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XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 1 Designing a Web Page with Tables Tutorial 4 Creating a News Page.

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Presentation on theme: "XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 1 Designing a Web Page with Tables Tutorial 4 Creating a News Page."— Presentation transcript:

1 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 1 Designing a Web Page with Tables Tutorial 4 Creating a News Page

2 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 2 Objectives Create a text table with preformatted text Create the basic structure of a graphical table Organize table rows into groups Add captions to tables Describe how to add summary information to a table

3 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 3 Objectives Use table borders and gridlines Specify width and height for different table elements Format table cell contents Apply a background image and color to a table Align table and cell contents

4 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 4 Objectives Describe different types of page layouts you can achieve with tables Work with fixed-width and fluid layouts Create newspaper-style layout using tables

5 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 5 A text table: contains only text, evenly spaced on the Web page in rows and columns uses only standard word processing characters A graphical table: is displayed using graphical elements can include design elements such as background colors, and colored borders with shading allows you to control the size of tables cells, rows, columns and alignment of text within the table A table can be displayed on a Web page either in a text or graphical format. Tables on the World Wide Web

6 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 6 A Text Table This figure shows a text table.

7 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 7 A Graphical Table This figure shows a graphical table

8 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 8 Considerations for Text and Graphical Tables Graphical tables are more flexible and attractive, however there are some situations when a text table is needed Working with tags for graphical tables can be complicated and time-consuming –for these reasons, you might want to create two versions of a Web page: one that uses only text elements, and another that uses graphical elements

9 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 9 Text Tables Using Fixed-Width Fonts When you create a text table, the font you use is important A text table relies on space and the characters that fill those spaces to create its column boundaries Use a fixed-width, or mono-space, font so that the columns align properly Fixed-width fonts use the same amount of space for each character

10 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 10 Using Proportional Fonts Proportional fonts assign a different amount of space for each character depending on the width of that character –for example, since the character m is wider than the character 1, a proportional font assigns it more space Proportional fonts are more visually attractive, and typically easier to read, than fixed-width fonts Proportional fonts in a text table can cause errors when the page is rendered in the users browser

11 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 11 Column Alignment Problems with Proportional Fonts A text table that uses a proportional font loses alignment when the font size is increased or decreased. Columns look aligned Columns lose alignment

12 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 12 Column Alignment with Fixed-Width Fonts Fixed-width fonts allow the columns to remain aligned regardless of font size. Different browsers and operating systems may use different font sizes to display your pages text, so you should always use a fixed width font to ensure that the columns in your text tables remain in alignment. Columns align regardless of font size

13 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 13 Using Preformatted Text The tag creates preformatted text and retains any spaces or line breaks indicated in the HTML file. –preformatted text is text formatted in ways that HTML would otherwise not recognize The tag displays text using a fixed-width font By using the tag, a text table can be displayed by all browsers, and the columns will retain their alignment no matter what font the browser is using Most of the time, the tag will be used to insert tables into a Web page

14 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 14 Text Table Created with the Tag text will appear in the browser as it appears here The complete preformatted text as it appears in the file.

15 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 15 Text Table as it Appears in the Browser table text appears in a fixed width font The page as it appears in the browser.

16 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 16 Graphical Tables Defining a Table Structure The first step to creating a table is to specify the table structure: –the number of rows and columns –the location of column headings –the placement of a table caption Once the table structure is in place, you can start entering data into the table

17 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 17 Using the,, and Tags Graphical tables are enclosed within a two- sided tag that identifies the start and ending of the table structure Each row of the table is indicated using a two- sided (for table row) Within each table row, a two-sided (for table data) tag indicates the presence of individual table cells

18 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 18 The Graphical Table Syntax The general syntax of a graphical table is: First Cell Second Cell Third Cell Fourth Cell –This creates a table with two rows and two columns

19 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 19 A Simple Table The layout of a graphical table two rows two columns

20 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 20 HTML Structure of a Table beginning of the table structure first row of six in the table end of the table structure table cells You do not need to indent the tags or place them on separate lines, but you may find it easier to interpret your code if you do so. After the table structure is in place, youre ready to add the text for each cell.

