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1 Yet More on Indexes Hash Tables Source: our textbook, slides by Hector Garcia-Molina

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2 Main Memory Hash Tables uA hash function h maps search keys to integers in some range 0 to B-1 uB is the number of buckets uThere is a B-element array, each entry holds a pointer to a linked list uRecord with key k is put in the linked list that starts at entry h(k) of B.

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3 Example of Hash Table 0 1 2 3 4 15 10 22 1042934 B = 5 h(k) = k mod 5

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4 Changes for Secondary Storage uBucket array contains blocks, not pointers to linked lists uRecords that hash to a certain bucket are put in the corresponding block uIf a bucket overflows then start a chain of overflow blocks

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5 Insertion into Static Hash Table uTo insert a record with key K: ucompute h(K) uinsert record into one of the blocks in the chain of blocks for bucket number h(K), adding a new block to the chain if necessary

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6 EXAMPLE 2 records/bucket INSERT: h(a) = 1 h(b) = 2 h(c) = 1 h(d) = 0 01230123 d a c b h(e) = 1 e

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7 Deletion from a Static Hash Table uTo delete records with key K: uGo to the bucket numbered h(K) uSearch for records with key K, deleting any that are found uPossibly condense the chain of overflow blocks for that bucket

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8 01230123 a b c e d EXAMPLE: deletion Delete: e f f g maybe move g up c d

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9 Rule of thumb: uTry to keep space utilization between 50% and 80% Utilization = # record used total # records that fit uIf < 50%, wasting space uIf > 80%, overflows significant depends on how good hash function is & on # records/bucket

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10 Efficiency of Static Hash Tables uIf the hash table size is large enough and the distribution of keys by the hash function is sufficiently "even", then most buckets have no overflow blocks uIn this case lookup typically takes one disk I/O and insertion/deletion take two uSignificantly better than sequential indexes and B-trees u(But: hash tables do not support efficient range queries as B-trees do) uWhat if there are long overflow blocks?

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11 How do we cope with growth? uOverflows and reorganizations uDynamic hashing uExtensible uLinear

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12 Extensible Hash Tables uEach bucket in the bucket array contains a pointer to a block, instead of a block itself uBucket array can grow by doubling in size uCertain buckets can share a block if small enough uhash function computes a sequence of k bits, but only first i bits are used at any time to index into the bucket array uValue of i can increase (corresponds to bucket array doubling in size)

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13 Extensible hashing: two ideas (a) Use i of b bits output by hash function b h(K) use i grows over time…. 00110101

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14 (b) Use directory h(K)[i ] to bucket............

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15 Inserting into Extensible Hash Table uTo insert record with key K: ucompute h(K) ugo to bucket indexed by first i bits of h(K) ufollow the pointer to get to block B uif room in B, insert record uelse let j be number of bits of hash value used to determine membership in B

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16 Insertion cont'd uCase 1: j < i. wsplit block B in two wdistribute records in B to the 2 new blocks based on value of their (j+1)-st bit wupdate header of each new block to j+1 wadjust pointers in bucket array so that entries that used to point to B now point to correct block wif still no room in appropriate block for new record then repeat this process

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17 Insertion cont'd uCase 2: j = i. wincrement i by 1 wdouble length of bucket array wentry for w0 and w1 both point to same block that old entry w pointed to (block is shared) wapply case 1 to split block B

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18 Example: h(k) is 4 bits; 2 keys/bucket i = 1 1 1 0001 1001 1100 Insert 1010 1 1100 1010 New directory 2 00 01 10 11 i = 2 2

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19 1 0001 2 1001 1010 2 1100 Insert: 0111 0000 00 01 10 11 2 i = Example continued 0111 0000 0111 0001 2 2

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20 00 01 10 11 2 i = 2 1001 1010 2 1100 2 0111 2 0000 0001 Insert: 1001 Example continued 1001 1010 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 3 i = 3 3

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21 Extensible hashing: deletion uNo merging of blocks uMerge blocks and cut directory if possible (Reverse insert procedure)

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22 Extensible hashing Can handle growing files - with less wasted space - with no full reorganizations Summary + Indirection (Not bad if directory in memory) Directory doubles in size (Now it fits, now it does not) - -

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23 Linear Hash Tables uNumber of buckets increases more slowly than with extensible hashing uNumber of buckets is such that on average each block is x% full (say 80%) -- threshold uOverflow blocks can occur but average number per bucket << 1 uUse the i low-order bits from the result of the hash function to index into the bucket array

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24 Linear hashing uAnother dynamic hashing scheme Two ideas: (a) Use i low order bits of hash 01110101 grows b i (b) Bucket array grows linearly

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25 Inserting into Linear Hash Table uTo insert record with key K, with last i bits of h(K) being a 1 a 2 …a i : uLet m be the integer represented by a 1 a 2 …a i in binary uIf m < n (number of buckets), then bucket m exists -- put record in that bucket uIf m n, then bucket m does not (yet) exist, so put record in bucket whose index corresponds to 0a 2 …a i

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26 Inserting cont'd uIf no room in indicated bucket, then create an overflow bucket uCompare # records / # buckets to threshold uIf exceeds threshold then add a new bucket and rearrange records uIf number of buckets exceeds i, then increment i by 1

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27 Example b=4 bits, i =2, 2 keys/bucket 00 01 1011 0101 1111 0000 1010 m = 01 (max used block) Future growth buckets If h(k)[i ] m, then look at bucket h(k)[i ] else, look at bucket h(k)[i ] - 2 i -1 Rule 0101 can have overflow chains! insert 0101

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28 Example b=4 bits, i =2, 2 keys/bucket 00 01 1011 0101 1111 0000 1010 m = 01 (max used block) Future growth buckets 10 1010 0101 insert 0101 11 1111 0101

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29 Example Continued: How to grow beyond this? 00 01 1011 111110100101 0000 m = 11 (max used block) i = 2 0000 100 101 110 111 3... 100 101 0101

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30 Linear Hashing Can handle growing files - with less wasted space - with no full reorganizations No indirection like extensible hashing Summary + + Can still have overflow chains -

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31 uHashing good for probes given key e.g., SELECT … FROM R WHERE R.A = 5 Comparing Index Approaches

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32 uSequential Indexes and B-trees good for Range Searches: e.g., SELECT FROM R WHERE R.A > 5 Indexing vs Hashing

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33 Index definition in SQL uCreate index name on rel (attr) uCreate unique index name on rel (attr) defines candidate key uDrop INDEX name

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34 CANNOT SPECIFY TYPE OF INDEX (e.g. B-tree, Hashing, …) OR PARAMETERS (e.g. Load Factor, Size of Hash,...)... at least in SQL... Note

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