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OSSICLES by Claude MASSIN PEET Workshop Brussels 04-08 December 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "OSSICLES by Claude MASSIN PEET Workshop Brussels 04-08 December 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 OSSICLES by Claude MASSIN PEET Workshop Brussels December 2006

2 OSSICLES First drawing: Strussenfelt, 1765 Identified as such Lesson, 1830 (anchor) used for taxonomy since 1860 Change with growth: increase in size, diminish in size, disappear, become more spiny, change of shape Neopentadactyla mixta: tables with 2 pillars tables with 4 pillars

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4 OSSICLES Change with growth: increase in size, diminish in size, disappear, become more spiny, change of shape Neopentadactyla mixta: tables with 2 pillars tables with 4 pillars Pearsonthuria graeffei

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6 OSSICLES Change with growth: increase in size, diminish in size, disappear, become more spiny, change of shape Neopentadactyla mixta: tables with 2 pillars tables with 4 pillars Pearsonthuria graeffei Heterocucumis steineni

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9 OSSICLES Change with growth: increase in size, diminish in size, disappear, become more spiny, change of shape Neopentadactyla mixta: tables with 2 pillars tables with 4 pillars Pearsonthuria graeffei Heterocucumis steineni Change between juveniles and sub-adults 1mm to 20-30mm Afrocucumis straki

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14 Tables : 1 pillar ending in one or several points; disc with many peripheral holes (Synallactid like) or 1 pillar ending in several hooks, disk without peripheral holes (Molpadid like) 2 pillars ending each in one or several points or fused in a single point, or forming a small crown of spines, disc circular or elongated and arched (Dendrochirotid like) 3 pillars ending in a crown of spine or not (synallactids, aspidochirotids,dendrochirotids)

15 Tables 4 pillars ending in a crown of spines or not (dendrochirotids, aspidochirotids) with the following subcategories: - Disc rounded or cruciform (Synallactid like) - (H.kurti: mm; H.altimensis: 7-9 mm) - Edge of the disc smooth, knobbed or spiny - Disc without peripheral holes, with few peripheral holes or with numerous peripheral holes - H/W of the table>>1; = 1; <1 - Pillars ending in a crown of spines narrower, equal or larger than the disc

16 Tables - Crown of spines with a large central opening, a small central opening or several central openings - Crown of spines forming a circle or forming a Maltese cross - Pillars fused, smooth and ending in a single point or spiny and ending in several points (Stichopus, Holothuria) - Disc of the table reduced or absent (Halodeima) disc of the table well developed - 5 pillars or more (Holothuria (Metriatyla);Eostichopus) - Table transformed in fenestrated sphere

17 Pseudo tables Rocket like table of Pearsonothuriagraeffei Pseudo-tables of Thelenotaspp Pseudo-tables of Cladolabes New names are to be found for theseossicles

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24 Buttons pairs of holes with same diameter on two rows; no single hole at the extremities (angle of growth 90°), with or without a median longitudinal ridge Smooth, knobbed or transformed in ellipsoids Pseudobuttons As a button but with a single row of holes, a second row with 1-2 holes can be present; often irregular and twisted

25 Perforated plates Rounded - Tube feet end plate made of one piece or several pieces - Table reduced to the disc - - Lenticular perforated plate with or without eccentric spire Baskets: small (4 holes), more or less arched perforated plate with or without a cross beam, smooth or knobbed (dendrochirotids )

26 Perforated plates Elongated - Derived from buttons (all the holes with same diameter) or derived from perforated rods (central holes larger than peripheral holes), with or without a median longitudinal ridge - Racket shape with handle smooth (molpadids) or spiny (dendrochirotids) Derived from 2 dimensional branched rods (Stichopus,Thelenota)

27 Rods - Simple, rarely bifurcated, spiny or smooth, straight or curved, without holes (cf tentacle rods of manyaspidochirotids) - - Two dimensional large branched rods, spiny (Stichopus,Thelenota) - or three dimensional branched rods, smooth or spiny (most of theelasipodids) - Perforated rods (at the extremities and or along the axes) (Holothuria) with or without a median longitudinal ridge

28 Rods - Rods non perforated at the extremities but with spiny lateral processes and/or a central perforated process (Stichopus) - Massive perforated rods (at the extremities and/or along the edges) smooth or spiny (Selenkothuria) - Small rods from Actinopygaspp andBohaschiaspp

29 Rods C-shape rods regular or irregular (irregular look like rosettes) - fromStichopus - fromApodids Chiridota (slender or thick) - from Holothuria longitudinal muscle - fromStichothuria S-shapeossicles fromStichopus

30 Granules Spherical or contorted,non perforated maximum 10 µm long (Thelenota) Miliary granules - Spherical, ovoid or elongatedossicles made oftri-dimensional branched rods covered by numerous granules (Dendrochirotids;apodids?) - U-shapeossicles with one row of external granules (apodids) Grains Spherical orelongated, non perforatedossicles minimum 15 µm across (Bohadschia) Elongated or irregular with 1-3 holes (Bohadschia)

31 Rosettes Small branched rods (angle of growth 120°) with rounded extremities more or less plump (Actinopya,Bohadschia, Stichopus,dendrochirotids) Branches of the rods may fuse giving rise to small perforated plate (4 holes: 2 large and 2 small at the extremities)(Halodeima) Pearsonothuria graeffei

32 Between grains, rosettes and rods all intermediary stages Anchors, anchors plates, wheels, hooks orsigmoid rods

33 QUESTIONS What is a pseudo table? What is a rosette? What is a grain, granule, miliary granule? What is a C-shape rod?


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