Presentation on theme: "Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Lesson 2"— Presentation transcript:
1Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Lesson 2 August 12 & 13, 2013Boon Chemistry
2CatalystMystery Elements! Use your periodic table and the clues below to determine the identity of 3 mystery elements. Write your answers on your white board.This element, with a mass number of 207, is poisonous.This element, made of atoms with 78 electrons in the neutral state, is a very expensive metal.This element, made of atoms with 16 protons, is a gas that smells like rotten eggs.If you finish early, begin correcting your lab.
3207Pb 1. Answer: Lead Atomic Symbol: Pb Atomic Number: 82 Mass Number: 207.2207Pb
532S 3. Answer: Sulfur Atomic Symbol: S Atomic Number: 16 Mass Number: 32.0732S
6ObjectiveWhen given data and a periodic table, students relate the numbers of subatomic particles in an atom and the periodic table by drawing models of atoms and distinguishing between diagrams of different isotopes and ions.More simply: I can identify an element based on its atomic structure and I can draw a model of an atom of a specific element using information found on the periodic table.
7Writing & Reading Nuclear Symbols Format on a worksheet or lab reportFormat on the Periodic TableMass NumberIon with 2+ chargeAtomic Number
8White Board Practice Write the nuclear symbol for… Calcium-41 (mass number = 41)Magnesium ion with 2+ chargeArgon-40Tungsten-184A gold atom with 117 neutronsA lithium atom with 2 electrons
9Sometimes, atoms of the same element have different numbers of neutrons. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
10Question 1 Three isotopes of magnesium are Complete the Chart: Magnesium – 24 (24Mg)Magnesium – 25 (25Mg)Magnesium – 23 (23Mg)Complete the Chart:Hint! Mass number = protons + neutronsIsotopeProtonsNeutronsElectronsMg – 24Mg – 25Mg - 23
11Question 2 Three isotopes of uranium are Complete the Chart: Uranium – 235 (235U)Uranium – 238 (238U)Uranium – 236 (236U)Complete the Chart:Hint! Mass number = protons + neutronsIsotopeProtonsNeutronsElectronsU – 235U – 238U - 236
12Ions are atoms with a net charge Ions are atoms with a net charge. The ion is charged because there are an unequal number of protons and electrons.The charge is shown on the right side of the symbol:Ex: Mg with 12 protons and 10 electrons Mg2+
13Positive or Negative?Positively charged ions have more protons than electronsEx: Ca2+ (calcium ion) has 20 protons and 18 electrons20 – 18 = +2Negatively charged ions have more electrons than protonsEx: Br- (bromine ion) has 35 protons and 36 electrons35 – 36 = -1
14Name that ion! Sample: Now you try: 19 protons, 20 neutrons, 18 electronsAnswer: K p + (-18 e) = +1Now you try:13 protons, 14 neutrons, 10 electrons1 proton and no electrons53 protons, 73 neutrons, 54 electrons16 protons, 16 neutrons, 18 electrons4 protons, 5 neutrons, 2 electrons
15Note on the Periodic Table “groups” are columns“periods” are rows
16Just like you and your family share similarities… So do elements! 3 main groupsMetalsNon-metalsSemi-metals
171. METALSLOCATION on the Periodic Table: To the left, to the left…
182. NON-METALSLOCATION on the Periodic Table: To the right, and with the exception of Hydrogen!
193. SEMI-METALS (Metalloids) LOCATION on the Periodic Table: the Semi-metal “Staircase”What are the semi-metals?B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te
20Please color-code your periodic tables. The majority of elements are…METALS
22Things you should know about periodic table groups: Where is the group located on the periodic table?What groups (columns) and periods (rows) are included?What are some of the elements included?Are you part of the metals, semi-metals (metalloids), or non-metals?How many valence electrons does each element possess?Please present two more facts or examples from the textbook. (Pages in textbook).
23Video ReviewStudy Jam - atoms: ter/atoms.htmStudy Jam - Periodic table: ter/periodic-table.htmJust How Small is an Atom?Solving the puzzle of the periodic table 48znAg7VE&list=PLJicmE8fK0EjGmPGeh_WDu69qAsN-iHVAThe genius of Mendeleev’s Periodic table 8fK0EjGmPGeh_WDu69qAsN-iHVA
24Videos – ElementsHalogens: Baf4Alkali Metals: kAlkaline Earth Metals: Eo
25Detailed Notes on Periodic Table Groups Check these notes against your periodic table graphic organizer.
26Within the 3 major groupings of elements (metals, semi-metals, non-metals), there are more SPECIFIC groups that share properties.The elements share properties because they have the same number of VALENCE ELECTRONS.
27VALENCE electrons: electrons that are in the OUTERMOST shell of an atom. They are the electrons available for CHEMICAL BONDING.
28Group 1: The Alkali Metals Have ONE valence electron.VERY REACTIVETherefore, not found alone in nature.What are the alkali metals?Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
29Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals Have TWO valence electrons.VERY REACTIVEUsually not alone uncombined in nature.What are the Alkaline Earth Metals? Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
30Groups 3-12: Transition metals Properties vary.Some found alone in nature: Gold, Silver, Platinum, Copper, etc.
31Group 17: Halogens Have SEVEN valence electrons. Most REACTIVE non-metals.What are the Halogens? F, Cl, Br, I, At
32Group 18: The Noble Gases Have EIGHT valence electrons. They are very NON-REACTIVE (Like to exist alone).What are the Noble Gases? He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
33Lanthanides and Actinides The lathanides are actinides are transition metals.They are part of period 6 and 7, however they are placed below the table so that it fits on one page.Locate the atomic numbers of the lanthanides and actinides. You will notice that they fill in the gaps in atomic numbers between Ba & Hf and Ra & Rf.
34Transuranium Elements These are elements listed after Uranium (92) on the periodic table.Transuranium elements were synthesized and identified in laboratory experiments through the use of nuclear accelerators.They are not naturally found on earth.
351. METALS Physical properties Solids at room temperature (250C) Luster (shininess)Good conductors of heat and electricityHigh density (Heavy for its size!)High melting pointDuctile (thin wire)Malleable (thin sheets)
361. METALS Chemical properties Tend to LOSE electrons when bonding form positive ions – ex. K+, Al3+Sometimes corrode (disappear slowly by chemical damage) or rust (reacts with oxygen)
372. NON-METALS Physical properties (tend to be the opposite of metals) Mostly gases at room temperatureNo luster (dull)Non-conductors of heat and electricityLow densityLow melting pointBrittle (breaks easily)
382. NON-METALSChemical propertiesTend to GAIN electrons when bonding
393. SEMI-METALS (Metalloids) Tend to have both metallic and non-metallic physical and chemical properties.For example, a semi-metal may be shiny like a metal, but cannot conduct electricity.