# Excel Functions and Pivot Tables Geof Hileman, FSA Kennell & Associates, Inc June 4, 2012 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY.

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Excel Functions and Pivot Tables Geof Hileman, FSA Kennell & Associates, Inc June 4, 2012 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Overview Cell Function Extravaganza Pivot Tables Miscellaneous Tips & Tricks Will not cover VBA FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Excel Cell Functions FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 3

IF Excel Cell Functions Purpose: do two different calculations, depending on the value of a cell Syntax: =IF(condition, what to do if its true, what to do if its false) Can nest up to seven IF statements within a single formula, but your formula will start to get very confusing Before Excel 2007, ISERROR(calculation) could be used to return blanks in case of errors: IF(ISERROR(calculation),calculation,) Excel 2007 introduced IFERROR, which accomplishes the same thing without typing your calculation twice IFERROR(calculation,) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Logical Operators Excel Cell Functions Purpose: through OR/AND/NOT, can simplify formulas and eliminate intermediate columns Syntax: =OR(argument 1, argument 2, …) {returns T/F) =AND(argument 1, argument 2, …) {returns T/F) =NOT(argument 1) {returns the opposite Boolean} Can help to simplify a formula (or to prevent maxing out the number of allowed nested IFs): IF(arg1, IF(arg2, IF(arg3,All Are True,),),) OR IF(AND(arg1,arg2,arg3),All Are True,) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

String Manipulation Excel Cell Functions Purpose: rearrange strings into more useful data elements Syntax: Concatenation: AA & BB = AABB or CONCATENATE(AA,BB) MID(text, start, length) MID(ABCDE,3,2) = CD LEFT(text, length) {or RIGHT} LEFT(ABCDE,2) = AB LEN(text) LEN(ABCDE) = 5 Case Converters: LOWER(), UPPER(), PROPER() FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

String Manipulation Excel Cell Functions FIND(what youre looking for, what youre looking in, where to start looking {default is position 1}) TRIM(text) returns the same text but without trailing spaces – can be very useful when doing VLOOKUPs TEXT(text, format) can convert to different formats TEXT(4421,00000) = 04221) TEXT(6/4/2012,mmm dd, yyyy) = Jun 04, 2012 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

SUMPRODUCT Excel Cell Functions Purpose: calculate the sum of a series of matched pairs (or more than pairs) Syntax: =SUMPRODUCT(list1, list2, … list n) There is no weighted average function in Excel, so calculating a SUMPRODUCT and dividing by the sum of the weights is usually the preferred approach. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

VLOOKUP/HLOOKUP Excel Cell Functions Purpose: find a value from a reference table corresponding to an index value. VLOOKUP (more common) is for vertical tables, HLOOKUP for horizontal. Syntax: =VLOOKUP(what youre looking for, where to look for it, which column to bring back, is an approximate match ok?) Index value always has to be in the first column of the lookup table Sometimes data types can get confused and the item you are searching for needs to be converted such as in =VLOOKUP(TEXT(B6,0),Sheet2!\$A\$2:\$D\$41476,2,FALSE) If nothing is found, #N/A will be returned. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

INDEX and MATCH Excel Cell Functions INDEX and MATCH … the elegant solution to VLOOKUPs refusal to look backwards! INDEX(data range, row number, column number) returns the value in a specified relative row and column of a block of data MATCH(value to look for, single column data range where you expect to find the value, FALSE) By using MATCH as the second argument within INDEX, you can mimic VLOOKUP by look in columns to the left of where you are searching. =INDEX(full data range, MATCH(what youre looking for, column where the index value lives, FALSE), column where the value you wish to return resides) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Rounding Functions Excel Cell Functions ROUND(number, digits): rounds like you learned in elementary school – 5 and over get rounded up; 4 and lower are rounded down ROUNDDOWN -> always rounds toward zero ROUNDUP -> always rounds away from zero INT -> rounds down to the next integer TRUNC -> rounds to the next integer closest to zero ODD -> rounds away from zero to the next odd number (or EVEN) And more … Bottom line – Excel will let you round any way you like; just make sure youre doing it correctly. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

SUMIF Excel Cell Functions Purpose: calculate a sum only where a certain condition is met Syntax: =IF(where your conditional data is, the condition, what you want to sum) =SUMIF(\$A\$2:\$A\$21,"="&E3,\$C\$2 :\$C\$21) COUNTIF works in a similar manner as SUMIF, but counts the number of instances. The last argument is not needed, because theres nothing to sum. COUNTIF can even be used to count the number of errors in a column. Simple replacement for basic pivot table – less overhead, easier to fit into a worksheet. YearQuarterAdmissions 2006139QtrAdmits 2006236167 2006328266 2006438363 2007128467 2007230 2007335 2007429 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

