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Bivariate Analyses Categorical Variables Examining Relationship between two variables

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Today we will Discuss: n How to examine relationship between variables in your proposed research model n How to break down the model n How to set-up a table u Components u Steps for Creating a Table u Reading a Table n Interpreting Results

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Breaking down the research model n The first step for deciding what bivariate relationship you want to examine is to look at proposed hypotheses. u What did you say influenced your dependent variable? u What did you say would explain or specify the relationship between your dependent variable and major independent variable? F Did you propose a specific control or test variable (TV) that would explain, specify, increase or eliminate the relationship between your major IV and DV

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Examples of Categorical Variables Using Race of Respondent from GSS Dataset n Say we want to test the following model and hypotheses: n After you have examined each variable, decided on the recodes, and explained the univariate distribution of each variable in the model, the next step is to look at your model and determine what are the IV and DV. To understand these relationships and to try and establish how they may relate to each other in your overall model, you must begin by examining the bivariate relationships. Negative Attitude towards blacks age Interaction with blacks

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Determining the Goal and time sequencing of your variables n Most of you were looking at some dependent variable and trying to explain what were the factors that influenced it. n By looking at your model, you can determine the IV and DV. n Examine relationship between each DV and each IV Using the previous example I would at the following bivariate tables: 1. Interaction by Attitude 2. Age by Attitude 3. Age by Interaction Note I have listed the IV by the DV. You should be clear about which variable in the bivariate table is the IV and the DV.

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Bivariate Tables n Allows researchers to examine relationships between variables in his or her model. n Once you decide the pair of relationships you wish to examine, you must create a cross tabulation of your IV by DV for all bivariate relationships u The rules: F IV in columns and DV in rows F Percentage down the columns and compare across rows u Use SPSS to get bivariate tables. u See Assignment 10 in Ready, Set, GO text. n Interpret Results. Look for pattern in tables. Use measures of association. n Reorganize and type the table of results. Make sure the table is self explanatory.

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Using SPSS n Go to Frequency Procedure n Select Crosstab command n Place IV in columns n Place DV in rows n Click on cells option u Select column

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What to look for n The rule is if percentage down the columns then compare across n Note the cell that is the largest in each column. Circle it n Look for pattern and see how IV relates to DV n Examine every bivariate table and see what can say about relationship between variable

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Preparing Table for Presentation and Reports Table should be self explanatory and stand on their own. Components of tables: u Title:Should be descriptive of what the table is presenting. u Heading for columns and rows should be clear and include a total. u Body or cell should have percentages with total n at bottom.

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Constructing a Table Dependent Variable Name Name of Independent Variable Category label 1 Category label 2 Total N Category label 1#% Number Category label 2#% Number Total100% Number Nnumber Table #. Percentage of DV by IV

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Table 1. Level of Stereotyping by Interaction with Black Level of Interaction with Blacks Level of Stereotyping LowMediumHighTotal N Low Range 0-15 35.5%30.2%42.6%343 Middle Range 16-18 21.5%37.8%39.8%339 Hi 19 or more 43.0%32.0%17.6%243 Total Percent 100.0% Total N121344460925

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