link What is Radon? Colorless radioactive gaseous element, belongs to the noble gases. Of the twenty known isotopes, the most stable is Rn-222 with a half-life of 3.8 days. Formed by the radioactive decay of Radium-226. Radon itself decays into polonium. Used in radiotherapy. As a noble gas, it is effectively inert, though radon fluoride has been synthesized. First isolated in 1908 by Ramsey and Gray. Radon

144 Name: Francium Symbol: Fr Atomic Number: 87 Atomic Mass: (223.0) amu Melting Point: 27.0 °C ( °K, 80.6 °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 87 Fr Francium What is Francium? Radioactive element, belongs to group 1 of the periodic table. Found in uranium and thorium ores. The 22 known isotopes are all radioactive, with the most stable being Fr-223. Its existence was confirmed in 1939 by Marguerite Perey. Francium

145 Name: Radium Symbol: Ra Atomic Number: 88 Atomic Mass: (226.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) Link 88 Ra Radium What is Radium? Radioactive metallic element, belongs to group 2 of the periodic table. Most stable isotope, Ra-226 has a half- life of 1602 years, which decays into radon. Isolated from pitchblende in 1898 Marie and Pierre Curie. Radium

146 89 Ac Actinium Name: Actinium Symbol: Ac Atomic Number: 89 Atomic Mass: (227.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) What is Actinium? Silvery radioactive metallic element, belongs to group 3 of the periodic table. The most stable isotope, Ac-227, has a half-life of 217 years. Ac- 228 (half-life of 6.13 hours) also occurs in nature. There are 22 other artificial isotopes, all radioactive and having very short half-lives. Chemistry similar to lanthanum. Used as a source of alpha particles. Discovered by A. Debierne in Actinium

147 Name: Thorium Symbol: Th Atomic Number: 90 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 90 Th Thorium What is Thorium? Grey radioactive metallic element. Belongs to actinoids. Found in monazite sand in Brazil, India and the US. Thorium-232 has a half-life of 1.39x10^10 years. Can be used as a nuclear fuel for breeder reactors. Thorium- 232 captures slow neutrons and breeds uranium-233. Discovered by Jons J. Berzelius in Thorium

148 Name: Protactinium Symbol: Pa Atomic Number: 91 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: Unknown 91 Pa Protactinium What is Protactinium? Radioactive metallic element, belongs to the actinoids. The most stable isotope, Pa-231 has a half-life of 2.43x10 4 years. At least 10 other radioactive isotopes are known. No practical applications are known. Discovered in 1917 by Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn. Protactinium

149 Name: Uranium Symbol: U Atomic Number: 92 Atomic Mass: amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 92 U Uranium What is Uranium? White radioactive metallic element belonging to the actinoids. Three natural isotopes, U-238, U-235 and U-234. Uranium-235 is used as the fuel for nuclear reactors and weapons. Discovered by Martin H. Klaproth in Uranium

150 Name: Neptunium Symbol: Np Atomic Number: 93 Atomic Mass: (237.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 93 Np Neptunium What is Neptunium? Radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Np-237, the most stable isotope, has a half-life of 2.2x10 6 years and is a by product of nuclear reactors. The other known isotopes have mass numbers 229 through 236, and 238 through 241. Np-236 has a half-life of 5x10 3 years. First produced by Edwin M. McMillan and P.H. Abelson in Neptunium

151 Name: Plutonium Symbol: Pu Atomic Number: 94 Atomic Mass: (244.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 94 Pu Plutonium What is Plutonium? Dense silvery radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Pu- 244 is the most stable isotope with a half-life of 7.6x10 7 years. Thirteen isotopes are known. Pu-239 is the most important, it undergoes nuclear fission with slow neutrons and is hence important to nuclear weapons and reactors. Plutonium production is monitored down to the gram to prevent military misuse. First produced by Gleen T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, J.W. Kennedy and A.C. Wahl in Plutonium

152 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Name: Americium Symbol: Am Atomic Number: 95 Atomic Mass: (243.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: °C ( °K, °F) 95 Am Americium What is Americium? Radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Ten known isotopes. Am-243 is the most stable isotope, with a half-life of 7.95x10 3 years. Discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg and associates in 1945, it was obtained by bombarding uranium-238 with alpha particles. Americium

153 Name: Curium Symbol: Cm Atomic Number: 96 Atomic Mass: (247.0) amu Melting Point: °C ( °K, °F) Boiling Point: Unknown Link 96 Cm Curium What is Curium? Radioactive metallic transuranic element. Belongs to actinoid series. Nine known isotopes, Cm-247 has a half-life of 1.64x10 7 years. First identified by Glenn T. Seaborg and associates in 1944, first produced by L.B. Werner and I. Perlman in 1947 by bombarding americium-241 with neutrons. Named for Marie Curie. Curium

154 Name: Berkelium Symbol: Bk Atomic Number: 97 Atomic Mass: (247.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 97 Bk Berkelium What is Berkelium? Radioactive metallic transuranic element. Belongs to actinoid series. Eight known isotopes, the most common Bk-247, has a half-life of 1.4x10 3 years. First produced by Glenn T. Seaborg and associates in 1949 by bombarding americium-241 with alpha particles. Berkelium