21 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 21 Creating Headings with the Tag HTML provides the tag for table headings Text formatted with the tag is centered within the cell and displayed in a boldface font The tag is most often used for column headings, but you can use it for any cell that you want to contain centered boldfaced text

22 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 22 Adding Table Headings to the Table Text in cells formatted with the tag is bold and centered above each table column Row of table headings

23 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 23 Result of Table Headings as Displayed in the Browser table headings appear bold and centered over their columns

24 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 24 Identifying the Table Heading, Body, and Footer HTML allows you to identify the different parts of your table using the,, and tags – is used for the table heading – is used for the table body – is used for the table footer These tags do not format the table, but they do contain collections of rows called row groups

25 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 25 The Table Heading, Body, and Footer Syntax The table heading, body, and footer syntax is: heading information... footer information... first group of table rows... second group of table rows...

26 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 26 Table Heading, Body, and Footer A single table can contain several tags to identify different parts of the table The and sections must appear before any sections in the table structure These tags are most often used in a table that draws its data from an external data source, or tables that span several Web pages The browser will repeat those sections across multiple pages Not all browsers support this capability

27 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 27 Creating a Table Caption HTML allows you to specify a caption for a table The syntax for creating a caption is: caption text –alignment indicates the caption placement –a value of bottom centers the caption below the table –a value of top or center centers the caption above the table –a value of left or right place the caption above the table to the left or right

28 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 28 Table Captions Internet Explorer also supports the center value for a caption. Older browsers only support top and bottom because HTML 3.2 only specified these options The tag works only with tables, the tag must be placed within the table structure Captions are shown as normal text without special formatting Captions can be formatted by embedding the caption text within other HTML tags –for example, place the caption text within a pair of and tags causes the caption to display as bold and italic

29 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 29 Inserting a Table Caption caption will be centered above the table caption text Placing the caption text within a pair of tags causes the caption to display as bold

30 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 30 Result of a Table Caption table caption A table with caption

31 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 31 Modifying the Appearance of a Table You can modify the appearance of a table by adding: –gridlines –borders –background color HTML also provides tags and attributes to control the placement and size of a table

32 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 32 Working with the Table Border By default, browsers display tables without table borders A table border can be added using the border attribute to the tag The syntax for creating a table border is: … –value is the width of the border in pixels The size attribute is optional; if you dont specify a size, the browser creates a table border 1 pixel wide

33 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 33 Tables with Different Borders Values The effect on a tables border when the border size is varied

34 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 34 Adding a 5-Pixel Border to a Table Only the outside border is affected by the border attribute; the internal gridlines are not affected

35 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 35 Table Frames and Rules The frame attribute was introduced in HTML therefore might not be supported in older browsers With the frame and rule attributes you can control how borders and gridlines are applied to the table The frames attribute allows you to determine which sides of the table will have borders The frame attribute syntax is: … –type is either box (the default), above, below,hsides, vsides, lhs, rhs, or void

36 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 36 Values of the Frame Attribute

37 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 37 Effect of Different Frame Values

38 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 38 Creating Frames and Rules The rules attribute lets you control how the table gridlines are drawn The syntax of the rules attribute is: … –type is either all, rows, cols, or none

39 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 39 Effect of Different Rules Values

40 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 40 Sizing a Table Cell Spacing The cell spacing attribute controls the amount of space inserted between table cells The syntax for specifying the cell space is: … –value is the width of the interior borders in pixels –the default cell spacing is 2 pixels Cell spacing refers to the space between the cells

41 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 41 Tables with Different Cell Spacing Values Different cell spacing values and a tables appearance

42 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 42 Setting the Cell Spacing to 0 Pixels Setting the cellspacing to 0 reduces the width of the borders between individual table cells. This will not remove the border between the cells.

43 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 43 Cell Padding To control the space between the table text and the cell borders, add the cell padding attribute to the table tag The syntax for this attribute is: … –value is the distance from the table text to the cell border, as measured in pixels –the default cell padding value is 1 pixel Cell padding refers to the space within the cells

44 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 44 Tables with Different Cell Padding Values The effect of changing the cell padding value for a table

45 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 45 Setting the Cell Padding to 4 Pixels A table with an increased amount of cell padding. By increasing the cell padding, you added needed space to the table.

