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1 Contingency tables and association statistics (from Chapter 9)

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2 Association between qualitative variables Association is a generic term referring to the relationship of two variables Correlation measures strictly refer to quantitative variables Association, generally refers to qualitative variables Two qualitative variables are said to be associated when changes in one variable lead to changes in the other variable (i.e. they are not independent). For example, education is generally associated with job position. Association measures for categorical variables are based on tables of frequencies, also termed contingency tables

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3 Contingency table (frequencies)

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4 Expected frequencies under independence empirical frequencies f ij (%) expected frequency: f ij * Es: 2.9=(24*12)/100 categorical variables independent Example: preferences on different kinds of chicken

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5 In EXCELL: PIVOT TABLES Example from file: DEMOSTUD.XLS Frequences: Education/marital status and Education/job satisfaction

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