155 Name: Californium Symbol: Cf Atomic Number: 98 Atomic Mass: (251.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 98 Cf Californium What is Californium? Radioactive metallic transuranic element. Belongs to actinoid series. Cf- 251 has a half life of about 700 years. Nine isotopes are known. Cf-252 is an intense neutron source, which makes it an intense neutron source and gives it a use in neutron activation analysis and a possible use as a radiation source in medicine. First produced by Glenn T. Seaborg and associates in Californium

156 Name: Einsteinium Symbol: Es Atomic Number: 99 Atomic Mass: (252.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 99 Es Einsteinium What is Einsteinium? Appearance is unknown, however it is most probably metallic and silver or gray in color. Radioactive metallic transuranic element belonging to the actinoids. Es-254 has the longest half-life of the eleven known isotopes at 270 days. First identified by Albert Ghiorso and associates in the debris of the 1952 hydrogen bomb explosion. In 1961 the first microgram quantities of Es-232 were separated. While einsteinium never exists naturally, if a sufficient amount was assembled, it would pose a radiation hazard. Einsteinium

157 Name: Fermium Symbol: Fm Atomic Number: 100 Atomic Mass: (257.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 100 Fm Fermium What is Fermium? Radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Ten known isotopes, most stable is Fm- 257 with a half-life of 10 days. First identified by Albert Ghiorso and associates in the debris of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion in Fermium

158 Name: Mendelevium Symbol: Md Atomic Number: 101 Atomic Mass: (258.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 101 Md Mendelevium What is Mendelevium? Radioactive metallic transuranic element. Belongs to the actinoid series. Only known isotope, Md-256 has a half-life of 1.3 hours. First identified by Glenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso and associates in Alternative name unnilunium has been proposed. Named after the 'inventor' of the periodic table, Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendelevium

159 Name: Nobelium Symbol: No Atomic Number: 102 Atomic Mass: (259.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown Link 102 No Nobelium What is Nobelium? Radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Seven known isotopes exist, the most stable being No-254 with a half-life of 255 seconds. First identified with certainty by Albert Ghiorso and Glenn T. Seaborg in Unnilbium has been proposed as an alternative name. Nobelium

160 Name: Lawrencium Symbol: Lr Atomic Number: 103 Atomic Mass: (262.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 103 Lr Lawrencium What is Lawrencium? Appearance unknown, however it is most likely silvery-white or grey and metallic. Lawrencium is a synthetic rare-earth metal. There are eight known radioisotopes, the most stable being Lr-262 with a half-life of 3.6 hours. Due to the short half-life of lawrencium, and its radioactivity, there are no known uses for it. Identified by Albert Ghiorso in 1961 at Berkeley. It was produced by bombarding californium with boron ions. The name is temporary IUPAC nomenclature, the origin of the name comes from Ernest O. Lawrence, the inventor of the cyclotron. If sufficient amounts of lawrencium were produced, it would pose a radiation hazard. Lawrencium

161 Name: Rutherfordium Symbol: Rf Atomic Number: 104 Atomic Mass: (261.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 104 Rf Rutherfordium What is Rutherfordium (Unnilquadium)? Radioactive transactinide element. Expected to have similar chemical properties to those displayed by hafnium. Rf-260 was discovered by the Joint Nuclear Research Institute at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) in Researchers at Berkeley discovered Unq-257 and Unq-258 in Rutherfordium

162 Name: Dubnium Symbol: Db Atomic Number: 105 Atomic Mass: (262.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 105 Db Dubnium What is Dubnium (Unnilpentium)? Radioactive transactinide element. Half-life of 1.6s. Discovered in 1970 by Berkeley researchers. So far, seven isotopes have been discovered. Dubnium

163 Name: Seaborgium Symbol: Sg Atomic Number: 106 Atomic Mass: (263.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown Link 106 Sg Seaborgium What is Seaborgium (Unnilhexium)? Half-life of 0.9 +/- 0.2 s. Discovered by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) in June of Its existence was confirmed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Livermore National Laboratory in September of Seaborgium

164 Name: Bohrium Symbol: Bh Atomic Number: 107 Atomic Mass: (262.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 107 Bh Bohrium What is Bohrium (Unnilseptium)? Radioactive transition metal. Half-life of approximately 1/500 s. Discovered by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) in Confirmed by West German physicists at the Heavy Ion Research Laboratory at Darmstadt. Bohrium

165 Name: Hassium Symbol: Hs Atomic Number: 108 Atomic Mass: (265.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 108 Hs Hassium

166 Name: Meitnerium Symbol: Mt Atomic Number: 109 Atomic Mass: (266.0) amu Melting Point: Unknown Boiling Point: Unknown 109 Mt Meitnerium

167 Einsteinium (Es) Albert Einstein –Relativity –E = mc 2 –Offered Presidency of Israel –Element 99 –Photoelectric effect Solar calculator

168 Curium (Cm) Madame Curie –Pioneer in radioactivity (Ra = radium) –25 pounds of pitchblende ore yields 1 / 1000 of a gram of radium –Emits 2 millions times as much radiation as uranium (Rn = radon gas) –Discovered 5 elements –Nobel Prize (5 in Curie family) –Born in Poland (Po = polonium) Marie Curie (1876–1934)

169 Radium (Ra) Radium was used as a fluorescent paint on watch dials. It was applied with thin brushes that workers would lick to keep a fine tip. Many people died from the exposure to radium.

