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EMERGY & ENERGY SYSTEMS Session 4 Short Course for ECO Interns, EPA and Partners.

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Presentation on theme: "EMERGY & ENERGY SYSTEMS Session 4 Short Course for ECO Interns, EPA and Partners."— Presentation transcript:

1 EMERGY & ENERGY SYSTEMS Session 4 Short Course for ECO Interns, EPA and Partners

2 Emergy Evaluations Tables and metadata Calculations Locating data

3 Reading an Emergy Table Note number

4 Reading an Emergy Table Note number Item

5 Reading an Emergy Table Note number Item Input data and units

6 Reading an Emergy Table Note number Item Input data and units Unit emergy

7 Reading an Emergy Table Note number Item Input data and units Unit emergy Emergy SPECIFIC EMERGY CALCULATION

8 Reading an Emergy Table Note number Item Input data and units Unit emergy Emergy Emdollars

9 Clumping inputs <1 Reading an Emergy Table

10 Clumping inputs Output energy/yields <1 Reading an Emergy Table

11 Clumping inputs Output energy/yields Calculated values <1 Reading an Emergy Table

12 Clumping inputs Output energy/yields Calculated values Arranging rows Notes

13 Matching Table to Diagram Diagram first Labeling components

14 Example of State Diagram

15 Labeling components Matching Table to Diagram

16 PlanetEarth Ocean & Atmosphere LandArea DeepHeat Tide LocalAnalysis Sun Sun Wind Wind Sun Rain Rain Earth cycle Identifying Key Components List but dont double count

17 Different Tables Transformity –Are all inputs necessary?

18 Different Tables Net benefits –List everything, positive or negative –Use labels to define benefits minus costs from different perspectives Benefit to farm: A+B+D+H+F+J-crop Benefit to Region: A+B+C+I-L-exported crop

19 Different Tables Storages –Not annual flows, anything more than a year in turnover time

20 Notes as Metadata Spreadsheet tracking

21 Notes as Metadata Spreadsheet tracking Verbal for final Notes Table 1 1. Transformity 1 by definition. Solar insolation calculated using solar constant of 2 Langleys/sec and integration over changing surface area for a one year period at latitude N, longitude W: 6.9 E9 J/m2/yr. Albedo 8% (NASAeosweb). Annual energy = (Avg. total annual insolation J/yr/m2)(Area m2)(1 - albedo). 2. Transformity for evapotranspiration 15,423 sej/J (Odum, 1996) corrected by factor of 1.68 (Odum et al., 2000). Grain evapotranspiration = 2.33 E10 J/acre/yr (ASFIRS estimate, Smajstrla, 1990). Annual energy = (evapotranspiration J/acre/yr)(area ha)(2.47 acres/ha). 3. Erosion rate estimated as less than 0.01 g/m2/yr for aquaculture. 4. Fuel includes diesel, gasoline and lubricants and uses petroleum products transformity 6.60 E4 sej/J (Odum 1996) corrected by factor of 1.68 (Odum et al., 2000). Gallons of fuel/ha/yr from FAECM data (Fluck, 1992). Annual energy = (Gallons fuel)(1.32 E8 J/gal). 5. Transformity for electricity from average U.S. coal plant 1.60 E5 sej/J (Odum, 1996)

22 Notes as Metadata Raw data and source

23 Notes as Metadata Conversion factors, equations, unit emergy ratios

24 Converting Data Joules for energy

25 Converting Data Grams for materials

26 Accurate Inputs Dry versus wet weight The point is to make sure you are calculating to the right endpoint, dry weight for food, active ingredients for chemical reactants, etc.

27 Physical Conversion Calculations Tides Energy(J) =(shelf)(0.5)(tides/y)(mean tidal range) 2 (density of seawater) (gravity) =(____m2)(0.5)(____/yr)(____m)2(_____kg/m3)(9.8m/s2) Rain chemical potential Energy (J)= (land area + shelf area)(rainfall)(Gibbs energy of rain) = (____m2)(____m)(1000kg/m3)(4.94E+03J/kg)

28 Finding Data Websites –Will post list on website –In the notes ENERGY DATA LINKS U.S. Department of Energy – data and prices USGS Energy Databases Renewable Energy Policy Project Distributed Energy Resources Center U.S.D.O.E. Fossil Fuels Hawaii Department of Business, Economics and Tourism Internet Resources--Government Agencies United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization Weather Educational Material US Dept. of Agriculture World Agricultural Outlook Board U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Homepage Etc., etc., etc.

29 $$ paid does not cover actual raw material or energy Separating services Using Money as Data Sun Wind River Rain Soil Forest Harvest Fuel Fertilizer Services Market

30 Annual Rates versus Storages Determining annual flows from initial resources –Prorating use –Long term rates –Start up rates Storages –Turnover times >1 year


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