46 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 46 Working with Table and Cell Size The size of a table is determined by the text it contains in its cells By default, HTML places text on a single line As you add text in a cell, the width of the column and table expands to the edge of the page –once the page edge is reached, the browser reduces the size of the remaining columns to keep the text to a single line You can insert a line break, paragraph or heading tag within a cell

47 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 47 Working with Table and Cell Size When the browser can no longer increase or decrease the size of the column and table it wraps the text to a second line As more text is added, the height of the table expands to accommodate the additional text It is important to manually define the size of the table cells and the table as a whole

48 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 48 Defining the Table Size The syntax for specifying the table size is: –size is the width and height of the table as measured in pixels or as a percentage of the display area To create a table whose height is equal to the entire height of the display area, enter the attribute height=100% If you specify an absolute size for a table in pixels, its size remains constant, regardless of the browser or monitor settings used Remember that some monitors display Web pages at a resolution of 640 by 480 pixels

49 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 49 Setting the Width of the Table to 70% of the page width

50 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 50 Setting Cell and Column Sizes To set the width of an individual cell, add the width attribute to either the or tags The syntax is: width=value –value can be expressed either in pixels or as a percentage of the table width –a width value of 30% displays a cell that is 30% of the total width of the table

51 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 51 Setting Cell and Column Sizes The height attribute can be used in the or tags to set the height of individual cells The height attribute is expressed either in pixels or as a percentage of the height of the table If you include more text than can be displayed within that height value you specify, the cell expands to display the additional text

52 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 52 Spanning Rows and Columns To merge several cells into one, you need to create a spanning cell A spanning cell is a cell that occupies more than one row or column in a table Spanning cells are created by inserting the rowspan and colspan attribute in a or tag. The syntax for these attributes is: … –value is the number of rows or columns that the cell spans in the table

53 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 53 Spanning Rows and Columns When a cell spans several rows or columns, it is important to adjust the number of cell tags used in the table row When a cell spans several rows, the rows below the spanning cell must also be adjusted

54 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 54 Example of Spanning Cells This cell spans two columns and two rows This cell spans three columns This cell spans three rows

55 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 55 A Table Structure with a Row-Spanning Cell HTML code resulting table four table cells in the first row only three table cells are required for the second and third rows

56 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 56 Adding Spanning Cells to a Table this cell spans two columns these cells span three rows

57 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 57 Results of a Table with Spanning Cells spanning cells

58 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 58 Aligning a Table and its Contents By default, cell text is placed in the middle of a cell, aligned with the cells left edge You can specify a different horizontal alignment for a or element with: align=position

59 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 59 Aligning a Table on the Web Page To align a table with the surrounding text, use the align attribute as follows: align=alignment –alignment equals left, right, or center –left or right alignment places the table on the margin of the Web page and wraps surrounding text to the side –center alignment places the table in the horizontal center of the page, but does not allow text to wrap around it The align attribute is similar to the align attribute used with the tag

60 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 60 Aligning the Contents of a Table By default, cell text is placed in the middle of the cell, aligned with the cells left edge By using the align and valign attributes, you can specify the texts horizontal and vertical placement To align the text for a single column, you must apply the align attribute to every cell in that column

61 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 61 Values of the align and valign attributes

62 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 62 Setting a Background Color Table elements support the bgcolor attribute. To specify a background color for all of the cells in a table, all of the cells in a row, or for individual cells, by adding the bgcolor attribute to either the,,, or tags as follows: –color is either a color name or hexadecimal color value

63 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 63 Results of a Table with a Colored Background

64 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 64 Applying a Background Image to a Table, Row, and Cell parch.jpg

65 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 65 Working with Column Groups Tags allow you to manipulate the features of entire columns and groups of columns –this feature is currently only supported by Internet Explorer 4.0 or above, and not at all by Netscape –this feature shouldnt be used if your page is to be viewed by multiple browsers and browser versions To define a column, add the following tag to the top of the table structure: –value is the number of columns in the group The tag supports the align, bgcolor, valign, and width attributes

66 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 66 The Tag Another way of grouping columns is by using the tag The syntax of the tag is:

67 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 67 Using Tables for Layout HTML tables are most often used to define the layout of an entire Web page If you want to design a page that displays text in newspaper style columns, or separates the page into distinct sections, youll find tables an essential and useful tool

68 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 68 Using Tables for Layout Columnar layout: page content is placed in columns Sectional layout: page is broken into sections, placing each section into its own table Jigsaw table or jigsaw layout: page content is broken into separate pieces to create almost any kind of layout

69 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 69 Fixed-width and Fluid Layouts Fixed-width layout: Web designer defines exact size of every table element in absolute units such as pixels –Gives designer precise control over appearance, but does not take into account the size of the browser window Fluid layout: one or more table elements are sized as a percentage of the page width –Page content flows into blank areas as the size of the browser window increases, but sometimes results in long lines of text

70 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 70 Creating a Newspaper-Style Layout Create two tables inside another– nested tables

71 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 71 Using Nested Table Tables can be created within another table making the Web page easier to manage

72 XP Tutorial 4New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML, XHTML, and XML 72 The Result of the Web Page using Nested Tables


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