170 Radon Gas Radon gas occurs naturally from the radioactive decay of radium. Radium is found in small amounts in rock. Ra Rn + radiation Predicted fraction of homes over 4 picocuries/liter radon

171 Nobelium (No) Element 102 Alfred Nobel Nobel Prize Inventor: dynamite (TNT) blasting gelatin Merchant of Death Trinitrotoluene

172 Seaborgium (Sg) Glenn Seaborg –Separated f-block from rest of periodic table –Worked on Manhattan Project (Atomic bomb) –Classified until after WW II –Element 106 Only living person to have an element named for them

173 Silicon vs. Silicone Silicon (Si) element Silicone (…Si – O – Si…) polymer –Sealant (caulk) prevents leaks –Breast augmentation No cause-and-effect relationship exists between breast enlargement and breast cancer. Only one researcher found a causal link.

174 Magnesium Atomic Mass 24 amu melting point = silver gray metal used in flash bulbs, bombs,and flares 8 th most abundant element (2.2% of Earths crust) lack of Mg produces same biological effect as alcoholism (delirium tremens) Mg

175 Potassium Metal in Water Newmark, CHEMISTRY, 1993, page 25

176 Electron Configuration Filling-Order of Electrons in an Atom

177 Order in which subshells are filled with electrons 1s2s3s4s5s6s7s1s2s3s4s5s6s7s 2p3p4p5p6p 2p3p4p5p6p 3d4d5d6d 3d4d5d6d 4f5f 4f5f 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d …

178 4f4f 4d4d 4p4p 4s4s n = 4 3d3d 3p3p 3s3s n = 3 2p2p 2s2s n = 2 1s1s n = 1 Energy Sublevels 2s2s 3s3s 4s4s 5s5s 6s6s 7s7s 1s1s 2p2p 3p3p 4p4p 5p5p 6p6p 3d3d 4d4d 5d5d 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 1s1s 2s2s 2p2p 3s3s 3p3p 4s4s 4p4p 3d3d 4d4d 5s5s 5p5p 6s6s 7s7s 6p6p 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 5d5d Energy

179 4f4f 4d4d 4p4p 4s4s n = 4 3d3d 3p3p 3s3s n = 3 2p2p 2s2s n = 2 1s1s n = 1 Energy Sublevels s s s s p p p d df 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 …

180 Filling Rules for Electron Orbitals Aufbau Principle: Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbitals available until all the electrons of the atom have been accounted for. Pauli Exclusion Principle: An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons. To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must spin in opposite directions. Hunds Rule: Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results. *Aufbau is German for building up

181 Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Electron Configuration N N = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Bohr Model Nitrogen Hunds Rule maximum number of unpaired orbitals.

182 Electron Filling in Periodic Table K4s1K4s1 Ca 4s 2 Sc 3d 1 Ti 3d 2 V3d3V3d3 Mn 3d 5 Fe 3d 6 Co 3d 7 Ni 3d 8 Cr 3d 4 Cu 3d 9 Zn 3d 10 Ga 4p 1 Ge 4p 2 As 4p 3 Se 4p 4 Br 4p 5 Kr 4p s d p s Cr 4s 1 3d 5 Cu 4s 1 3d 10 4f4f 4d4d 4p4p 4s4s n = 4 3d3d 3p3p 3s3s n = 3 2p2p 2s2s n = 2 1s1sn = 1 Energy 4s3d Cr 4s 1 3d 5 4s3d Cu 4s 1 3d 10 Cr 3d 5 Cu 3d 10

183 Orbital Diagrams for Nickel 2s2s2p2p 3s3s 3p3p4s4s3d3d1s1s2s2s2p2p 3s3s 3p3p4s4s3d3d1s1s2s2s2p2p 3s3s 3p3p4s4s3d3d1s1s 2s2s2p2p 3s3s 3p3p4s4s3d3d1s1s Excited State Pauli Exclusion Hunds Rule Ni

184 Energy Level Diagram of a Many-Electron Atom Arbitrary Energy Scale s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS OConnor, Davis, MacNab, McClellan, CHEMISTRY Experiments and Principles 1982, page 177

185 Li 3 H1H1 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac N7N7 C6C6 H1H1 S 16 Ir 77 O8O8 N7N7 Mn 25 e <

186 Elements Database Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Cesium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Curium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Unnilhexium Unniloctium Unnilpentium Unnilquadium Unnilseptium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Get free Chemistry and Physics images for your school projects and/or research work. Get free Chemistry and Physics images for your school projects and/or research work. Feel free to use the periodic table images below in your school projects and/or research work. Elements listed Alphabetically Printable Periodic Table

187 Periodic Table of the Elements Images from: Data from: Periodic Table of the Elements Written by: Bill Byles - & Jeff Christopherson –


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