The INDIRECT Function Excel Cell Functions Purpose: Use variable text to build a cell function. - Example of use: data is in different sheets by year (2009, 2010, 2011) and a summary table needs to reference each year individually. Syntax: =INDIRECT(string representing the cell you wish to reference) - Dont forget the & for concatenation Example: - =INDIRECT(H13&"!A1") will return whatever is in cell A1 of the worksheet named in cell H13 of the current worksheet - =INDIRECT(&H13&!A1") is even safer in case worksheet name has a space. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

The OFFSET Function Excel Cell Functions Purpose: Reference a cell a variable number of cells away from an index position Syntax: =OFFSET(where to start, how many rows down to go, how many columns over to go) Example: - One worksheet has data by month (in rows) and you wish for a user to be able to enter a month number (in cell C3) and return the value for that month. - =OFFSET(Monthly Data!A1,C3,0) will return the appropriate value. Often paired with INDIRECT for very flexible formulas. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

TREND Excel Cell Functions Purpose: Compute a least-squares simple linear regression and apply result to a forecast Syntax: =TREND(historical dependents variables, historical independent variables, future independent variable value) Example: FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY =TREND(B1:B5,A1:A5,A6)

INFO Excel Cell Functions The INFO function will return various data about the environment youre operating in: INFO(directory) – pathname of current file INFO(release) – current version of MS Excel INFO(osversion) – operating system version INFO(system) – returns mac or pcdos INFO(recalc) – returns calculation method - Automatic or Manual FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Pivot Tables FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 17

Why Use Pivot Tables? Excel Best Practices Pivot tables are used to provide a simple way to cross-tabulate large datasets in n dimensions. Intuitive generation interface makes creating pivot tables very point-n-click friendly Can easily collapse across unnecessary levels of detail (raw data are summarized by facility, but unit of analysis is region) Required elements for a pivot table: Data in rectangular format Field names across the top No blank columns FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Pivot Table Basics Excel Best Practices To create, select data block and choose INSERT -> Pivot Table The Pivot Table Field List allows the report to be customized to your needs. Four elements: Report Filter, Row Labels, Colum Labels, Values Defer Layout Update allows you to completely build the pivot table without the display refreshing (and the table recalculating) In sample file, we can create pivot tables to quickly answer three questions: How many tournaments has each of the French women ranked in the top 100 participated in? Sort by current ranking. What is the average ranking by country among women in the top 100? Who are the top players born after 1992? What is their nationality? When data source changes, need to REFRESH pivot table. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

GETPIVOTDATA Pivot Tables Starting with Excel 2003, when you build a formula referencing a cell within a pivot table, the formula becomes non-copyable … =GETPIVOTDATA(...) Easy workaround: type the cell references directly into your formula (=C4/D4) Permanent workaround: - Click in your pivot table, then PivotTable Tools, Options, Options, Generate GetPivotData, Uncheck: FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Excel Best Practices FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 21

One Million Rows of Data! Excel Best Practices The flagship feature of Excel 2007 (from a data persons perspective) was the elimination of the old 64,000 row by 256 column limit. New limits are over one million rows and sixteen thousand columns. Thats 17 billion numbers on each worksheet. Use them wisely! New format has made it very easy to overload a workbook with calculations. Do not format or reference entire columns. Hint: for static calculations being applied to many rows of data, leave the formulas in the first row only, copying values overtop of the rest of the rows. Just dont forget that you did. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Build for the next user Excel Best Practices It is often difficult to recall what you yourself did in building a spreadsheet; much more challenging to read someone elses mind. Make everyones life easier: No hard coded values within formulas Group your assumptions, inputs, outputs (color code the inputs) Use multiple sheets where appropriate Hide worksheets with data that the end user doesnt need Eliminate dead DNA Name ranges that you use frequently (trend is easier to follow in a formula than 2010 Data!\$AB\$4) Avoid highly nested formulas; break complex calculations into multiple steps

Other Tips Excel Best Practices The ribbon has a lot of stuff, but it also uses valuable real estate. Consider hiding the ribbon (CNTL-F1) and adding a few items to your Quick Access Toolbar. You can still use your old keyboard shortcuts (ALT-E-S-V-E?) The Watch Window – on the Formulas ribbon – is a fun new way to debug your models.

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